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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schellenberg, D; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Mushi, A; Savigny de, D; Mgalula, L; Mbuya, C; Victoria, C.G.;
    Country: Tanzania (United Republic of)

    Objective was to document the prevalence, age-distribution, and risk factors for anaemia in Tanzanian children less than 5 years old,thereby assisting in the development of effective strategies for controlling anaemia. Cluster sampling was used to identify 2417 households at random from four contiguous districts in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania in mid-1999. Data on various social and medical parameters were collected and analysed. Blood haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were available for 1979 of the 2131 (93%) children identified and ranged from 1.7 to 18.6 g/dl. Overall, 87% (1722) of children had an Hb <11 g/dl, 39% (775) had an Hb <8 g/dl and 3% (65) had an Hb <5 g/dl. The highest prevalence of anaemia of all three levels was in children aged 6–11 months, of whom 10% (22/226) had an Hb <5 g/dl. However, the prevalence of anaemia was already high in children aged 1–5 months (85% had an Hb <11 g/dl, 42% had an Hb <8 g/dl, and 6% had an Hb <5 g/dl). Anaemia was usually asymptomatic and when symptoms arose they were nonspecific and rarely identified as a serious illness by the care provider. A recent history of treatment with antimalarials and iron was rare. Compliance with vaccinations delivered through the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) was 82% and was notassociated with risk of anaemia. Anaemia is extremely common in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania, even in very young infants. Further implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness algorithm should improve the case management of anaemia. However, the asymptomatic nature of most episodes of anaemia highlights the need for preventive strategies. The EPI has good coverage of the target population and it may be an appropriate channel for delivering tools for controlling anaemia and malaria.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igor Loncarski; Jenke ter Horst; Chris Veld;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: SSHRC

    We study the announcement effects and their determinants of convertible debt issues in the Canadian market in order to identify issuer motives. The average wealth effect for the three-day event window around the announcement of convertible bonds between 1991 and 2004 is a significantly negative -2.7%. When the issues are classified into equity- and debt-like, we find that the wealth effects are significantly more negative for the equity-like convertible bond issuers. Equity-like convertibles are significantly negatively affected by agency costs of equity. However, agency costs of debt do not have a significant effect on equity-like convertibles and agency costs of equity do not have a significant effect on debt-like convertibles. These findings suggest that convertibles are used to mitigate different aspects of informational asymmetries. These findings are in line with motives proposed by Stein (1992). Moreover, we find that convertible debt offers announced by income trusts, which have become a special feature of the Canadian market, experience significantly less negative wealth effects than similar offers announced by other issuers. This result can be explained by a more debt-like convertible design and/or very low agency costs of equity in case of income trusts.

  • Open Access

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

  • Publication . Article . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Janez Bernik; Mitja Mastnak; Heydar Radjavi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract We study various aspects of how certain positivity assumptions on complex matrix semigroups affect their structure. Our main result is that every irreducible group of complex matrices with nonnegative diagonal entries is simultaneously similar to a group of weighted permutations. We also consider the corresponding question for semigroups and discuss the effect of the assumption that a fixed linear functional has nonnegative values when restricted to a given semigroup.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernhard Haeupler; Asaf Cohen; Chen Avin; Muriel Medard;
    Country: United States

    We design and analyze gossip algorithms for networks with correlated data. In these networks, either the data to be distributed, the data already available at the nodes, or both, are correlated. Although coding schemes for correlated data have been studied extensively, the focus has been on characterizing the rate region in static memory-free networks. In a gossip-based scheme, however, nodes communicate among each other by continuously exchanging packets according to some underlying communication model. The main figure of merit in this setting is the stopping time - the time required until nodes can successfully decode. While Gossip schemes are practical, distributed and scalable, they have only been studied for uncorrelated data. We wish to close this gap by providing techniques to analyze network coded gossip in (dynamic) networks with correlated data. We give a clean framework for oblivious network models that applies to a multitude of network and communication scenarios, specify a general setting for distributed correlated data, and give tight bounds on the stopping times of network coded protocols in this wide range of scenarios. United States. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Contract N66001-11-C-4003)

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Georges Aad; J. Abdallah; Leszek Adamczyk; Jahred Adelman; Stefanie Adomeit; Tim Adye; Giulio Aielli; Calin Alexa; Muhammad Alhroob; Alejandro Alonso; +521 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)

    A search for direct pair production of supersymmetric top squarks ((t) over tilde (1)) is presented, assuming the (t) over tilde (1) decays into a top quark and the lightest supersymmetric particle, (chi) over tilde (0)(1), and that both top quarks decay to purely hadronic final states. A total of 16 (4) events are observed compared to a predicted standard model background of 13.5(-3.6)(+3.7) (4.4(-1.3)(+1.7)) events in two signal regions based on integral Ldt = 4.7 fb(-1) of pp collision data taken at root s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. An exclusion region in the (t) over tilde (1) versus (chi) over tilde (0)(1) mass plane is evaluated: 370 1) 10) similar to 0 GeV while m((t) over tilde1) = 445 GeV is excluded for m((chi) over tilde 10) <= 50 GeV.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mark Deneau; Pamela L. Valentino; Cara L. Mack; Khaled Alqoaer; Mansi Amin; Achiya Z. Amir; Madeleine Aumar; Marcus Auth; Annemarie Broderick; Matthew DiGuglielmo; +29 more
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Countries: Italy, Netherlands, Finland

    Background: Natural history models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are derived from adult patient data, but have never been validated in children. It is unclear how accurate such models are for children with PSC. Methods: We utilized the pediatric PSC consortium database to assess the Revised Mayo Clinic, Amsterdam-Oxford, and Boberg models. We calculated the risk stratum and predicted survival for each patient within each model using patient data at PSC diagnosis, and compared it with observed survival. We evaluated model fit using the c-statistic. Results: Model fit was good at 1 year (c-statistics 0.93, 0.87, 0.82) and fair at 10 years (0.78, 0.75, 0.69) in the Mayo, Boberg, and Amsterdam-Oxford models, respectively. The Mayo model correctly classified most children as low risk, whereas the Amsterdam-Oxford model incorrectly classified most as high risk. All of the models underestimated survival of patients classified as high risk. Albumin, bilirubin, AST, and platelets were most associated with outcomes. Autoimmune hepatitis was more prevalent in higher risk groups, and over-weighting of AST in these patients accounted for the observed versus predicted survival discrepancy. Conclusions: All 3 models offered good short-term discrimination of outcomes but only fair long-term discrimination. None of the models account for the high prevalence of features of autoimmune hepatitis overlap in children and the associated elevated aminotransferases. A pediatric-specific model is needed. AST, bilirubin, albumin, and platelets will be important predictors, but must be weighted to account for the unique features of PSC in children. Peer reviewed

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    F.W. Boswell; Albert Prodan; J.C. Bennett; J.M. Corbett; L. G. Hiltz;
    Publisher: Wiley

    TaTe4 is a quasi-one-dimensional crystal with a tetragonal subcell based on axes (a × aa × c). At room-temperature the structure is modulated with supercell axes (aR × aR × cR), where aR = 2a and cR = 3c. Using dark-field electron microscopy, domain boundaries in the modulation structure are analysed in relation to the possible boundaries that could exist in a proposed model. The observed boundary image contrast and the interactions of the boundaries with one another and with subcell defects are discussed. It is shown that a new modulated phase with axes (√2a × √2a × 3c) occurs at about 450 K. Satellite dark-field electron microscopy is used to study the disappearance and reformation of the domain boundaries on cycling through the transition. It is concluded that the domain boundaries in TaTe4 result from this phase change which occurs in a temperature range where the atomic mobility is severely limited. TaTe4 stellt einen quasi-eindimensionalen Kristall mit einer tetragonalen, auf den Achsen (a × a × c) basierenden Unterzelle dar. Bei Zimmertemperatur ist die Struktur mit den Superzellenachsen (aR × aR × cR) moduliert, wobei aR = 2a und CR = 3c ist. Mittels Dunkelfeldelektronen-mikroskopie werden die Domanengrenzen in der Modulationsstruktur in Beziehung zu den moglichen Grenzen analysiert, die in einem vorgeschlagenen Modell existieren konnten. Der beobachtete Grenzen-Bildkontrast und die Wechselwirkungen der Grenzen untereinander und mit Sub-zellendefekten werden diskutiert. Es wird gezeigt, das eine neue modulierte Phase mit den Achsen (√2a × √2a × 3c) bei etwa 450 K auftritt. Satellitendunkelfeldelektronenmikroskopie wird benutzt, um das Verschwinden und die Neubildung der Domanengrenzen beim zyklischen Durchlaufen des Ubergangs zu untersuchen. Es wird angenommen, das die Domanengrenzen in TaTe4 aus dieser Phasenanderung herruhren, die in einem Temperaturbereich auftritt, wo die atomare Beweglichkeit betrachtlich begrenzt ist.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shakil Ahmed; Peter Leslie Annear; Bouaphat Phonvisay; Chansaly Phommavong; Valeria de Oliveira Cruz; Asmus Hammerich; Bart Jacobs;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractThere is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Robert C. Reiner; Paulina A. Lindstedt; Brigette F. Blacker; Lucas Earl; Sandra B. Munro; Lucas Guimarães Abreu; Dilaram Acharya; Maryam Adabi; Rufus A. Adedoyin; Victor Adekanmbi; +242 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Reiner RC Jr, Hay SI. Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000–17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2020; 395: 1779–801—In this Article, the author byline has been amended to Local Burden of Disease Diarrhoea Collaborators. This correction has been made to the online version as of June 4, 2020, and the printed version is correct. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Advanced search in
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Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3,260 Research products, page 1 of 326
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schellenberg, D; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Mushi, A; Savigny de, D; Mgalula, L; Mbuya, C; Victoria, C.G.;
    Country: Tanzania (United Republic of)

    Objective was to document the prevalence, age-distribution, and risk factors for anaemia in Tanzanian children less than 5 years old,thereby assisting in the development of effective strategies for controlling anaemia. Cluster sampling was used to identify 2417 households at random from four contiguous districts in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania in mid-1999. Data on various social and medical parameters were collected and analysed. Blood haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were available for 1979 of the 2131 (93%) children identified and ranged from 1.7 to 18.6 g/dl. Overall, 87% (1722) of children had an Hb <11 g/dl, 39% (775) had an Hb <8 g/dl and 3% (65) had an Hb <5 g/dl. The highest prevalence of anaemia of all three levels was in children aged 6–11 months, of whom 10% (22/226) had an Hb <5 g/dl. However, the prevalence of anaemia was already high in children aged 1–5 months (85% had an Hb <11 g/dl, 42% had an Hb <8 g/dl, and 6% had an Hb <5 g/dl). Anaemia was usually asymptomatic and when symptoms arose they were nonspecific and rarely identified as a serious illness by the care provider. A recent history of treatment with antimalarials and iron was rare. Compliance with vaccinations delivered through the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) was 82% and was notassociated with risk of anaemia. Anaemia is extremely common in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania, even in very young infants. Further implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness algorithm should improve the case management of anaemia. However, the asymptomatic nature of most episodes of anaemia highlights the need for preventive strategies. The EPI has good coverage of the target population and it may be an appropriate channel for delivering tools for controlling anaemia and malaria.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igor Loncarski; Jenke ter Horst; Chris Veld;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: SSHRC

    We study the announcement effects and their determinants of convertible debt issues in the Canadian market in order to identify issuer motives. The average wealth effect for the three-day event window around the announcement of convertible bonds between 1991 and 2004 is a significantly negative -2.7%. When the issues are classified into equity- and debt-like, we find that the wealth effects are significantly more negative for the equity-like convertible bond issuers. Equity-like convertibles are significantly negatively affected by agency costs of equity. However, agency costs of debt do not have a significant effect on equity-like convertibles and agency costs of equity do not have a significant effect on debt-like convertibles. These findings suggest that convertibles are used to mitigate different aspects of informational asymmetries. These findings are in line with motives proposed by Stein (1992). Moreover, we find that convertible debt offers announced by income trusts, which have become a special feature of the Canadian market, experience significantly less negative wealth effects than similar offers announced by other issuers. This result can be explained by a more debt-like convertible design and/or very low agency costs of equity in case of income trusts.

  • Open Access

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

  • Publication . Article . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Janez Bernik; Mitja Mastnak; Heydar Radjavi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract We study various aspects of how certain positivity assumptions on complex matrix semigroups affect their structure. Our main result is that every irreducible group of complex matrices with nonnegative diagonal entries is simultaneously similar to a group of weighted permutations. We also consider the corresponding question for semigroups and discuss the effect of the assumption that a fixed linear functional has nonnegative values when restricted to a given semigroup.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernhard Haeupler; Asaf Cohen; Chen Avin; Muriel Medard;
    Country: United States

    We design and analyze gossip algorithms for networks with correlated data. In these networks, either the data to be distributed, the data already available at the nodes, or both, are correlated. Although coding schemes for correlated data have been studied extensively, the focus has been on characterizing the rate region in static memory-free networks. In a gossip-based scheme, however, nodes communicate among each other by continuously exchanging packets according to some underlying communication model. The main figure of merit in this setting is the stopping time - the time required until nodes can successfully decode. While Gossip schemes are practical, distributed and scalable, they have only been studied for uncorrelated data. We wish to close this gap by providing techniques to analyze network coded gossip in (dynamic) networks with correlated data. We give a clean framework for oblivious network models that applies to a multitude of network and communication scenarios, specify a general setting for distributed correlated data, and give tight bounds on the stopping times of network coded protocols in this wide range of scenarios. United States. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Contract N66001-11-C-4003)

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Georges Aad; J. Abdallah; Leszek Adamczyk; Jahred Adelman; Stefanie Adomeit; Tim Adye; Giulio Aielli; Calin Alexa; Muhammad Alhroob; Alejandro Alonso; +521 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)

    A search for direct pair production of supersymmetric top squarks ((t) over tilde (1)) is presented, assuming the (t) over tilde (1) decays into a top quark and the lightest supersymmetric particle, (chi) over tilde (0)(1), and that both top quarks decay to purely hadronic final states. A total of 16 (4) events are observed compared to a predicted standard model background of 13.5(-3.6)(+3.7) (4.4(-1.3)(+1.7)) events in two signal regions based on integral Ldt = 4.7 fb(-1) of pp collision data taken at root s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. An exclusion region in the (t) over tilde (1) versus (chi) over tilde (0)(1) mass plane is evaluated: 370 1) 10) similar to 0 GeV while m((t) over tilde1) = 445 GeV is excluded for m((chi) over tilde 10) <= 50 GeV.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mark Deneau; Pamela L. Valentino; Cara L. Mack; Khaled Alqoaer; Mansi Amin; Achiya Z. Amir; Madeleine Aumar; Marcus Auth; Annemarie Broderick; Matthew DiGuglielmo; +29 more
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Countries: Italy, Netherlands, Finland

    Background: Natural history models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are derived from adult patient data, but have never been validated in children. It is unclear how accurate such models are for children with PSC. Methods: We utilized the pediatric PSC consortium database to assess the Revised Mayo Clinic, Amsterdam-Oxford, and Boberg models. We calculated the risk stratum and predicted survival for each patient within each model using patient data at PSC diagnosis, and compared it with observed survival. We evaluated model fit using the c-statistic. Results: Model fit was good at 1 year (c-statistics 0.93, 0.87, 0.82) and fair at 10 years (0.78, 0.75, 0.69) in the Mayo, Boberg, and Amsterdam-Oxford models, respectively. The Mayo model correctly classified most children as low risk, whereas the Amsterdam-Oxford model incorrectly classified most as high risk. All of the models underestimated survival of patients classified as high risk. Albumin, bilirubin, AST, and platelets were most associated with outcomes. Autoimmune hepatitis was more prevalent in higher risk groups, and over-weighting of AST in these patients accounted for the observed versus predicted survival discrepancy. Conclusions: All 3 models offered good short-term discrimination of outcomes but only fair long-term discrimination. None of the models account for the high prevalence of features of autoimmune hepatitis overlap in children and the associated elevated aminotransferases. A pediatric-specific model is needed. AST, bilirubin, albumin, and platelets will be important predictors, but must be weighted to account for the unique features of PSC in children. Peer reviewed

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    F.W. Boswell; Albert Prodan; J.C. Bennett; J.M. Corbett; L. G. Hiltz;
    Publisher: Wiley

    TaTe4 is a quasi-one-dimensional crystal with a tetragonal subcell based on axes (a × aa × c). At room-temperature the structure is modulated with supercell axes (aR × aR × cR), where aR = 2a and cR = 3c. Using dark-field electron microscopy, domain boundaries in the modulation structure are analysed in relation to the possible boundaries that could exist in a proposed model. The observed boundary image contrast and the interactions of the boundaries with one another and with subcell defects are discussed. It is shown that a new modulated phase with axes (√2a × √2a × 3c) occurs at about 450 K. Satellite dark-field electron microscopy is used to study the disappearance and reformation of the domain boundaries on cycling through the transition. It is concluded that the domain boundaries in TaTe4 result from this phase change which occurs in a temperature range where the atomic mobility is severely limited. TaTe4 stellt einen quasi-eindimensionalen Kristall mit einer tetragonalen, auf den Achsen (a × a × c) basierenden Unterzelle dar. Bei Zimmertemperatur ist die Struktur mit den Superzellenachsen (aR × aR × cR) moduliert, wobei aR = 2a und CR = 3c ist. Mittels Dunkelfeldelektronen-mikroskopie werden die Domanengrenzen in der Modulationsstruktur in Beziehung zu den moglichen Grenzen analysiert, die in einem vorgeschlagenen Modell existieren konnten. Der beobachtete Grenzen-Bildkontrast und die Wechselwirkungen der Grenzen untereinander und mit Sub-zellendefekten werden diskutiert. Es wird gezeigt, das eine neue modulierte Phase mit den Achsen (√2a × √2a × 3c) bei etwa 450 K auftritt. Satellitendunkelfeldelektronenmikroskopie wird benutzt, um das Verschwinden und die Neubildung der Domanengrenzen beim zyklischen Durchlaufen des Ubergangs zu untersuchen. Es wird angenommen, das die Domanengrenzen in TaTe4 aus dieser Phasenanderung herruhren, die in einem Temperaturbereich auftritt, wo die atomare Beweglichkeit betrachtlich begrenzt ist.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shakil Ahmed; Peter Leslie Annear; Bouaphat Phonvisay; Chansaly Phommavong; Valeria de Oliveira Cruz; Asmus Hammerich; Bart Jacobs;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractThere is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Robert C. Reiner; Paulina A. Lindstedt; Brigette F. Blacker; Lucas Earl; Sandra B. Munro; Lucas Guimarães Abreu; Dilaram Acharya; Maryam Adabi; Rufus A. Adedoyin; Victor Adekanmbi; +242 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Reiner RC Jr, Hay SI. Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000–17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2020; 395: 1779–801—In this Article, the author byline has been amended to Local Burden of Disease Diarrhoea Collaborators. This correction has been made to the online version as of June 4, 2020, and the printed version is correct. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd