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6 Projects, page 1 of 1

  • Canada
  • 2012-2021
  • UK Research and Innovation
  • UKRI|EPSRC
  • 2016

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K008781/1
    Funder Contribution: 347,135 GBP
    Partners: SolarMetrics, NRCan, STFC - Laboratories, University of Leicester

    Efficient air traffic management depends on reliable communications between aircraft and the air traffic control centres. However there is a lack of ground infrastructure in the Arctic to support communications via the standard VHF links (and over the Arctic Ocean such links are impossible) and communication via geostationary satellites is not possible above about 82 degrees latitude because of the curvature of the Earth. Thus for the high latitude flights it is necessary to use high frequency (HF) radio for communication. HF radio relies on reflections from the ionosphere to achieve long distance communication round the curve of the Earth. Unfortunately the high latitude ionosphere is affected by space weather disturbances that can disrupt communications. These disturbances originate with events on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections that send out particles that are guided by the Earth's magnetic field into the regions around the poles. During such events HF radio communication can be severely disrupted and aircraft are forced to use longer low latitude routes with consequent increased flight time, fuel consumption and cost. Often, the necessity to land and refuel for these longer routes further increases the fuel consumption. The work described in this proposal cannot prevent the space weather disturbances and their effects on radio communication, but by developing a detailed understanding of the phenomena and using this to provide space weather information services the disruption to flight operations can be minimised. The occurrence of ionospheric disturbances and disruption of radio communication follows the 11-year cycle in solar activity. During the last peak in solar activity a number of events caused disruption of trans-Atlantic air routes. Disruptions to radio communications in recent years have been less frequent as we were at the low phase of the solar cycle. However, in the next few years there will be an upswing in solar activity that will produce a consequent increase in radio communications problems. The increased use of trans-polar routes and the requirement to handle greater traffic density on trans-Atlantic routes both mean that maintaining reliable high latitude communications will be even more important in the future.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K036033/1
    Funder Contribution: 236,177 GBP
    Partners: University of Edinburgh, Scottish and Southern Energy SSE plc, UKCCS Research Centre, PTRC

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a promising means of lowering CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. However, concerns about the possibility of harmful CO2 leakage are contributing to slow widespread adoption of the technology. Research to date has failed to identify a cheap and effective means of unambiguously identifying leakage of CO2 injected, or a viable means of identifying ownership of it. This means that in the event of a leak from a storage site that multiple operators have injected into, it is impossible to determine whose CO2 is leaking. The on-going debate regarding leakage and how to detect it has been frequently documented in the popular press and scientific publications. This has contributed to public confusion and fear, particularly close to proposed storage sites, causing the cancellation of several large storage projects such as that at Barendrecht in the Netherlands. One means to reduce public fears over CCS is to demonstrate a simple method which is able to reliably detect the leakage of CO2 from a storage site and determine the ownership of that CO2. Measurements of noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon) and the ratios of light and heavy stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in natural CO2 fields have shown how CO2 is naturally stored over millions of years. Noble gases have also proved to be effective at identifying the natural leakage of CO2 above a CO2 reservoir in Arizona and an oil field in Wyoming and in ruling out the alleged leakage of CO2 from the Weyburn storage site in Canada. Recent research has shown amounts of krypton are enhanced relative to those of argon and helium in CO2 captured from a nitrate fertiliser plant in Brazil. This enrichment is due to the greater solubility of the heavier noble gases, so they are more readily dissolved into the solvent used for capture. This fingerprint has been shown to act as an effective means of tracking CO2 injected into Brazilian and USA oil fields to increase oil production. Similar enrichments in heavy noble gases, along with high helium concentrations are well documented in coals, coal-bed methane and in organic rich oil and gas source rocks. As noble gases are unreactive, these enrichments will not be affected by burning the gas or coal in a power station and hence will be passed onto the flue gases. Samples of CO2 obtained from an oxyfuel pilot CO2 capture plant at Lacq in France which contain helium and krypton enrichments well above atmospheric values confirm this. Despite identification of these distinctive fingerprints, no study has yet investigated if there is a correlation between them and different CO2 capture technologies or the fossil fuel being burnt. We propose to measure the carbon and oxygen stable isotope and noble gas fingerprint in captured CO2 from post, pre and oxyfuel pilot capture plants. We will find out if unique fingerprints arise from the capture technology used or fuel being burnt. We will determine if these fingerprints are distinctive enough to track the CO2 once it is injected underground without the need of adding expense artificial tracers. We will investigate if they are sufficient to distinguish ownership of multiple CO2 streams injected into the same storage site and if they can provide an early warning of unplanned CO2 movement out of the storage site. To do this we will determine the fingerprint of CO2 captured from the Boundary Dam Power Plant prior to its injection into the Aquistore saline aquifer storage site in Saskatechwan, Canada. By comparing this to the fingerprint of the CO2 produced from the Aquistore monitoring well, some 100m from the injection well, we will be able to see if the fingerprint is retained after the CO2 has moved through the saline aquifer. This will show if this technique can be used to track the movement of CO2 in future engineered storage sites, particularly offshore saline aquifers which will be used for future UK large volume CO2 storage.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/I019278/1
    Funder Contribution: 5,012,100 GBP
    Partners: Tata Steel (United Kingdom), Vale Limited, PERKINELMER LAS (UK) LIMITED, ETI, Innovia, National Grid PLC, JM, Arup Group Ltd, BASF AG, Akzo Nobel...

    In the UK there are more than four billion square metres of roofs and facades forming the building envelope. Most of this could potentially be used for harvesting solar energy and yet it covers less than 1.8 % of the UK land area. The shared vision for SPECIFIC is develop affordable large area solar collectors which can replace standard roofs and generate over one third of the UK's total target renewable energy by 2020 (10.8 GW peak and 19 TWh) reducing CO2 output by 6 million tonnes per year. This will be achieved with an annual production of 20 million m2 by 2020 equating to less than 0.5% of the available roof and wall area. SPECIFIC will realise this by quickly developing practical functional coated materials on metals and glass that can be manufactured by industry in large volumes to produce, store and release energy at point of use. These products will be suitable for fitting on both new and existing buildings which is important since 50% of the UKs current CO2 emissions come from the built environment.The key focus for SPECIFIC will be to accelerate the commercialisation of IP, knowledge and expertise held between the University partners (Swansea, ICL, Bath, Glyndwr, and Bangor) and UK based industry in three key areas of electricity generation from solar energy (photovoltaics), heat generation (solar thermal) and storage/controlled release. The combination of functionality will be achieved through applying functional coatings to metal and glass surfaces. Critical to this success is the active involvement in the Centre of the steel giant Corus/Tata and the glass manufacturer Pilkington. These two materials dominate the facings of the building stock and are surfaces which can be engineered. In addition major chemical companies (BASF and Akzo Nobel as two examples) and specialist suppliers to the emerging PV industry (e.g. Dyesol) are involved in the project giving it both academic depth and industrial relevance. To maximise open innovation colleagues from industry will be based SPECIFIC some permanently and some part time. SPECIFIC Technologists will also have secondments to partner University and Industry research and development facilities.SPECIFIC will combine three thriving research groups at Swansea with an equipment armoury of some 3.9m into one shared facility. SPECIFIC has also been supported with an equipment grant of 1.2 million from the Welsh Assembly Government. This will be used to build a dedicated modular roll to roll coating facility with a variety of coating and curing functions which can be used to scale up and trial successful technology at the pre-industrial scale. This facility will be run and operated by three experienced line technicians on secondment from industry. The modular coating line compliments equipment at Glyndwr for scaling up conducting oxide deposition, at CPi for barrier film development and at Pilkington for continuous application of materials to float glass giving the grouping unrivalled capability in functional coating. SPECIFIC is a unique business opportunity bridging a technology gap, delivering affordable novel macro-scale micro-generation, making a major contribution to UK renewable energy targets and creating a new export opportunity for off grid power in the developing world. It will ultimately generate thousands high technology jobs within a green manufacturing sector, creating a sustainable international centre of excellence in functional coatings where multi-sector applications are developed for next generation manufacturing.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K015796/1
    Funder Contribution: 248,496 GBP
    Partners: UBC, Lancaster University, Johns Hopkins University Sch of Medicine, MICROSOFT RESEARCH LIMITED, Dementias Neurodegen Network DeNDRoN

    SAMS is a proposed 3-year project to that will investigate the potential for novel data and text mining techniques for detecting subtle signs of Cognitive Dysfunction that may indicate the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Promoting self-awareness of change in cognitive function is will investigate the potential for novel data and text mining techniques for detecting subtle signs of change in cognition that may indicate the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Promoting self-awareness of change in cognitive function is a key step in encouraging people to self-refer for clinical evaluation. A key motivation for SAMS, therefore, is to provide a non-invasive tool that helps develop such self-awareness. An increasing number of older people, the group most at risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, regularly use the Internet to keep in touch with their families, particularly grandchildren. This Internet activity presents an opportunity to harness rich, routinely available information that may contain indications of changes in the linguistic, executive and motor speed abilities in older people. Development work is needed to develop the software to harness this opportunity, to establish the optimal thresholds for flagging up important changes in cognition and the optimal methods for feeding this information back to individuals. SAMS will validate thresholds by examining changes in performance in people with established cognitive dysfunction and mild Alzheimer's disease and begin to explore the potential for technology-enhanced detection of early cognitive dysfunction. Patterns of computer use and content analysis of e-mails, such as forgetting topics, expressions of concern, emotion, etc., will be analysed and coupled to feedback mechanisms to enhance users' cognitive self awareness, empowering them self administer follow up tests and decide when to self refer themselves for expert medical advice. Tackling cognitive change detection requires the novel pooling of knowledge and integration of techniques from different sub-disciplines within a Computer Science. In addition to developing techniques for MCI detection and supporting self-referral, an explicit goal of the research is to develop a generic sense making and user-centred feedback architecture. This could be applied to a wide range of problems where interpreting computer use may be appropriate, e.g. mental health, social loneliness, privacy and social exploitation.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K030558/1
    Funder Contribution: 724,429 GBP
    Partners: University of Otago, Durham University, Queen's University Canada

    Our research involves the theoretical and experimental investigation of quantum many-body dynamics in systems of ultra-cold atoms, with the view of developing next-generation rotational sensors, and developing tools for and improving our general understanding of interacting many-body systems far from equilibrium. The central idea is based on using ultra-cold atoms with bosonic spin statistics, in contrast to e.g., electrons orbiting an atomic nucleus, where two electrons with the same spin cannot occupy exactly the same energy level or orbital (fermionic spin statistics). This means that at sufficiently low temperatures a dilute atomic gas composed of such bosonic atoms undergoes a particular kind of phase transition. A phase transition is a sudden, qualitative change of state, like and ordinary gas condensing to a liquid state as the temperature is lowered. The state of matter reached in the case of very dilute, low temperature bosonic atoms is called a Bose-Einstein condensate. This can be seen as the atomic/matter equivalent of a laser; a coherent, intense source of atoms, with consequent advantages to measurement science or metrology (which in the case of light are limited by the minimum wavelength for the light to be visible and controlled by conventional optics). Atom-atom interactions are, unfortunately, typically problematical, and tend to counteract the advantages of a coherent atomic source. We will build upon a proposal (suggested one of the investigators) where the issues associated with atom-atom interactions appear to be largely avoided due to an astutely chosen experimental geometry. In the process of investigating this proposed system as well as a number of closely related issues, we will deepen our understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics (due, for example, to the crucial importance of avoiding such things as flow instabilities in any functioning rotational senser), and develop broadly applicable theoretical tools accounting for the influence and production of complicated many-body effects. As such our research falls within the EPSRC Physics Grand Challenges "Emergence and Physics Far From Equilibrium" (motivated by the fact that "dramatic collective behaviour can emerge unexpectedly in large complicated systems" and "This fundamental work will be driven by the ever-present possibility that emergent states may provide the foundations for the technologies of the future") and "Quantum Physics for New Quantum Technologies" (motivated by "Next generation quantum technologies will rely on our understanding and exploitation of coherence and entanglement" and "Success requires a deeper understanding of quantum physics and a broad ranging development of the enabling tools and technologies"). Ultracold atoms are an ideal configuration in which to investigate dynamics far from equilibrium, due to a very high degree of flexibility in their experimental configurations (varying the experimental geometry, strength of interaction, and even whether the interactions are attractive or repulsive, by appropriate combinations of magnetic, laser and microwave fields), and atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics systems have a superlative record in terms of precision measurement, most notably in the form of atomic clocks, which, for example, underpin the functioning of the global positioning system (GPS).

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/H020047/1
    Funder Contribution: 5,762,120 GBP
    Partners: Novelis Global Technology Centre, Jaguar Land Rover (United Kingdom), Norton Aluminium Ltd, INNOVAL, NAMTEC, Meridian Business Development UK, CSIRO, Alcoa Europe Flat Rolled Products, AIRBUS UK, ROLLS-ROYCE PLC...

    To avoid global warming and our unsustainable dependence on fossil fuels, the UK's CO2 emissions are recommended to be reduced by 80% from current levels by 2050. Aerospace and automotive manufacturing are critical to the UK economy, with a turnover of 30 billion and employing some 600,000 worker. Applications for light alloys within the transport sector are projected to double in the next decade. However, the properties and cost of current light alloy materials, and the associated manufacturing processes, are already inhibiting progress. Polymer composites are too expensive for body structures in large volume vehicle production and difficult to recycle. First generation, with a high level of recycling, full light alloy aluminium and magnesium vehicles in production are cheaper and give similar weight savings (~ 40%) and life cycle CO2 footprint to low cost composites. Computer-based design tools are also playing an increasing role in industry and allow, as never before, the optimisation of complex component architectures for increased mass efficiency. High performance alloys are still dominant in aeroengine applications and will provide ~ 30% of the structural components of future aircraft designs, where they will have to be increasingly produced in more intricate component shapes and interfaced with composite materials.To achieve further weight reductions, a second generation of higher performance light alloy design solutions are thus required that perform reliably in service, are recyclable, and have more complex product forms - produced with lower cost, energy efficient, manufacturing processes. With design optimisation, and by combining the best attributes of advanced high strength Al and Mg alloys with composites, laminates, and cheaper steel products, it will be possible to produce step change in performance with cost-effective, highly mass efficient, multi-material structures.This roadmap presents many challenges to the materials community, with research urgently required address the science necessary to solve the following critical issues: How do we make more complex shapes in higher performance lower formability materials, while achieving the required internal microstructure, texture, surface finish and, hence, service and cosmetic properties, and with lower energy requirements? How do we join different materials, such as aluminium and magnesium, with composites, laminates, and steel to produce hybrid materials and more mass efficient cost-effective designs? How do we protect such multi-material structures, and their interfaces against corrosion and environmental degradation?Examples of the many scientific challenges that require immediate attention include, how can we: (i) capture the influence of a materials deformation mechanisms, microstructure and texture on formability, thus allowing computer models to be used to rapidly optimise forming for difficult alloys in terms of component shape and energy requirements; (ii) predict and control detrimental interfacial reactions in dissimilar joints; (iii) take advantage of innovative ideas, like using lasers to 'draw on' more formable microstructures in panels, where it is needed; (v) use smart self healing coating technologies to protect new alloys and dissimilar joints in service, (vi) mitigate against the impact of contamination from recycling on growth of oxide barrier coating, etc.A high priority for the Programme is to help fill the skills gap in metallurgical and corrosion science, highlighted in the EPSRC Review of Materials Research (IMR2008), by training the globally competitive, multidisciplinary, and innovative materials engineers needed by UK manufacturing. The impact of the project will be enhanced by a professionally managed, strategic, research Programme and through promoting a high international profile of the research output, as well as by performing an advocacy role for materials engineering to the general public.

Advanced search in
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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
6 Projects, page 1 of 1
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K008781/1
    Funder Contribution: 347,135 GBP
    Partners: SolarMetrics, NRCan, STFC - Laboratories, University of Leicester

    Efficient air traffic management depends on reliable communications between aircraft and the air traffic control centres. However there is a lack of ground infrastructure in the Arctic to support communications via the standard VHF links (and over the Arctic Ocean such links are impossible) and communication via geostationary satellites is not possible above about 82 degrees latitude because of the curvature of the Earth. Thus for the high latitude flights it is necessary to use high frequency (HF) radio for communication. HF radio relies on reflections from the ionosphere to achieve long distance communication round the curve of the Earth. Unfortunately the high latitude ionosphere is affected by space weather disturbances that can disrupt communications. These disturbances originate with events on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections that send out particles that are guided by the Earth's magnetic field into the regions around the poles. During such events HF radio communication can be severely disrupted and aircraft are forced to use longer low latitude routes with consequent increased flight time, fuel consumption and cost. Often, the necessity to land and refuel for these longer routes further increases the fuel consumption. The work described in this proposal cannot prevent the space weather disturbances and their effects on radio communication, but by developing a detailed understanding of the phenomena and using this to provide space weather information services the disruption to flight operations can be minimised. The occurrence of ionospheric disturbances and disruption of radio communication follows the 11-year cycle in solar activity. During the last peak in solar activity a number of events caused disruption of trans-Atlantic air routes. Disruptions to radio communications in recent years have been less frequent as we were at the low phase of the solar cycle. However, in the next few years there will be an upswing in solar activity that will produce a consequent increase in radio communications problems. The increased use of trans-polar routes and the requirement to handle greater traffic density on trans-Atlantic routes both mean that maintaining reliable high latitude communications will be even more important in the future.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K036033/1
    Funder Contribution: 236,177 GBP
    Partners: University of Edinburgh, Scottish and Southern Energy SSE plc, UKCCS Research Centre, PTRC

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a promising means of lowering CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. However, concerns about the possibility of harmful CO2 leakage are contributing to slow widespread adoption of the technology. Research to date has failed to identify a cheap and effective means of unambiguously identifying leakage of CO2 injected, or a viable means of identifying ownership of it. This means that in the event of a leak from a storage site that multiple operators have injected into, it is impossible to determine whose CO2 is leaking. The on-going debate regarding leakage and how to detect it has been frequently documented in the popular press and scientific publications. This has contributed to public confusion and fear, particularly close to proposed storage sites, causing the cancellation of several large storage projects such as that at Barendrecht in the Netherlands. One means to reduce public fears over CCS is to demonstrate a simple method which is able to reliably detect the leakage of CO2 from a storage site and determine the ownership of that CO2. Measurements of noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon) and the ratios of light and heavy stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in natural CO2 fields have shown how CO2 is naturally stored over millions of years. Noble gases have also proved to be effective at identifying the natural leakage of CO2 above a CO2 reservoir in Arizona and an oil field in Wyoming and in ruling out the alleged leakage of CO2 from the Weyburn storage site in Canada. Recent research has shown amounts of krypton are enhanced relative to those of argon and helium in CO2 captured from a nitrate fertiliser plant in Brazil. This enrichment is due to the greater solubility of the heavier noble gases, so they are more readily dissolved into the solvent used for capture. This fingerprint has been shown to act as an effective means of tracking CO2 injected into Brazilian and USA oil fields to increase oil production. Similar enrichments in heavy noble gases, along with high helium concentrations are well documented in coals, coal-bed methane and in organic rich oil and gas source rocks. As noble gases are unreactive, these enrichments will not be affected by burning the gas or coal in a power station and hence will be passed onto the flue gases. Samples of CO2 obtained from an oxyfuel pilot CO2 capture plant at Lacq in France which contain helium and krypton enrichments well above atmospheric values confirm this. Despite identification of these distinctive fingerprints, no study has yet investigated if there is a correlation between them and different CO2 capture technologies or the fossil fuel being burnt. We propose to measure the carbon and oxygen stable isotope and noble gas fingerprint in captured CO2 from post, pre and oxyfuel pilot capture plants. We will find out if unique fingerprints arise from the capture technology used or fuel being burnt. We will determine if these fingerprints are distinctive enough to track the CO2 once it is injected underground without the need of adding expense artificial tracers. We will investigate if they are sufficient to distinguish ownership of multiple CO2 streams injected into the same storage site and if they can provide an early warning of unplanned CO2 movement out of the storage site. To do this we will determine the fingerprint of CO2 captured from the Boundary Dam Power Plant prior to its injection into the Aquistore saline aquifer storage site in Saskatechwan, Canada. By comparing this to the fingerprint of the CO2 produced from the Aquistore monitoring well, some 100m from the injection well, we will be able to see if the fingerprint is retained after the CO2 has moved through the saline aquifer. This will show if this technique can be used to track the movement of CO2 in future engineered storage sites, particularly offshore saline aquifers which will be used for future UK large volume CO2 storage.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/I019278/1
    Funder Contribution: 5,012,100 GBP
    Partners: Tata Steel (United Kingdom), Vale Limited, PERKINELMER LAS (UK) LIMITED, ETI, Innovia, National Grid PLC, JM, Arup Group Ltd, BASF AG, Akzo Nobel...

    In the UK there are more than four billion square metres of roofs and facades forming the building envelope. Most of this could potentially be used for harvesting solar energy and yet it covers less than 1.8 % of the UK land area. The shared vision for SPECIFIC is develop affordable large area solar collectors which can replace standard roofs and generate over one third of the UK's total target renewable energy by 2020 (10.8 GW peak and 19 TWh) reducing CO2 output by 6 million tonnes per year. This will be achieved with an annual production of 20 million m2 by 2020 equating to less than 0.5% of the available roof and wall area. SPECIFIC will realise this by quickly developing practical functional coated materials on metals and glass that can be manufactured by industry in large volumes to produce, store and release energy at point of use. These products will be suitable for fitting on both new and existing buildings which is important since 50% of the UKs current CO2 emissions come from the built environment.The key focus for SPECIFIC will be to accelerate the commercialisation of IP, knowledge and expertise held between the University partners (Swansea, ICL, Bath, Glyndwr, and Bangor) and UK based industry in three key areas of electricity generation from solar energy (photovoltaics), heat generation (solar thermal) and storage/controlled release. The combination of functionality will be achieved through applying functional coatings to metal and glass surfaces. Critical to this success is the active involvement in the Centre of the steel giant Corus/Tata and the glass manufacturer Pilkington. These two materials dominate the facings of the building stock and are surfaces which can be engineered. In addition major chemical companies (BASF and Akzo Nobel as two examples) and specialist suppliers to the emerging PV industry (e.g. Dyesol) are involved in the project giving it both academic depth and industrial relevance. To maximise open innovation colleagues from industry will be based SPECIFIC some permanently and some part time. SPECIFIC Technologists will also have secondments to partner University and Industry research and development facilities.SPECIFIC will combine three thriving research groups at Swansea with an equipment armoury of some 3.9m into one shared facility. SPECIFIC has also been supported with an equipment grant of 1.2 million from the Welsh Assembly Government. This will be used to build a dedicated modular roll to roll coating facility with a variety of coating and curing functions which can be used to scale up and trial successful technology at the pre-industrial scale. This facility will be run and operated by three experienced line technicians on secondment from industry. The modular coating line compliments equipment at Glyndwr for scaling up conducting oxide deposition, at CPi for barrier film development and at Pilkington for continuous application of materials to float glass giving the grouping unrivalled capability in functional coating. SPECIFIC is a unique business opportunity bridging a technology gap, delivering affordable novel macro-scale micro-generation, making a major contribution to UK renewable energy targets and creating a new export opportunity for off grid power in the developing world. It will ultimately generate thousands high technology jobs within a green manufacturing sector, creating a sustainable international centre of excellence in functional coatings where multi-sector applications are developed for next generation manufacturing.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K015796/1
    Funder Contribution: 248,496 GBP
    Partners: UBC, Lancaster University, Johns Hopkins University Sch of Medicine, MICROSOFT RESEARCH LIMITED, Dementias Neurodegen Network DeNDRoN

    SAMS is a proposed 3-year project to that will investigate the potential for novel data and text mining techniques for detecting subtle signs of Cognitive Dysfunction that may indicate the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Promoting self-awareness of change in cognitive function is will investigate the potential for novel data and text mining techniques for detecting subtle signs of change in cognition that may indicate the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Promoting self-awareness of change in cognitive function is a key step in encouraging people to self-refer for clinical evaluation. A key motivation for SAMS, therefore, is to provide a non-invasive tool that helps develop such self-awareness. An increasing number of older people, the group most at risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, regularly use the Internet to keep in touch with their families, particularly grandchildren. This Internet activity presents an opportunity to harness rich, routinely available information that may contain indications of changes in the linguistic, executive and motor speed abilities in older people. Development work is needed to develop the software to harness this opportunity, to establish the optimal thresholds for flagging up important changes in cognition and the optimal methods for feeding this information back to individuals. SAMS will validate thresholds by examining changes in performance in people with established cognitive dysfunction and mild Alzheimer's disease and begin to explore the potential for technology-enhanced detection of early cognitive dysfunction. Patterns of computer use and content analysis of e-mails, such as forgetting topics, expressions of concern, emotion, etc., will be analysed and coupled to feedback mechanisms to enhance users' cognitive self awareness, empowering them self administer follow up tests and decide when to self refer themselves for expert medical advice. Tackling cognitive change detection requires the novel pooling of knowledge and integration of techniques from different sub-disciplines within a Computer Science. In addition to developing techniques for MCI detection and supporting self-referral, an explicit goal of the research is to develop a generic sense making and user-centred feedback architecture. This could be applied to a wide range of problems where interpreting computer use may be appropriate, e.g. mental health, social loneliness, privacy and social exploitation.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K030558/1
    Funder Contribution: 724,429 GBP
    Partners: University of Otago, Durham University, Queen's University Canada

    Our research involves the theoretical and experimental investigation of quantum many-body dynamics in systems of ultra-cold atoms, with the view of developing next-generation rotational sensors, and developing tools for and improving our general understanding of interacting many-body systems far from equilibrium. The central idea is based on using ultra-cold atoms with bosonic spin statistics, in contrast to e.g., electrons orbiting an atomic nucleus, where two electrons with the same spin cannot occupy exactly the same energy level or orbital (fermionic spin statistics). This means that at sufficiently low temperatures a dilute atomic gas composed of such bosonic atoms undergoes a particular kind of phase transition. A phase transition is a sudden, qualitative change of state, like and ordinary gas condensing to a liquid state as the temperature is lowered. The state of matter reached in the case of very dilute, low temperature bosonic atoms is called a Bose-Einstein condensate. This can be seen as the atomic/matter equivalent of a laser; a coherent, intense source of atoms, with consequent advantages to measurement science or metrology (which in the case of light are limited by the minimum wavelength for the light to be visible and controlled by conventional optics). Atom-atom interactions are, unfortunately, typically problematical, and tend to counteract the advantages of a coherent atomic source. We will build upon a proposal (suggested one of the investigators) where the issues associated with atom-atom interactions appear to be largely avoided due to an astutely chosen experimental geometry. In the process of investigating this proposed system as well as a number of closely related issues, we will deepen our understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics (due, for example, to the crucial importance of avoiding such things as flow instabilities in any functioning rotational senser), and develop broadly applicable theoretical tools accounting for the influence and production of complicated many-body effects. As such our research falls within the EPSRC Physics Grand Challenges "Emergence and Physics Far From Equilibrium" (motivated by the fact that "dramatic collective behaviour can emerge unexpectedly in large complicated systems" and "This fundamental work will be driven by the ever-present possibility that emergent states may provide the foundations for the technologies of the future") and "Quantum Physics for New Quantum Technologies" (motivated by "Next generation quantum technologies will rely on our understanding and exploitation of coherence and entanglement" and "Success requires a deeper understanding of quantum physics and a broad ranging development of the enabling tools and technologies"). Ultracold atoms are an ideal configuration in which to investigate dynamics far from equilibrium, due to a very high degree of flexibility in their experimental configurations (varying the experimental geometry, strength of interaction, and even whether the interactions are attractive or repulsive, by appropriate combinations of magnetic, laser and microwave fields), and atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics systems have a superlative record in terms of precision measurement, most notably in the form of atomic clocks, which, for example, underpin the functioning of the global positioning system (GPS).

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/H020047/1
    Funder Contribution: 5,762,120 GBP
    Partners: Novelis Global Technology Centre, Jaguar Land Rover (United Kingdom), Norton Aluminium Ltd, INNOVAL, NAMTEC, Meridian Business Development UK, CSIRO, Alcoa Europe Flat Rolled Products, AIRBUS UK, ROLLS-ROYCE PLC...

    To avoid global warming and our unsustainable dependence on fossil fuels, the UK's CO2 emissions are recommended to be reduced by 80% from current levels by 2050. Aerospace and automotive manufacturing are critical to the UK economy, with a turnover of 30 billion and employing some 600,000 worker. Applications for light alloys within the transport sector are projected to double in the next decade. However, the properties and cost of current light alloy materials, and the associated manufacturing processes, are already inhibiting progress. Polymer composites are too expensive for body structures in large volume vehicle production and difficult to recycle. First generation, with a high level of recycling, full light alloy aluminium and magnesium vehicles in production are cheaper and give similar weight savings (~ 40%) and life cycle CO2 footprint to low cost composites. Computer-based design tools are also playing an increasing role in industry and allow, as never before, the optimisation of complex component architectures for increased mass efficiency. High performance alloys are still dominant in aeroengine applications and will provide ~ 30% of the structural components of future aircraft designs, where they will have to be increasingly produced in more intricate component shapes and interfaced with composite materials.To achieve further weight reductions, a second generation of higher performance light alloy design solutions are thus required that perform reliably in service, are recyclable, and have more complex product forms - produced with lower cost, energy efficient, manufacturing processes. With design optimisation, and by combining the best attributes of advanced high strength Al and Mg alloys with composites, laminates, and cheaper steel products, it will be possible to produce step change in performance with cost-effective, highly mass efficient, multi-material structures.This roadmap presents many challenges to the materials community, with research urgently required address the science necessary to solve the following critical issues: How do we make more complex shapes in higher performance lower formability materials, while achieving the required internal microstructure, texture, surface finish and, hence, service and cosmetic properties, and with lower energy requirements? How do we join different materials, such as aluminium and magnesium, with composites, laminates, and steel to produce hybrid materials and more mass efficient cost-effective designs? How do we protect such multi-material structures, and their interfaces against corrosion and environmental degradation?Examples of the many scientific challenges that require immediate attention include, how can we: (i) capture the influence of a materials deformation mechanisms, microstructure and texture on formability, thus allowing computer models to be used to rapidly optimise forming for difficult alloys in terms of component shape and energy requirements; (ii) predict and control detrimental interfacial reactions in dissimilar joints; (iii) take advantage of innovative ideas, like using lasers to 'draw on' more formable microstructures in panels, where it is needed; (v) use smart self healing coating technologies to protect new alloys and dissimilar joints in service, (vi) mitigate against the impact of contamination from recycling on growth of oxide barrier coating, etc.A high priority for the Programme is to help fill the skills gap in metallurgical and corrosion science, highlighted in the EPSRC Review of Materials Research (IMR2008), by training the globally competitive, multidisciplinary, and innovative materials engineers needed by UK manufacturing. The impact of the project will be enhanced by a professionally managed, strategic, research Programme and through promoting a high international profile of the research output, as well as by performing an advocacy role for materials engineering to the general public.