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42 Projects, page 2 of 5

  • Canada
  • French National Research Agency (ANR)

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-EBI5-0003
    Funder Contribution: 299,695 EUR
    Partners: Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais - IPEF, UniSS, Université catholique de Louvain, Ontario Ministry of natural Resources and Forestry, Ghent University, University of Montreal, Universidade de Sao Paulo -IEE/CENBIO, Alliance Forêt Bois, Universität Freiburg, INRAE...

    Forest landscape restoration and afforestation have recently received much international attention as a crucial opportunity for mitigating climate change (CC). Therefore, it features prominently in many political initiatives such as the EU Green Deal and the Bonn Challenge. Yet, the ongoing increase in biotic and abiotic stress driven by CC puts forests under threat. In the face of CC, adaptation and mitigation by forests are ultimately linked, because the ability of forests to sequester carbon (C) in the long run depends on the ability of trees to cope with multiple stresses. A growing body of evidence suggests that mixed forest plantations, i.e., plantations where several tree species are mixed, are more efficient in sequestrating C, while better coping with CC-related stress. Mixed plantations thus represent an opportunity for an important nature-based solution for CC mitigation and adaptation. However, monocultures still dominate the world?s forest plantations. The reasons for the apparent resistance to mixed plantations among landowners and stakeholders need to be identified and addressed in future forest policies to promote the large-scale expansion of more CC-resilient mixed forest plantations. One of the possible factors that may have prevented the expansion of mixed plantations at large scales is insufficient scientific evidence for practitioners and policy-makers. Using a global network of forest biodiversity experiments (TreeDivNet), we will provide a mechanistic understanding of how tree diversity, species identities and management (thinning and fertilization) influence both the potential of mixed forest plantations to mitigate (C sequestration) and adapt (drought and herbivory resilience) to CC, in a win-win approach. In addition, we will translate this knowledge into guidelines that can be widely adopted by practitioners and policy-makers. The TreeDivNet network comprises 26 experiments spread across the globe, with ca. 1.2M planted trees. All these experiments were based on a common, statistically sound design that allows detection of causal relationships between tree diversity, management and forest ecosystem functioning (incl. C sequestration). The functional and mechanistic focus of MixForChange and the contrasting environmental contexts embedded in the network will allow us to scale-up our findings beyond case studies to provide evidence-based guidelines for mixed plantation management in a broad range of environments. Moreover, MixForChange will analyse in a common framework, and at unprecedented scale, synergies and trade-offs between the CC mitigation and adaptation potential of mixed plantations and the fulfilment of stakeholders? objectives. The societal impact of MixForChange will be ensured by a strong focus on knowledge transfer and capacity-building at all levels of management and governance. MixForChange will make an important contribution to promoting mixed forest plantations as nature-based solutions to fight CC.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-RRRP-0001
    Funder Contribution: 196,450 EUR
    Partners: UBC, ECOLE DECONOMIE DE PARIS, Institute for fiscal studies, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, VATT Institute for Economic Research, University of Kentucky, PSE - Ecole d'économie de Paris

    The aim of this project is to examine a broad set of inequalities over the last five decades in a coherent framework across the major economies of North America and Europe. This project will provide a major source for comparative research on inequality trends and will be a key element of the Deaton Review of Inequalities. The focus will be on inequalities in employment, human capital, earnings and family income during working life. There are 17 country-based research teams involved with extensive experience in the analysis of survey and administrative micro-data sources and leading expertise in the measurement of inequality. Each team is responsible for their country-specific data, which will draw from both major household surveys and administrative records, but all analyses are coordinated across countries to provide harmonious treatment of variable definition and estimation. The first part of each study will describe inequalities in the key economic and social variables including measures of income, earnings, consumption, wealth inequalities, and to decompose these by age, education, gender, race, ethnicity and demographic group. The second part of each study will allow the country authors to highlight the key inequality issues in their country, the policy successes and the policy failures, including issues relating to COVID-19. For example, what pre-existing economic, geographical, racial or ethnic inequalities have been particularly highlighted by COVID-19? Is the pandemic making them worse or better? Are there new inequalities that COVID-19 had made important? The results of the 17 country reports will be synthesized in a series of jointly-authored papers highlighting key differences and commonalities across the economies on outcomes and policy responses.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0008
    Funder Contribution: 224,640 EUR
    Partners: University of Montreal, Centre Max Weber

    We assist today to an increase of the ageing population (in France and in Quebec, ? of the population will have more than 60 years in 2050) along with a risk of vulnerabilisation of elderly people. To cope with this demographic challenge, States have set up legal mechanisms of protection as well as socio-medical services. These mechanisms and services rest on social rights that need to be activated. The access to these rights is rendered difficult when the cognitive vulnerability of the elders weakens their capacity to exercise their rights and to put forward their interests. This creates a series of situations in which the respect of their fundamental rights is endangered, in spite of or because of the recourse to these legal mechanisms of protection. The increase in the recourse to these mechanisms poses various types of problems, the more so as their legal foundation is disputed today. The need assessment for protection rests on dubious criteria; the control of the decisions taken and of the actions conducted for the person by others remains scarce; the respect of the preferences of the person is difficult to realize. This poses the problem of the access to their rights by the persons with cognitive vulnerability. Project ACSEDROITS will assess whether the current legal tools and their social uses in France and in Quebec make it possible to solve or on the contrary contribute to worsen the difficulties of access to their rights by the elders with cognitive vulnerability. It will be articulated around two hypothesis: 1) the difficulties of access to the rights are reinforced by the lack of communication between social and civil rights, at the legal level (legislation, case law and doctrine), and at the level of social uses and legal conscientiousness that persons have of their rights; 2) a better respect of the rights of the vulnerable elders implies a new delimitation of the concept of legal capacity leaning towards a procedural comprehension of the decision-making processes leading to the opening of the protection regimes, the limitation of fundamental rights and the legal imposition of care and services. To test these hypothesis, the project will be based on an interdisciplinary scientific program implying an ethnographic approach of the difficulties met by the actors, a theoretical analysis of the anthropo-legal concept of capacity, and an analysis of comparative law.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-11-FRQU-0001
    Funder Contribution: 149,510 EUR
    Partners: Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques (Sciences Po), University of Montreal

    The aim of the (New)AGE project is to compare the various forms of governance of education based on policies of accountability that have been implemented in France and Quebec for the last fifteen years. The global purpose is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the processes and conditions that influence the institutionalization and enactment of these new forms of governance and to propose a theoretical model to account for their expected or unexpected effects. In order to do this we will analyse the dynamics of policies of accountability in each educational system and the various national and local translations of international doctrines such as Accountability and New Public Management. The research has three main objectives. 1.Understanding and comparing the trajectory of policies of accountability in each society and the forms of governance implemented in each educational system beyond the diffusion of the transnational models that inspired them. 2.Analysing and comparing at various levels (national, regional, local) the role of actors and organisations in the reception, the recontextualisation and the appropriation of these policies. This objective is related to our hypothesis concerning the fact that the legitimacy and concrete configurations of accountability policies are strongly dependant on these processes of mediation. 3.Analysing and comparing the effects of the various policy tools and instruments (indicators, plans, contracts) used for implementation and of the ways in which they are used on the effectiveness and the legitimacy of these new policies. These objectives require a specific and pluralist theoretical framework -that of a sociology of public action in education- which borrows theories and concepts from sociology (sociology of education, of regulation, of organisations, of professions and of knowledge), policy analysis in political science (research on policy tools, governance theories, State theory) and education (testing, evaluation and measurement in education, teachers' professional identities). The research is based on qualitative methods of analysis: semi-directive interviews with about 200 actors of the educational systems of the two countries, analysis of official documents and professional literature, exploitation of the dispatches from a press agency that specialises in the education sector (for France) and analysis of internal documents from various organisations. Some common tools will be defined to conduct the research such as common grids for interviews. The research will address several levels of analysis: international (through a literature review), national, regional and local. In each system, three areas have been selected for our field investigations (three “commissions scolaires” in Quebec and three “académies” in France) according to various criteria (institutional design, results and performances, degree of involvement in a policy of accountability, accessibility and feasibility of the research) to allow us to analyze different significant situations. In each area, a more in-depth analysis of a small number of schools will be conducted. The research will be conducted by five French and five Quebecois researchers from the CRIFPE (University of Montréal) and the OSC (CNRS, Sciences Po). Two technical assistants will also participate in the study conducted by the French team.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0005
    Funder Contribution: 242,731 EUR
    Partners: Caisse national d’assurance vieillesse, Institut National D’Études Démographiques, Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, University of Montreal, Institut national d'études démographiques, Université Concordia

    Our project belongs to the theme of public policies and social innovations facing demographic changes and targets two sub-themes: the transformation of public services and the specificities concerning the provision of public services at the local level. Throughout Europe and Canada, the proportion of older adults will significantly increase in the future. This population is heterogeneous along social (socio-economic inequalities), familial (differentiated networks of potential caregivers), and cultural (effect of migration dynamics) lines. This heterogeneity leads to important regional disparities within each country. As a result, local contexts affect various dimensions of services offered as well as the different types of support provided by caregivers. Consequently, adapting these services to a local population raises important horizontal equity issues since national policies usually aim to provide similar services throughout the entire territory. The main goal of our project is to study and compare social policies targeting older adults in France and Québec, and specifically analyse how social and medico-social services take into account local particularities. This requires identifying the appropriate geographical level of analysis and to reconstruct the demographic, social and migratory evolution of the territories. This project also studies policy changes that are triggered by these demographic changes at the local and national levels. In a nutshell, this project aims to construct a multidimensional “biography” of territory.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-13-JCLI-0001
    Funder Contribution: 448,745 EUR
    Partners: UBC, Carnegie Mellon University, Gestion des ressources renouvelables et environnement

    Three teams of diverse natural and social scientist will engage in a collaborative regional case study set in the arid region of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The partners will work closely with the civil society organizations in the region as well as the entities that manage water, giving particular focus to the community values and economic circumstance that influence water related decisions. Interviews with the leaders and managers of these entities will assist the partners in translating mental models to graphically portray the impacts of drought on social-economical systems. The partners will characterize the water balances, flows, and allocation in key sub-watersheds of the region by identifying current and historical influences on the system’s network. This research will be coupled with GCM based rainfall pattern research to develop new analytical perspectives that ascribe additional value to forecasts that build system intelligence. The partners, in collaboration with local leaders and managers, will ultimately create sets of alternative actions that could build specific kinds of resilience in water-oriented SES. The proposed project would provide a fuller characterization of relevant SES dynamics, including effects of external drivers and multiple scales of governance. It would create a deeper understanding of the biophysical and social processes affecting these systems, of the benefits affected by these processes, and how these processes are addressed in regulatory and water allocation. It would produce a more appropriate representation of the complexity and uncertainty within SES in conceptual and methodological terms, which will contribute to improved decision processes that generate better alternatives and greater insight for decision-making at multiple scales. Civil society organizations will play an important role in project design. The research teams will be managed by the leading PI and will meet regularly to discuss progress, and will have close contact with civil society organizations throughout the project.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-CE26-0014
    Funder Contribution: 248,724 EUR
    Partners: University of Montreal, Domus, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Laboratoire des sciences techniques de linformation, de la communication et de la connaissance, Laboratoire des Sciences et Techniques de l'Information, de la Communication et de la Connaissance

    The French team of the Lab-STICC (UMR CNRS), specialized in adaptive human-system interactions, and the DOMUS laboratory in Quebec, which specializes in cognitive assistance to the individual, will be partnering to design, produce and evaluate smart technology to assist occupational therapists in their interventions with individuals living with cognitive impairments. These tools will enhance the work of occupational therapists by allowing them to monitor their work more accurately at a distance, using observation, analysis and synthesis devices for patient activity as well as a virtual assistant that can be used to monitor the work of occupational therapists. The virtual assistant will be autonomous and configurable by the occupational therapist. We will use the DOMUS COOK culinary assistant and the virtual assistant of the STICC-Lab to explore how occupational therapists can master these new technologies and how the latter can assist them in their practice, particularly in the design of rehabilitation plans developed in accordance with the objective data they collect during the evaluations they carry out within the homes of individuals living with cognitive impairments. The overall idea of the project is to explore how these data can be used by smart technology to propose interventions that will be later given by the virtual assistant to continue the person’s cognitive rehabilitation within their homes.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-MRSE-0012
    Funder Contribution: 30,000 EUR
    Partners: University of Sidney, Hôpitaux Universitaire de Genève, Radboud University, Nijmegen (RU), Bellvitge University Hospital, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles UPR2301, CENTRE HOSPITALIER UNIVERSITAIRE DE NANTES, Université catholique de Louvain, Nanterre University, University of Amsterdam, Université Laval...

    "The project of the network IGNACE will be aiming at preparing an international research program on a new integrative treatment program for gambling disorders. The objective is to submit it to the H2020 Program on the topic ""Societal Challenges - Personalised Medicine "", at the call SC1-PM-02-2017: New concepts in patient stratification. The desired amount of funding will be in the range of 5 to 6 Million Euros. The scientific objective of the research program that we would like to implement is to identify the profiles of patients most likely to respond to certain therapies compared to others, and to find potential treatment response markers. The final aim is to propose an “à la carte” care program tailor-made for each patient, which would have the best chance of success possible. The network constituted will be including renowned international scientists in the field of gambling from Europe, Australia and Canada, under the direction of a recognised French Team: the Addictology Department from the University Hospital of Nantes (Dr Marie GRALL-BRONNEC). The MRSEI funding will allow the network to: - Structure a new research network in the gambling field. - Conceptualize a coherent and relevant project for the SC1-PM-02-2017 H2020 call. It will bring a great added value to the project by allowing partners to establish a strong cohesion between them and by promoting multidisciplinarity, which could highly increase the chances of success for the H2020 call. - Ensure the project’s feasibility, thanks to the great research experience of each partner and the creation of a Methodological Support Unit. - Gather professionals working in very different fields around an integrative project, which will benefit from their various fields of expertise in order to achieve a common goal. In terms of technical and economic benefits, the research program designed by the network should eventually enable the development of a new treatment program, which would be marketed worldwide to help manage problem gamblers. Likewise, it integrates strong opportunities for SMEs to implement the technical aspects of the program (e.g., virtual reality or computerized assessment battery). The elaboration of the IGNACE network will help strengthen the French position in the international scientific landscape of gambling. The French coordinating team is already recognized for its national leadership position in the field of gambling, and the establishment of the network will be an opportunity to extend this leadership internationally. The overall program has a strong interdisciplinary and translational potential. Indeed, applying the concept and methods of stratified medicine in the field of gambling requires the participation of a wide range of disciplines (from fundamental disciplines such as neurobiology and genetics to more clinical disciplines such as therapies or behavioural assessment). The IGNACE group will thus propose an integrative program, combining a wide range of assessment techniques, therapeutic methods and response markers, so as to finally respond to 4 key points: 1/ Establishing a new treatment model using patient stratification to improve clinical decision-making. 2/ Transferring the research results to medical use, implementing a new treatment program. 3/ Increasing cost-effectiveness with more effective therapeutic strategies and a lower risk of relapse or of switching to other addictions. 4/ Increasing research and innovation opportunities for SMEs by including them in the implementation of the technical aspects of the treatment program."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-12-ADAP-0006
    Funder Contribution: 367,661 EUR
    Partners: Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre décologie fonctionnelle et évolutive, University of Montreal, Conservation des Especes, Restauration et Suivi des Populations, Laboratoire dEconomie de Dauphine, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, Université Sherbrooke

    In a rapidly changing world, we need operational tools to predict and manage responses of biodiversity. To date, although it is clear from both theoretical and empirical work that adaptation can influence the persistence of populations on short time scales, biodiversity scenarios are conspicuously lacking an evolutionary component. One major limitation to the implementation of scenarios including adaptation dynamics is that our knowledge of evolutionary potential and constraints is still too imperfect. In this project, we propose to improve our understanding of adaptive mechanisms in wild populations by integrating theoretical and empirical approaches in wild bird populations at different spatial and taxonomic scales. Using state of the art molecular and quantitative genetics tools in combination with demographic analysis, we will use several populations / species of birds studied in the long-term to identify i) forces of selection acting on natural populations, and especially forces driven by climate change, ii) environmental factors affecting dispersal rates, with a special interest for habitat structure and fragmentation, iii) ecological and phylogenetic factors shaping genetic architecture and affecting its stability, and iv) which regions of the genome show signatures of selection and are therefore likely to be partially responsible for adaptation to different environments. Using a comparative approach among populations and species will allow investigating evolutionary processes at different time and space scales and hence link micro and macroevolutionary patterns. These results will be included in predictive niche models that will assess to which extent the inclusion of rapid evolution and stability of evolutionary potential are affecting predictions from biodiversity scenarios. Hence our approach should provide new tools at the interplay of ecology and evolutionary biology to quantify to what extent model projections neglecting the adaptive component might bias estimates of species extinction risks which are key parameters for policymakers. Moreover, we will put great emphasis on communicating the importance of the biodiversity/evolution interface by (i) collaborating with policy-makers working on biodiversity within the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations and by (ii) strengthening citizen science through the organisation of exhibitions and conferences in a leading natural history museum (Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris). All in all, results from this project will provide an integrative picture of factors affecting responses to global change improving fundamental knowledge at the interface of ecology and evolution but also including a resolutely operational dimension.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-15-CE08-0035
    Funder Contribution: 393,763 EUR
    Partners: Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Institut Neel, University of Montreal, Institut National de Recherche Scientifique

    Note: The length of the abstract is limited to 2250 characters in compliance with the Canadian NSERC proposal. Greater exploitation of space has fostered research towards the production of highly-performing cheaper satellites of small size and small weight ranging from micro- (10-100 kg) to picosatellites (less than 1 kg). This reduction requires the development of novel smart radiator devices (SRDs) to overcome the present limitations of thermal control systems in terms of mass, surface area and power budget. SRDs based on the thermochromic approach incorporate films of which the thermal emittance passively switches from a high value at high temperature to a low value at low temperature. One of the most promising smart materials for such applications is vanadium oxide (VO2). In this context, we propose an ambitious research project to tackle the challenges associated with the synthesis of smart polycrystalline VO2 thin films on space-compatible substrates using advanced plasma-based processes. This project will cover several aspects spanning from the understanding of the role of dopants on the metal-to-insulator transition temperature and on the emittance of the VO2 films to the fabrication of SRDs prototypes and their performance evaluation in space environment. Because of the wide range of knowledge required to address all the scientific and technological challenges associated to the development of VO2-based SRDs, we have formed a team with Canadian and French researchers that have complementary expertise. The possibility offered by the joint NSERC/ANR program represents a unique opportunity for our team not only to significantly contribute to a domain of strategic interest for both Canada and France, but also to integrate our research in a strategy aiming at sharing knowledge, infrastructure, and responsibilities of HQP training. To ensure a remarkable benefit of this research to Canada and France, our team can rely on the support of a major industrial partner (MPBC). This project will help MPBC to position as one of the future world leaders in the manufacturing of the next generation of SRDs. Moreover, our proposal is supported by 3 end users, namely Magellan Aerospace in Canada, and Thales Alenia Space and Airbus Defence & Space in France, who will be able to integrate these VO2-based SRDs in their future products.

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42 Projects, page 2 of 5
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-EBI5-0003
    Funder Contribution: 299,695 EUR
    Partners: Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais - IPEF, UniSS, Université catholique de Louvain, Ontario Ministry of natural Resources and Forestry, Ghent University, University of Montreal, Universidade de Sao Paulo -IEE/CENBIO, Alliance Forêt Bois, Universität Freiburg, INRAE...

    Forest landscape restoration and afforestation have recently received much international attention as a crucial opportunity for mitigating climate change (CC). Therefore, it features prominently in many political initiatives such as the EU Green Deal and the Bonn Challenge. Yet, the ongoing increase in biotic and abiotic stress driven by CC puts forests under threat. In the face of CC, adaptation and mitigation by forests are ultimately linked, because the ability of forests to sequester carbon (C) in the long run depends on the ability of trees to cope with multiple stresses. A growing body of evidence suggests that mixed forest plantations, i.e., plantations where several tree species are mixed, are more efficient in sequestrating C, while better coping with CC-related stress. Mixed plantations thus represent an opportunity for an important nature-based solution for CC mitigation and adaptation. However, monocultures still dominate the world?s forest plantations. The reasons for the apparent resistance to mixed plantations among landowners and stakeholders need to be identified and addressed in future forest policies to promote the large-scale expansion of more CC-resilient mixed forest plantations. One of the possible factors that may have prevented the expansion of mixed plantations at large scales is insufficient scientific evidence for practitioners and policy-makers. Using a global network of forest biodiversity experiments (TreeDivNet), we will provide a mechanistic understanding of how tree diversity, species identities and management (thinning and fertilization) influence both the potential of mixed forest plantations to mitigate (C sequestration) and adapt (drought and herbivory resilience) to CC, in a win-win approach. In addition, we will translate this knowledge into guidelines that can be widely adopted by practitioners and policy-makers. The TreeDivNet network comprises 26 experiments spread across the globe, with ca. 1.2M planted trees. All these experiments were based on a common, statistically sound design that allows detection of causal relationships between tree diversity, management and forest ecosystem functioning (incl. C sequestration). The functional and mechanistic focus of MixForChange and the contrasting environmental contexts embedded in the network will allow us to scale-up our findings beyond case studies to provide evidence-based guidelines for mixed plantation management in a broad range of environments. Moreover, MixForChange will analyse in a common framework, and at unprecedented scale, synergies and trade-offs between the CC mitigation and adaptation potential of mixed plantations and the fulfilment of stakeholders? objectives. The societal impact of MixForChange will be ensured by a strong focus on knowledge transfer and capacity-building at all levels of management and governance. MixForChange will make an important contribution to promoting mixed forest plantations as nature-based solutions to fight CC.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-RRRP-0001
    Funder Contribution: 196,450 EUR
    Partners: UBC, ECOLE DECONOMIE DE PARIS, Institute for fiscal studies, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, VATT Institute for Economic Research, University of Kentucky, PSE - Ecole d'économie de Paris

    The aim of this project is to examine a broad set of inequalities over the last five decades in a coherent framework across the major economies of North America and Europe. This project will provide a major source for comparative research on inequality trends and will be a key element of the Deaton Review of Inequalities. The focus will be on inequalities in employment, human capital, earnings and family income during working life. There are 17 country-based research teams involved with extensive experience in the analysis of survey and administrative micro-data sources and leading expertise in the measurement of inequality. Each team is responsible for their country-specific data, which will draw from both major household surveys and administrative records, but all analyses are coordinated across countries to provide harmonious treatment of variable definition and estimation. The first part of each study will describe inequalities in the key economic and social variables including measures of income, earnings, consumption, wealth inequalities, and to decompose these by age, education, gender, race, ethnicity and demographic group. The second part of each study will allow the country authors to highlight the key inequality issues in their country, the policy successes and the policy failures, including issues relating to COVID-19. For example, what pre-existing economic, geographical, racial or ethnic inequalities have been particularly highlighted by COVID-19? Is the pandemic making them worse or better? Are there new inequalities that COVID-19 had made important? The results of the 17 country reports will be synthesized in a series of jointly-authored papers highlighting key differences and commonalities across the economies on outcomes and policy responses.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0008
    Funder Contribution: 224,640 EUR
    Partners: University of Montreal, Centre Max Weber

    We assist today to an increase of the ageing population (in France and in Quebec, ? of the population will have more than 60 years in 2050) along with a risk of vulnerabilisation of elderly people. To cope with this demographic challenge, States have set up legal mechanisms of protection as well as socio-medical services. These mechanisms and services rest on social rights that need to be activated. The access to these rights is rendered difficult when the cognitive vulnerability of the elders weakens their capacity to exercise their rights and to put forward their interests. This creates a series of situations in which the respect of their fundamental rights is endangered, in spite of or because of the recourse to these legal mechanisms of protection. The increase in the recourse to these mechanisms poses various types of problems, the more so as their legal foundation is disputed today. The need assessment for protection rests on dubious criteria; the control of the decisions taken and of the actions conducted for the person by others remains scarce; the respect of the preferences of the person is difficult to realize. This poses the problem of the access to their rights by the persons with cognitive vulnerability. Project ACSEDROITS will assess whether the current legal tools and their social uses in France and in Quebec make it possible to solve or on the contrary contribute to worsen the difficulties of access to their rights by the elders with cognitive vulnerability. It will be articulated around two hypothesis: 1) the difficulties of access to the rights are reinforced by the lack of communication between social and civil rights, at the legal level (legislation, case law and doctrine), and at the level of social uses and legal conscientiousness that persons have of their rights; 2) a better respect of the rights of the vulnerable elders implies a new delimitation of the concept of legal capacity leaning towards a procedural comprehension of the decision-making processes leading to the opening of the protection regimes, the limitation of fundamental rights and the legal imposition of care and services. To test these hypothesis, the project will be based on an interdisciplinary scientific program implying an ethnographic approach of the difficulties met by the actors, a theoretical analysis of the anthropo-legal concept of capacity, and an analysis of comparative law.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-11-FRQU-0001
    Funder Contribution: 149,510 EUR
    Partners: Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques (Sciences Po), University of Montreal

    The aim of the (New)AGE project is to compare the various forms of governance of education based on policies of accountability that have been implemented in France and Quebec for the last fifteen years. The global purpose is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the processes and conditions that influence the institutionalization and enactment of these new forms of governance and to propose a theoretical model to account for their expected or unexpected effects. In order to do this we will analyse the dynamics of policies of accountability in each educational system and the various national and local translations of international doctrines such as Accountability and New Public Management. The research has three main objectives. 1.Understanding and comparing the trajectory of policies of accountability in each society and the forms of governance implemented in each educational system beyond the diffusion of the transnational models that inspired them. 2.Analysing and comparing at various levels (national, regional, local) the role of actors and organisations in the reception, the recontextualisation and the appropriation of these policies. This objective is related to our hypothesis concerning the fact that the legitimacy and concrete configurations of accountability policies are strongly dependant on these processes of mediation. 3.Analysing and comparing the effects of the various policy tools and instruments (indicators, plans, contracts) used for implementation and of the ways in which they are used on the effectiveness and the legitimacy of these new policies. These objectives require a specific and pluralist theoretical framework -that of a sociology of public action in education- which borrows theories and concepts from sociology (sociology of education, of regulation, of organisations, of professions and of knowledge), policy analysis in political science (research on policy tools, governance theories, State theory) and education (testing, evaluation and measurement in education, teachers' professional identities). The research is based on qualitative methods of analysis: semi-directive interviews with about 200 actors of the educational systems of the two countries, analysis of official documents and professional literature, exploitation of the dispatches from a press agency that specialises in the education sector (for France) and analysis of internal documents from various organisations. Some common tools will be defined to conduct the research such as common grids for interviews. The research will address several levels of analysis: international (through a literature review), national, regional and local. In each system, three areas have been selected for our field investigations (three “commissions scolaires” in Quebec and three “académies” in France) according to various criteria (institutional design, results and performances, degree of involvement in a policy of accountability, accessibility and feasibility of the research) to allow us to analyze different significant situations. In each area, a more in-depth analysis of a small number of schools will be conducted. The research will be conducted by five French and five Quebecois researchers from the CRIFPE (University of Montréal) and the OSC (CNRS, Sciences Po). Two technical assistants will also participate in the study conducted by the French team.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0005
    Funder Contribution: 242,731 EUR
    Partners: Caisse national d’assurance vieillesse, Institut National D’Études Démographiques, Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, University of Montreal, Institut national d'études démographiques, Université Concordia

    Our project belongs to the theme of public policies and social innovations facing demographic changes and targets two sub-themes: the transformation of public services and the specificities concerning the provision of public services at the local level. Throughout Europe and Canada, the proportion of older adults will significantly increase in the future. This population is heterogeneous along social (socio-economic inequalities), familial (differentiated networks of potential caregivers), and cultural (effect of migration dynamics) lines. This heterogeneity leads to important regional disparities within each country. As a result, local contexts affect various dimensions of services offered as well as the different types of support provided by caregivers. Consequently, adapting these services to a local population raises important horizontal equity issues since national policies usually aim to provide similar services throughout the entire territory. The main goal of our project is to study and compare social policies targeting older adults in France and Québec, and specifically analyse how social and medico-social services take into account local particularities. This requires identifying the appropriate geographical level of analysis and to reconstruct the demographic, social and migratory evolution of the territories. This project also studies policy changes that are triggered by these demographic changes at the local and national levels. In a nutshell, this project aims to construct a multidimensional “biography” of territory.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-13-JCLI-0001
    Funder Contribution: 448,745 EUR
    Partners: UBC, Carnegie Mellon University, Gestion des ressources renouvelables et environnement

    Three teams of diverse natural and social scientist will engage in a collaborative regional case study set in the arid region of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The partners will work closely with the civil society organizations in the region as well as the entities that manage water, giving particular focus to the community values and economic circumstance that influence water related decisions. Interviews with the leaders and managers of these entities will assist the partners in translating mental models to graphically portray the impacts of drought on social-economical systems. The partners will characterize the water balances, flows, and allocation in key sub-watersheds of the region by identifying current and historical influences on the system’s network. This research will be coupled with GCM based rainfall pattern research to develop new analytical perspectives that ascribe additional value to forecasts that build system intelligence. The partners, in collaboration with local leaders and managers, will ultimately create sets of alternative actions that could build specific kinds of resilience in water-oriented SES. The proposed project would provide a fuller characterization of relevant SES dynamics, including effects of external drivers and multiple scales of governance. It would create a deeper understanding of the biophysical and social processes affecting these systems, of the benefits affected by these processes, and how these processes are addressed in regulatory and water allocation. It would produce a more appropriate representation of the complexity and uncertainty within SES in conceptual and methodological terms, which will contribute to improved decision processes that generate better alternatives and greater insight for decision-making at multiple scales. Civil society organizations will play an important role in project design. The research teams will be managed by the leading PI and will meet regularly to discuss progress, and will have close contact with civil society organizations throughout the project.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-CE26-0014
    Funder Contribution: 248,724 EUR
    Partners: University of Montreal, Domus, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Laboratoire des sciences techniques de linformation, de la communication et de la connaissance, Laboratoire des Sciences et Techniques de l'Information, de la Communication et de la Connaissance

    The French team of the Lab-STICC (UMR CNRS), specialized in adaptive human-system interactions, and the DOMUS laboratory in Quebec, which specializes in cognitive assistance to the individual, will be partnering to design, produce and evaluate smart technology to assist occupational therapists in their interventions with individuals living with cognitive impairments. These tools will enhance the work of occupational therapists by allowing them to monitor their work more accurately at a distance, using observation, analysis and synthesis devices for patient activity as well as a virtual assistant that can be used to monitor the work of occupational therapists. The virtual assistant will be autonomous and configurable by the occupational therapist. We will use the DOMUS COOK culinary assistant and the virtual assistant of the STICC-Lab to explore how occupational therapists can master these new technologies and how the latter can assist them in their practice, particularly in the design of rehabilitation plans developed in accordance with the objective data they collect during the evaluations they carry out within the homes of individuals living with cognitive impairments. The overall idea of the project is to explore how these data can be used by smart technology to propose interventions that will be later given by the virtual assistant to continue the person’s cognitive rehabilitation within their homes.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-MRSE-0012
    Funder Contribution: 30,000 EUR
    Partners: University of Sidney, Hôpitaux Universitaire de Genève, Radboud University, Nijmegen (RU), Bellvitge University Hospital, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles UPR2301, CENTRE HOSPITALIER UNIVERSITAIRE DE NANTES, Université catholique de Louvain, Nanterre University, University of Amsterdam, Université Laval...

    "The project of the network IGNACE will be aiming at preparing an international research program on a new integrative treatment program for gambling disorders. The objective is to submit it to the H2020 Program on the topic ""Societal Challenges - Personalised Medicine "", at the call SC1-PM-02-2017: New concepts in patient stratification. The desired amount of funding will be in the range of 5 to 6 Million Euros. The scientific objective of the research program that we would like to implement is to identify the profiles of patients most likely to respond to certain therapies compared to others, and to find potential treatment response markers. The final aim is to propose an “à la carte” care program tailor-made for each patient, which would have the best chance of success possible. The network constituted will be including renowned international scientists in the field of gambling from Europe, Australia and Canada, under the direction of a recognised French Team: the Addictology Department from the University Hospital of Nantes (Dr Marie GRALL-BRONNEC). The MRSEI funding will allow the network to: - Structure a new research network in the gambling field. - Conceptualize a coherent and relevant project for the SC1-PM-02-2017 H2020 call. It will bring a great added value to the project by allowing partners to establish a strong cohesion between them and by promoting multidisciplinarity, which could highly increase the chances of success for the H2020 call. - Ensure the project’s feasibility, thanks to the great research experience of each partner and the creation of a Methodological Support Unit. - Gather professionals working in very different fields around an integrative project, which will benefit from their various fields of expertise in order to achieve a common goal. In terms of technical and economic benefits, the research program designed by the network should eventually enable the development of a new treatment program, which would be marketed worldwide to help manage problem gamblers. Likewise, it integrates strong opportunities for SMEs to implement the technical aspects of the program (e.g., virtual reality or computerized assessment battery). The elaboration of the IGNACE network will help strengthen the French position in the international scientific landscape of gambling. The French coordinating team is already recognized for its national leadership position in the field of gambling, and the establishment of the network will be an opportunity to extend this leadership internationally. The overall program has a strong interdisciplinary and translational potential. Indeed, applying the concept and methods of stratified medicine in the field of gambling requires the participation of a wide range of disciplines (from fundamental disciplines such as neurobiology and genetics to more clinical disciplines such as therapies or behavioural assessment). The IGNACE group will thus propose an integrative program, combining a wide range of assessment techniques, therapeutic methods and response markers, so as to finally respond to 4 key points: 1/ Establishing a new treatment model using patient stratification to improve clinical decision-making. 2/ Transferring the research results to medical use, implementing a new treatment program. 3/ Increasing cost-effectiveness with more effective therapeutic strategies and a lower risk of relapse or of switching to other addictions. 4/ Increasing research and innovation opportunities for SMEs by including them in the implementation of the technical aspects of the treatment program."

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-12-ADAP-0006
    Funder Contribution: 367,661 EUR
    Partners: Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre décologie fonctionnelle et évolutive, University of Montreal, Conservation des Especes, Restauration et Suivi des Populations, Laboratoire dEconomie de Dauphine, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, Université Sherbrooke

    In a rapidly changing world, we need operational tools to predict and manage responses of biodiversity. To date, although it is clear from both theoretical and empirical work that adaptation can influence the persistence of populations on short time scales, biodiversity scenarios are conspicuously lacking an evolutionary component. One major limitation to the implementation of scenarios including adaptation dynamics is that our knowledge of evolutionary potential and constraints is still too imperfect. In this project, we propose to improve our understanding of adaptive mechanisms in wild populations by integrating theoretical and empirical approaches in wild bird populations at different spatial and taxonomic scales. Using state of the art molecular and quantitative genetics tools in combination with demographic analysis, we will use several populations / species of birds studied in the long-term to identify i) forces of selection acting on natural populations, and especially forces driven by climate change, ii) environmental factors affecting dispersal rates, with a special interest for habitat structure and fragmentation, iii) ecological and phylogenetic factors shaping genetic architecture and affecting its stability, and iv) which regions of the genome show signatures of selection and are therefore likely to be partially responsible for adaptation to different environments. Using a comparative approach among populations and species will allow investigating evolutionary processes at different time and space scales and hence link micro and macroevolutionary patterns. These results will be included in predictive niche models that will assess to which extent the inclusion of rapid evolution and stability of evolutionary potential are affecting predictions from biodiversity scenarios. Hence our approach should provide new tools at the interplay of ecology and evolutionary biology to quantify to what extent model projections neglecting the adaptive component might bias estimates of species extinction risks which are key parameters for policymakers. Moreover, we will put great emphasis on communicating the importance of the biodiversity/evolution interface by (i) collaborating with policy-makers working on biodiversity within the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations and by (ii) strengthening citizen science through the organisation of exhibitions and conferences in a leading natural history museum (Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris). All in all, results from this project will provide an integrative picture of factors affecting responses to global change improving fundamental knowledge at the interface of ecology and evolution but also including a resolutely operational dimension.

  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-15-CE08-0035
    Funder Contribution: 393,763 EUR
    Partners: Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Institut Neel, University of Montreal, Institut National de Recherche Scientifique

    Note: The length of the abstract is limited to 2250 characters in compliance with the Canadian NSERC proposal. Greater exploitation of space has fostered research towards the production of highly-performing cheaper satellites of small size and small weight ranging from micro- (10-100 kg) to picosatellites (less than 1 kg). This reduction requires the development of novel smart radiator devices (SRDs) to overcome the present limitations of thermal control systems in terms of mass, surface area and power budget. SRDs based on the thermochromic approach incorporate films of which the thermal emittance passively switches from a high value at high temperature to a low value at low temperature. One of the most promising smart materials for such applications is vanadium oxide (VO2). In this context, we propose an ambitious research project to tackle the challenges associated with the synthesis of smart polycrystalline VO2 thin films on space-compatible substrates using advanced plasma-based processes. This project will cover several aspects spanning from the understanding of the role of dopants on the metal-to-insulator transition temperature and on the emittance of the VO2 films to the fabrication of SRDs prototypes and their performance evaluation in space environment. Because of the wide range of knowledge required to address all the scientific and technological challenges associated to the development of VO2-based SRDs, we have formed a team with Canadian and French researchers that have complementary expertise. The possibility offered by the joint NSERC/ANR program represents a unique opportunity for our team not only to significantly contribute to a domain of strategic interest for both Canada and France, but also to integrate our research in a strategy aiming at sharing knowledge, infrastructure, and responsibilities of HQP training. To ensure a remarkable benefit of this research to Canada and France, our team can rely on the support of a major industrial partner (MPBC). This project will help MPBC to position as one of the future world leaders in the manufacturing of the next generation of SRDs. Moreover, our proposal is supported by 3 end users, namely Magellan Aerospace in Canada, and Thales Alenia Space and Airbus Defence & Space in France, who will be able to integrate these VO2-based SRDs in their future products.