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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huiting Ma; Conrado Franco Villalobos; Martin St-Jean; Oghenowede Eyawo; Miriam Ruth Lavergne; Lianping Ti; Mark Hull; Benita Yip; Lang Wu; Robert S. Hogg; +4 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Background The burden of HCV among those living with HIV remains a major public health challenge. We aimed to characterize trends in healthcare-related visits (HRV) of people living with HIV (PLW-HIV) and those living with HIV and HCV (PLW-HIV/HCV), in British Columbia (BC), and to identify risk factors associated with the highest HRV rates over time. Methods Eligible individuals, recruited from the BC Seek and Treat for Optimal Prevention of HIV/AIDS population-based retrospective cohort (N = 3955), were ≥ 18 years old, first started combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 01/01/2000–31/12/2013, and were followed for ≥6 months until 31/12/2014. The main outcome was HRV rate. The main exposure was HIV/HCV co-infection status. We built a confounder non-linear mixed effects model, adjusting for several demographic and time-dependent factors. Results HRV rates have decreased since 2000 in both groups. The overall age-sex standardized HRV rate (per person-year) among PLW-HIV and PLW-HIV/HCV was 21.11 (95% CI 20.96–21.25) and 41.69 (95% CI 41.51–41.88), respectively. The excess in HRV in the co-infected group was associated with late presentation for ART, history of injection drug use, sub-optimal ART adherence and a higher number of comorbidities. The adjusted HRV rate ratio for PLW-HIV/HCV in comparison to PLW-HIV was 1.18 (95% CI 1.13–1.24). Conclusions Although HRV rates have decreased over time in both groups, PLW-HIV/HCV had 18% higher HRV than those only living with HIV. Our results highlight several modifiable risk factors that could be targeted as potential means to minimize the disease burden of this population and of the healthcare system. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12913-018-3119-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Oghenowede Eyawo; Mark W. Hull; Kate Salters; Hasina Samji; Angela Cescon; Paul Sereda; Viviane D. Lima; Bohdan Nosyk; David G T Whitehurst; Scott A. Lear; +2 more
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
    Project: NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), CIHR , SSHRC , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    PurposeThe Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) Study in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was designed to evaluate the determinants of health outcomes and health care services use among people living with HIV (PLHIV) as they age in the period following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The study also assesses how age-associated comorbidities and health care use among PLHIV may differ from those observed in the general population.ParticipantsCOAST was established through a data linkage between two provincial data sources: The BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program, which centrally manages cART dispensation across BC and contains prospectively collected data on demographic, immunological, virological, cART use and other clinical information for all known PLHIV in BC; and Population Data BC, a provincial data repository that holds individual event-level, longitudinal data for all 4.6 million BC residents. COAST participants include 13 907 HIV-positive adults (≥19 years of age) and a 10% random sample inclusive of 516 340 adults from the general population followed from 1996 to 2013.Findings to dateFor all participants, linked individual-level data include information on demographics, health service use (eg, inpatient care, outpatient care and prescription medication dispensations), mortality, and HIV diagnostic and clinical data. Publications from COAST have demonstrated the significant mortality reductions and dramatic changes in the causes of death among PLHIV from 1996 to 2012, differences in the amount of time spent in a healthy state by HIV status, and high levels of injury and mood disorder diagnosis among PLHIV compared with the general population.Future plansTo capture the dynamic nature of population health parameters, regular data updates and a refresh of the data linkage are planned to occur every 2 years, providing the basis for planned analysis to examine age-associated comorbidities and patterns of health service use over time.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Huiting Ma; Villalobos, Conrado; St-Jean, Martin; Oghenowede Eyawo; Lavergne, Miriam; Lianping Ti; Hull, Mark; Yip, Benita; Wu, Lang; Hogg, Robert; +4 more
    Publisher: figshare
    Project: NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Supplementary information detailing the data linkage within the STOP HIV/AIDS cohort, the ascertainment of comorbidities based on the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the number of healthcare-related visits recorded. (DOCX 35 kb)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sahar Saeed; Erin Strumpf; Erica E. M. Moodie; James Young; Roy Nitulescu; Joseph Cox; Alexander Wong; Sharon Walmsely; Curtis Cooper; Marie‐Lousie Vachon; +4 more
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Project: CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Abstract Background Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C (HCV) treatment with >90% cure rates even in real‐world studies, giving hope that HCV can be eliminated. However, for DAAs to have a population‐level impact on the burden of HCV disease, treatment uptake needs to be expanded. We investigated temporal trends in HCV treatment uptake and evaluated factors associated with second‐generation DAA initiation and efficacy among key HIV‐HCV co‐infected populations in Canada. Methods The Canadian HIV‐HCV Co‐Infection Cohort Study prospectively follows 1699 participants from 18 centres. Among HCV RNA+ participants, we determined the incidence of HCV treatment initiation per year overall and by key populations between 2007 and 2015. Key populations were based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines including: people who actively inject drugs (PWID) (reporting injection drug use, last 6 months); Indigenous people; women and men who have sex with men (MSM). Multivariate Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 2‐year probability of initiating second‐generation DAAs for each of the key populations. Results Overall, HCV treatment initiation rates increased from 8 (95% CI, 6–11) /100 person‐years in 2013 to 28 (95% CI, 23–33) /100 person‐years in 2015. Among 911 HCV RNA + participants, there were 202 second‐generation DAA initiations (93% with interferon‐free regimens). After adjustment (aHR, 95% CI), active PWID (0.60, 0.38–0.94 compared to people not injecting drugs) and more generally, people with lower income (82% in all key populations. Conclusion While treatment uptake has increased with the availability of second‐generation DAAs, marginalized populations, already engaged in care, are still failing to access treatment. Targeted strategies to address barriers are needed to avoid further health inequities and to maximize the public health impact of DAAs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marianne Harris; Bruce Ganase; Birgit Watson; P. Richard Harrigan; Julio S. G. Montaner; Mark Hull;
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Project: NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Abstract Background As a simplification strategy for treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients who have achieved virologic suppression on a multi-drug, multi-class antiretroviral regimen, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) with darunavir. Methods A single arm, open-label 48-week study was conducted of regimen simplification to E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir 800 mg daily from stable therapy including two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor. Participants had plasma HIV viral load consistently < 200 copies/mL for ≥ 6 months, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min, and no genotypic resistance to major components of the study regimen. Plasma viral load was measured at weeks 2 and 4, then every 4 weeks throughout the study. Safety laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, 36, and 48. Antiretroviral drug concentrations were measured at baseline and once ≥ 2 weeks after the regimen change. Results Ten HIV-infected adults (8 male and 2 female; median age 50.5 years) were enrolled. All maintained virologic suppression on the new regimen for 48 weeks. One subject experienced a decrease in eGFR from 62 mL/min at baseline to 52 mL/min at week 12; study medications were continued and his eGFR remained stable (50–59 mL/min) thereafter. No subjects discontinued study medications for renal function changes or other adverse events. Darunavir trough concentration were lower on the new regimen than on darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg (n = 5; p < 0.05). Conclusions Despite low darunavir trough concentrations, treatment simplification to a two-pill, once-daily regimen of E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir was safe and effective for 48 weeks among 10 selected treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. Trial registration The study protocol was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02199613) on July 22, 2014

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Oghenowede Eyawo; Conrado Franco-Villalobos; Mark W. Hull; Adriana Nohpal; Hasina Samji; Paul Sereda; Viviane D. Lima; Jeannie Shoveller; David Moore; Julio S. G. Montaner; +1 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Canada
    Project: SSHRC , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05), CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04)

    Background: Non-HIV/AIDS-related diseases are gaining prominence as important causes of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare changes over time in mortality rates and causes of death among a population-based cohort of persons living with and without HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods: We analysed data from the Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study; a retrospective population-based study created via linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Population Data BC, and containing data for HIV-infected individuals and the general population of BC, respectively. Our analysis included all known HIV-infected adults (≥ 20 years) in BC and a random 10% sample of uninfected BC adults followed from 1996 to 2012. Deaths were identified through Population Data BC – which contains information on all registered deaths in BC (BC Vital Statistics Agency dataset) and classified into cause of death categories using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9/10 codes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and mortality rate ratios were calculated. Trend test were performed. Results: 3401 (25%), and 47,647 (9%) individuals died during the 5,620,150 person-years of follow-up among 13,729 HIV-infected and 510,313 uninfected individuals, respectively. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were consistently higher among HIV-infected compared to HIV-negative individuals, except for neurological disorders. All-cause ASMR decreased from 126.75 (95% CI: 84.92-168.57) per 1000 population in 1996 to 21.29 (95% CI: 17.79-24.79) in 2011-2012 (83% decline; p < 0.001 for trend), compared to a change from 7.97 (95% CI: 7.61-8.33) to 6.87 (95% CI: 6.70-7.04) among uninfected individuals (14% decline; p < 0.001). Mortality rates from HIV/AIDS-related causes decreased by 94% from 103.85 per 1000 population in 1996 to 6.72 by the 2011–2012 era (p < 0.001). Significant ASMR reductions were also observed for hepatic/liver disease and drug abuse/overdose deaths. ASMRs for neurological disorders increased significantly over time. Non-AIDS-defining cancers are currently the leading non-HIV/AIDS-related cause of death in both HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. Conclusions: Despite the significant mortality rate reductions observed among HIV-infected individuals from 1996 to 2012, they still have excess mortality risk compared to uninfected individuals. Additional efforts are needed to promote effective risk factor management and appropriate screening measures among people living with HIV.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Silvia Guillemi; Sean H Ling; Julia Dahlby; Benita Yip; Wendy Zhang; Mark W. Hull; Viviane D. Lima; Robert S. Hogg; Ronald Werb; Julio S. G. Montaner; +1 more
    Publisher: International AIDS Society
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Introduction : Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)–associated renal dysfunction may abate when TDF is replaced with abacavir (ABC). The extent to which the third drug atazanavir contributes to renal dysfunction is unclear. Methods : A retrospective analysis was conducted on adults who had plasma viral load (pVL)<200 copies/mL for≥six months while receiving TDF/lamivudine (3TC) – or TDF/emtricitabine (FTC)–based antiretroviral therapy (ART), then switched to ABC/3TC while retaining the third drug in the ART regimen. CD4, pVL, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum phosphorus, urine albumin to creatinine ratio and serum lipids were compared between pre-switch baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months after the switch to ABC. Results : A total of 286 patients switched from TDF to ABC between 2004 and 2014: 232 (81%) male, median age 48 years (interquartile range (IQR) 42, 56). The third drug was atazanavir (± ritonavir) in 141 (49%) cases. The pVL was<50 copies/mL in 93 to 96% at all time points. Median serum creatinine was 93 µmol/L (IQR 80–111) at baseline and decreased to 88 µmol/L (IQR 78–98) at 12 months after the switch to ABC. Median eGFR increased from 74 (IQR 60–88) mL/min at baseline to 80 mL/min (IQR 69–89) at 12 months. Results were not significantly different between patients on atazanavir versus those on another third drug. Conclusions : Viral suppression was maintained among patients who switched from TDF/3TC or TDF/FTC to ABC/3TC. Serum creatinine and eGFR improved up to 12 months after switching to ABC/3TC, irrespective of whether or not patients were also receiving atazanavir±ritonavir. Keywords: HIV; tenofovir; abacavir; atazanavir; renal; renal dysfunction; HAART. (Published: 9 September 2016) Citation: Guillemi SA et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2016, 19 :20995 http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/20995 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.19.1.20995

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Viviane D. Lima; Mark Hull; David A. McVea; William Chau; P. Richard Harrigan; Julio S. G. Montaner;
    Publisher: International AIDS Society
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Introduction In many resource-limited settings, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) failure is diagnosed clinically or immunologically. As such, there is a high likelihood that patients may stay on a virologically failing regimen for a substantial period of time. Here, we compared the long-term impact of initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)- versus boosted protease inhibitor (bPI)-based cART in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We followed prospectively 3925 ART-naïve patients who started NNRTIs (N=1963, 50%) or bPIs (N=1962; 50%) from 1 January 2000 until 30 June 2013 in BC. At six months, we assessed whether patients virologically failed therapy (a plasma viral load (pVL) >50 copies/mL), and we stratified them based on the pVL at the time of failure ≤500 versus >500 copies/mL. We then followed these patients for another six months and calculated their probability of achieving subsequent viral suppression (pVL 500 copies/mL, they had a 20% lower probability of suppressing at 12 months than pVL-matched bPI initiators (0.37 (0.29–0.45) vs. 0.46 (0.38–0.54)). In terms of evolving HIV drug resistance, those who failed on NNRTI performed worse than bPI in all scenarios, especially if they failed with a viral load >500 copies/mL. Conclusions Our results show that patients who virologically failed at six months on NNRTI and continued on the same regimen had a lower probability of subsequently achieving viral suppression and a higher chance of evolving HIV drug resistance. These results suggest that improving access to regular virologic monitoring is critically important, especially if NNRTI-based cART is to remain a preferred choice for first-line therapy in resource-limited settings.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mark Hull; Stephen D. Shafran; Alexander Wong; Alice Tseng; Pierre Giguère; Lisa Barrett; Shariq Haider; Brian Conway; Marina B. Klein; Curtis Cooper;
    Publisher: Hindawi Limited
    Project: CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality.Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions.Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines.Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided.Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hull, Mark; Shafran, Stephen; Wong, Alex; Tseng, Alice; Giguère, Pierre; Barrett, Lisa; Haider, Shariq; Conway, Brian; Klein, Marina; Cooper, Curtis;
    Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
    Project: CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines. Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided. Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document.

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STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)
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10 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Huiting Ma; Conrado Franco Villalobos; Martin St-Jean; Oghenowede Eyawo; Miriam Ruth Lavergne; Lianping Ti; Mark Hull; Benita Yip; Lang Wu; Robert S. Hogg; +4 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Background The burden of HCV among those living with HIV remains a major public health challenge. We aimed to characterize trends in healthcare-related visits (HRV) of people living with HIV (PLW-HIV) and those living with HIV and HCV (PLW-HIV/HCV), in British Columbia (BC), and to identify risk factors associated with the highest HRV rates over time. Methods Eligible individuals, recruited from the BC Seek and Treat for Optimal Prevention of HIV/AIDS population-based retrospective cohort (N = 3955), were ≥ 18 years old, first started combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 01/01/2000–31/12/2013, and were followed for ≥6 months until 31/12/2014. The main outcome was HRV rate. The main exposure was HIV/HCV co-infection status. We built a confounder non-linear mixed effects model, adjusting for several demographic and time-dependent factors. Results HRV rates have decreased since 2000 in both groups. The overall age-sex standardized HRV rate (per person-year) among PLW-HIV and PLW-HIV/HCV was 21.11 (95% CI 20.96–21.25) and 41.69 (95% CI 41.51–41.88), respectively. The excess in HRV in the co-infected group was associated with late presentation for ART, history of injection drug use, sub-optimal ART adherence and a higher number of comorbidities. The adjusted HRV rate ratio for PLW-HIV/HCV in comparison to PLW-HIV was 1.18 (95% CI 1.13–1.24). Conclusions Although HRV rates have decreased over time in both groups, PLW-HIV/HCV had 18% higher HRV than those only living with HIV. Our results highlight several modifiable risk factors that could be targeted as potential means to minimize the disease burden of this population and of the healthcare system. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12913-018-3119-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Oghenowede Eyawo; Mark W. Hull; Kate Salters; Hasina Samji; Angela Cescon; Paul Sereda; Viviane D. Lima; Bohdan Nosyk; David G T Whitehurst; Scott A. Lear; +2 more
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
    Project: NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), CIHR , SSHRC , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    PurposeThe Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) Study in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was designed to evaluate the determinants of health outcomes and health care services use among people living with HIV (PLHIV) as they age in the period following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The study also assesses how age-associated comorbidities and health care use among PLHIV may differ from those observed in the general population.ParticipantsCOAST was established through a data linkage between two provincial data sources: The BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program, which centrally manages cART dispensation across BC and contains prospectively collected data on demographic, immunological, virological, cART use and other clinical information for all known PLHIV in BC; and Population Data BC, a provincial data repository that holds individual event-level, longitudinal data for all 4.6 million BC residents. COAST participants include 13 907 HIV-positive adults (≥19 years of age) and a 10% random sample inclusive of 516 340 adults from the general population followed from 1996 to 2013.Findings to dateFor all participants, linked individual-level data include information on demographics, health service use (eg, inpatient care, outpatient care and prescription medication dispensations), mortality, and HIV diagnostic and clinical data. Publications from COAST have demonstrated the significant mortality reductions and dramatic changes in the causes of death among PLHIV from 1996 to 2012, differences in the amount of time spent in a healthy state by HIV status, and high levels of injury and mood disorder diagnosis among PLHIV compared with the general population.Future plansTo capture the dynamic nature of population health parameters, regular data updates and a refresh of the data linkage are planned to occur every 2 years, providing the basis for planned analysis to examine age-associated comorbidities and patterns of health service use over time.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Huiting Ma; Villalobos, Conrado; St-Jean, Martin; Oghenowede Eyawo; Lavergne, Miriam; Lianping Ti; Hull, Mark; Yip, Benita; Wu, Lang; Hogg, Robert; +4 more
    Publisher: figshare
    Project: NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Supplementary information detailing the data linkage within the STOP HIV/AIDS cohort, the ascertainment of comorbidities based on the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the number of healthcare-related visits recorded. (DOCX 35 kb)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sahar Saeed; Erin Strumpf; Erica E. M. Moodie; James Young; Roy Nitulescu; Joseph Cox; Alexander Wong; Sharon Walmsely; Curtis Cooper; Marie‐Lousie Vachon; +4 more
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Project: CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Abstract Background Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C (HCV) treatment with >90% cure rates even in real‐world studies, giving hope that HCV can be eliminated. However, for DAAs to have a population‐level impact on the burden of HCV disease, treatment uptake needs to be expanded. We investigated temporal trends in HCV treatment uptake and evaluated factors associated with second‐generation DAA initiation and efficacy among key HIV‐HCV co‐infected populations in Canada. Methods The Canadian HIV‐HCV Co‐Infection Cohort Study prospectively follows 1699 participants from 18 centres. Among HCV RNA+ participants, we determined the incidence of HCV treatment initiation per year overall and by key populations between 2007 and 2015. Key populations were based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines including: people who actively inject drugs (PWID) (reporting injection drug use, last 6 months); Indigenous people; women and men who have sex with men (MSM). Multivariate Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 2‐year probability of initiating second‐generation DAAs for each of the key populations. Results Overall, HCV treatment initiation rates increased from 8 (95% CI, 6–11) /100 person‐years in 2013 to 28 (95% CI, 23–33) /100 person‐years in 2015. Among 911 HCV RNA + participants, there were 202 second‐generation DAA initiations (93% with interferon‐free regimens). After adjustment (aHR, 95% CI), active PWID (0.60, 0.38–0.94 compared to people not injecting drugs) and more generally, people with lower income (82% in all key populations. Conclusion While treatment uptake has increased with the availability of second‐generation DAAs, marginalized populations, already engaged in care, are still failing to access treatment. Targeted strategies to address barriers are needed to avoid further health inequities and to maximize the public health impact of DAAs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marianne Harris; Bruce Ganase; Birgit Watson; P. Richard Harrigan; Julio S. G. Montaner; Mark Hull;
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Project: NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Abstract Background As a simplification strategy for treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients who have achieved virologic suppression on a multi-drug, multi-class antiretroviral regimen, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) with darunavir. Methods A single arm, open-label 48-week study was conducted of regimen simplification to E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir 800 mg daily from stable therapy including two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor. Participants had plasma HIV viral load consistently < 200 copies/mL for ≥ 6 months, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min, and no genotypic resistance to major components of the study regimen. Plasma viral load was measured at weeks 2 and 4, then every 4 weeks throughout the study. Safety laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, 36, and 48. Antiretroviral drug concentrations were measured at baseline and once ≥ 2 weeks after the regimen change. Results Ten HIV-infected adults (8 male and 2 female; median age 50.5 years) were enrolled. All maintained virologic suppression on the new regimen for 48 weeks. One subject experienced a decrease in eGFR from 62 mL/min at baseline to 52 mL/min at week 12; study medications were continued and his eGFR remained stable (50–59 mL/min) thereafter. No subjects discontinued study medications for renal function changes or other adverse events. Darunavir trough concentration were lower on the new regimen than on darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg (n = 5; p < 0.05). Conclusions Despite low darunavir trough concentrations, treatment simplification to a two-pill, once-daily regimen of E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir was safe and effective for 48 weeks among 10 selected treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. Trial registration The study protocol was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02199613) on July 22, 2014

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Oghenowede Eyawo; Conrado Franco-Villalobos; Mark W. Hull; Adriana Nohpal; Hasina Samji; Paul Sereda; Viviane D. Lima; Jeannie Shoveller; David Moore; Julio S. G. Montaner; +1 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Canada
    Project: SSHRC , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05), CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04)

    Background: Non-HIV/AIDS-related diseases are gaining prominence as important causes of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare changes over time in mortality rates and causes of death among a population-based cohort of persons living with and without HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods: We analysed data from the Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study; a retrospective population-based study created via linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Population Data BC, and containing data for HIV-infected individuals and the general population of BC, respectively. Our analysis included all known HIV-infected adults (≥ 20 years) in BC and a random 10% sample of uninfected BC adults followed from 1996 to 2012. Deaths were identified through Population Data BC – which contains information on all registered deaths in BC (BC Vital Statistics Agency dataset) and classified into cause of death categories using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9/10 codes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and mortality rate ratios were calculated. Trend test were performed. Results: 3401 (25%), and 47,647 (9%) individuals died during the 5,620,150 person-years of follow-up among 13,729 HIV-infected and 510,313 uninfected individuals, respectively. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were consistently higher among HIV-infected compared to HIV-negative individuals, except for neurological disorders. All-cause ASMR decreased from 126.75 (95% CI: 84.92-168.57) per 1000 population in 1996 to 21.29 (95% CI: 17.79-24.79) in 2011-2012 (83% decline; p < 0.001 for trend), compared to a change from 7.97 (95% CI: 7.61-8.33) to 6.87 (95% CI: 6.70-7.04) among uninfected individuals (14% decline; p < 0.001). Mortality rates from HIV/AIDS-related causes decreased by 94% from 103.85 per 1000 population in 1996 to 6.72 by the 2011–2012 era (p < 0.001). Significant ASMR reductions were also observed for hepatic/liver disease and drug abuse/overdose deaths. ASMRs for neurological disorders increased significantly over time. Non-AIDS-defining cancers are currently the leading non-HIV/AIDS-related cause of death in both HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. Conclusions: Despite the significant mortality rate reductions observed among HIV-infected individuals from 1996 to 2012, they still have excess mortality risk compared to uninfected individuals. Additional efforts are needed to promote effective risk factor management and appropriate screening measures among people living with HIV.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Silvia Guillemi; Sean H Ling; Julia Dahlby; Benita Yip; Wendy Zhang; Mark W. Hull; Viviane D. Lima; Robert S. Hogg; Ronald Werb; Julio S. G. Montaner; +1 more
    Publisher: International AIDS Society
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Introduction : Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)–associated renal dysfunction may abate when TDF is replaced with abacavir (ABC). The extent to which the third drug atazanavir contributes to renal dysfunction is unclear. Methods : A retrospective analysis was conducted on adults who had plasma viral load (pVL)<200 copies/mL for≥six months while receiving TDF/lamivudine (3TC) – or TDF/emtricitabine (FTC)–based antiretroviral therapy (ART), then switched to ABC/3TC while retaining the third drug in the ART regimen. CD4, pVL, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum phosphorus, urine albumin to creatinine ratio and serum lipids were compared between pre-switch baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months after the switch to ABC. Results : A total of 286 patients switched from TDF to ABC between 2004 and 2014: 232 (81%) male, median age 48 years (interquartile range (IQR) 42, 56). The third drug was atazanavir (± ritonavir) in 141 (49%) cases. The pVL was<50 copies/mL in 93 to 96% at all time points. Median serum creatinine was 93 µmol/L (IQR 80–111) at baseline and decreased to 88 µmol/L (IQR 78–98) at 12 months after the switch to ABC. Median eGFR increased from 74 (IQR 60–88) mL/min at baseline to 80 mL/min (IQR 69–89) at 12 months. Results were not significantly different between patients on atazanavir versus those on another third drug. Conclusions : Viral suppression was maintained among patients who switched from TDF/3TC or TDF/FTC to ABC/3TC. Serum creatinine and eGFR improved up to 12 months after switching to ABC/3TC, irrespective of whether or not patients were also receiving atazanavir±ritonavir. Keywords: HIV; tenofovir; abacavir; atazanavir; renal; renal dysfunction; HAART. (Published: 9 September 2016) Citation: Guillemi SA et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2016, 19 :20995 http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/20995 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.19.1.20995

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Viviane D. Lima; Mark Hull; David A. McVea; William Chau; P. Richard Harrigan; Julio S. G. Montaner;
    Publisher: International AIDS Society
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Seek and Treat for Optima... (5R01DA036307-04), NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Introduction In many resource-limited settings, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) failure is diagnosed clinically or immunologically. As such, there is a high likelihood that patients may stay on a virologically failing regimen for a substantial period of time. Here, we compared the long-term impact of initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)- versus boosted protease inhibitor (bPI)-based cART in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We followed prospectively 3925 ART-naïve patients who started NNRTIs (N=1963, 50%) or bPIs (N=1962; 50%) from 1 January 2000 until 30 June 2013 in BC. At six months, we assessed whether patients virologically failed therapy (a plasma viral load (pVL) >50 copies/mL), and we stratified them based on the pVL at the time of failure ≤500 versus >500 copies/mL. We then followed these patients for another six months and calculated their probability of achieving subsequent viral suppression (pVL 500 copies/mL, they had a 20% lower probability of suppressing at 12 months than pVL-matched bPI initiators (0.37 (0.29–0.45) vs. 0.46 (0.38–0.54)). In terms of evolving HIV drug resistance, those who failed on NNRTI performed worse than bPI in all scenarios, especially if they failed with a viral load >500 copies/mL. Conclusions Our results show that patients who virologically failed at six months on NNRTI and continued on the same regimen had a lower probability of subsequently achieving viral suppression and a higher chance of evolving HIV drug resistance. These results suggest that improving access to regular virologic monitoring is critically important, especially if NNRTI-based cART is to remain a preferred choice for first-line therapy in resource-limited settings.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mark Hull; Stephen D. Shafran; Alexander Wong; Alice Tseng; Pierre Giguère; Lisa Barrett; Shariq Haider; Brian Conway; Marina B. Klein; Curtis Cooper;
    Publisher: Hindawi Limited
    Project: CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality.Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions.Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines.Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided.Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hull, Mark; Shafran, Stephen; Wong, Alex; Tseng, Alice; Giguère, Pierre; Barrett, Lisa; Haider, Shariq; Conway, Brian; Klein, Marina; Cooper, Curtis;
    Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
    Project: CIHR , NIH | STOP HIV in DUs (5R01DA031043-05)

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines. Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided. Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document.