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  • Canada
  • 2021-2021
  • Article
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  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Amine Bellahsen; Hanane Dagdougui;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract System operations and planning are crucial aspects of power system management. They aim to maintain the equilibrium of electricity supply and demand while ensuring reliable and secure power system operation. Consumers have to pay more for electricity during periods of high peak demand in various sectors. If consumers have knowledge about expected peak load ahead of time, such extra charges could potentially be avoided. Accurate energy demand forecasting, and therefore expected peak load information, not only will help to provide a reliable supply of electricity, but also can be useful in reducing the cost of electricity at the consumer level. In this paper, we develop a comparative study for aggregated short-term load forecasting using different data strategies and compare two prediction levels: predicting the aggregated load using a district-level data set, and performing predictions on a lower level and then aggregating them at the district level. After finding the best forecasting model and strategy, these accurate predictions will help to predict the percentage of peak over a certain subscribed power in the entire district. The results showed that the mean absolute percentage error is between 1.67% and 4.80% depending on the machine learning algorithm and the prediction horizon used.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Sandeep Mohapatra;
    Publisher: Wiley
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cassiane Gomes dos Santos; Gabriel M. Dallago; Mariana Almeida Dumont; Leandro Vitor de Figueiredo; Marcela Ramos Duarte; Cleube Andrade Boari; Gustavo Henrique de Frias Castro; Roseli Aparecida dos Santos;
    Publisher: Research, Society and Development

    Milk is rich in nutrients, but several factors in the production system interfere with its quality. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and microbiological quality of raw milk stored in community tanks from the municipality of Aricanduva – Minas Gerais. Samples were collected from eight community tanks at different properties. The milk composition and temperature were analyzed using the digital milk analyzer. The total count of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was performed at the Laboratory of Science and Technology of Products of Animal Origin, Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina – Minas Gerais. The data obtained were compared to the values established by Normative Instruction (IN) n° 76, by means of Student's t-test and Wilcoxon's non-parametric test at the level of 5% of significance. The average levels of fat (3.55 g/100g), protein (3.00 g/100g), lactose (4.45 g/100g) and total solids (11.76 g/100g) were within the standards minimum required. The content of defatted solids (8.21 g/100g) was the limiting factor to the compliance with IN76, with an average value lower than that established (8.40 g/100g). The temperature of the milk was higher than the standard required by the legislation and the count of mesophilic microorganisms did not differ from the legislation. It is concluded that the composition of raw milk stored in community tanks in the municipality of Aricanduva – Minas Gerais, compared to IN 76, did not fully met the legislation in all evaluated parameters. La leche es rica en nutrientes, pero varios factores del sistema de producción interfieren con su calidad. El objetivo fue analizar la composición y calidad microbiológica de la leche cruda almacenada en tanques comunitarios en el municipio de Aricanduva MG. Se recolectaron muestras por duplicado de ocho tanques comunitarios en diferentes propiedades. Los análisis de composición y temperatura de la leche se realizaron utilizando un analizador de leche digital. El recuento total de microorganismos aeróbicos mesófilos se realizó en el Laboratorio de Ciencia y Tecnología de Productos de Origen Animal, Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Universidad Federal de Vales do Jequitinhonha y Mucuri, Diamantina MG. Los datos obtenidos se contrastaron con los valores establecidos por la Instrucción Normativa (IN) No. 76, utilizando las pruebas t de Student y Wilcoxon a un nivel de significancia del 5%. Los contenidos medios de grasa (3,55 g / 100 g), proteína (3,00 g / 100 g), lactosa (4,45 g / 100 g) y sólidos totales (11,76 g / 100 g) estuvieron dentro de los estándares mínimos requeridos. El contenido de sólidos desgrasados (8.21 g / 100g) fue el factor limitante para cumplir con la IN76, con un valor promedio menor al establecido (8.40 g / 100g). La temperatura de la leche fue más alta que el estándar requerido por la legislación y el recuento de microorganismos mesófilos no difirió de la legislación. Se concluye que la composición de la leche cruda almacenada en tanques comunitarios en el municipio de Aricanduva MG, en comparación con la EN 76, no cumplió con la legislación en todos los parámetros evaluados y su calidad microbiológica se vio comprometida, ya que las temperaturas estuvieron por encima del valor recomendado por legislación. O leite é rico em nutrientes, porém vários fatores do sistema de produção interferem em sua qualidade. Objetivou-se analisar a composição e qualidade microbiológica do leite cru armazenado em tanques comunitários no município de Aricanduva MG. Foram coletadas amostras em duplicatas de oito tanques comunitários em diferentes propriedades. As análises de composição e temperatura do leite foram realizadas através do analisador de leite digital. A contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos foi realizada no Laboratório de Ciência e Tecnologia de Produtos de Origem Animal do Departamento de Zootecnia, da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina MG. Os dados obtidos foram contrastados aos valores estabelecidos pela Instrução Normativa (IN) n° 76, por meio dos testes t de Student e Wilcoxon ao nível de 5% de significância. Os teores médios de gordura (3,55 g/100g), proteína (3,00 g/100g), lactose (4,45 g/100g) e sólidos totais (11,76 g/100g) encontraram-se dentro dos padrões mínimos exigidos. O teor de sólidos desengordurados (8,21 g/100g) foi o fator limitante ao atendimento à IN76, com valor médio menor que o estabelecido (8,40 g/100g). A temperatura do leite foi maior que o padrão exigido pela legislação e a contagem de microrganismos mesófilos não diferiu da legislação. Conclui-se que a composição do leite cru armazenado em tanques comunitários no município de Aricanduva MG, comparada à IN 76, não atendeu a legislação em todos os parâmetros avaliados e a sua qualidade microbiológica estava comprometida, uma vez que as temperaturas estavam acima do valor preconizado pela legislação.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jihwan Oh; Yehao Zhou;
    Publisher: SciPost
    Country: United Kingdom

    We derive the simplest commutation relations of operator algebras associated to M2 branes and an M5 brane in the $\Omega$-deformed M-theory, which is a natural set-up for Twisted holography. Feynman diagram 1-loop computations in the twisted-holographic dual side reproduce the same algebraic relations. Comment: 50 pages; v2: a submitted version to SciPost

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Li Liu; Colin A. Capaldi; Heather M. Orpana; Mark S. Kaplan; Lil Tonmyr;
    Publisher: Joule Inc.

    BACKGROUND: Ongoing surveillance of the means of suicide is necessary for effective prevention. We examined how mortality rates owing to different means of suicide changed in Canada from 1981 to 2018. METHODS: We obtained data from 1981 to 2018 on suicide deaths of individuals aged 10 years and older, from the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database. We used joinpoint regression analysis to examine changes over time in the suicide mortality rate for the 3 most common means of suicide. RESULTS: The age-standardized suicide mortality rate declined in earlier decades for both sexes, but did not significantly change in recent decades for either sex. The age-standardized rate of suicide by suffocation increased from 1993 for females (2.1% per year) and from 1996 for males (0.4% per year). The age-standardized rate of suicide by poisoning decreased for females (2.2% per year) and males (2.1% per year) from 1981 to 2018. The age-standardized rate of suicide by firearm decreased from 1981 to 2008 (7.4% per year) but did not significantly change there-after for females; for males, it decreased 2.1% per year from 1981 to 1993 and 5.7% per year from 1993 to 2007, but did not significantly change thereafter. INTERPRETATION: For both sexes, the rate of suicide by poisoning is decreasing, the rate of suicide by suffocation is increasing, and the rate of suicide by firearm has not significantly changed in the last decade. Given the high proportion of suicide deaths by suffocation, its increasing rate and the difficulty of restricting the means of suffocation, other approaches to suicide prevention are needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mairead O'Connor; Lisa A McSherry; Stephan U Dombrowski; Jill J Francis; Cara Martin; John J. O'Leary; Linda Sharp;
    Publisher: F1000 Research Limited
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background: Cervical screening uptake is declining in several countries. Primary care practitioners could play a greater role in maximising uptake, but better understanding is needed of practitioners’ cervical screening-related behaviours. Among general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses, we aimed to identify cervical screening-related clinical behaviours; clarify practitioners’ roles/responsibilities; and determine factors likely to influence clinical behaviours. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses in Ireland. Interview transcripts were analysed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), a comprehensive psychological framework of factors influencing clinical behaviour. Results: 14 GPs and 19 practice nurses participated. Key clinical behaviours identified were offering smears and encouraging women to attend for smears. Smeartaking responsibility was considered a predominantly female role. Of 12 possible theoretical domains, 11 were identified in relation to these behaviours. Those judged to be the most important were beliefs about capabilities; environmental context and resources; social influences; and behavioural regulation. Difficulties in obtaining smears from certain subgroups of women and inexperience of some GPs in smeartaking arose in relation to beliefs about capabilities. The need for public health education and reluctance of male practitioners to discuss cervical screening with female patients emerged in relation to social influences. Conclusions: We identified - for the first time - primary care practitioners’ cervical-screening related clinical behaviours, their perceived roles and responsibilities, and factors likely to influence behaviours. The results could inform initiatives to enable practitioners to encourage women to have smear tests which in turn, may help increase cervical screening uptake.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alanna McEneny-King; Pierre Chelle; Margaret H Goggans; Patricia J. Barker; Timothy W. Jacobs; Ellis J. Neufeld; Ulrike M. Reiss; John C. Panetta;
    Project: CIHR

    BACKGROUND: Extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII (FVIII) products may decrease the burden of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia A by reducing infusion frequency. However, these products still exhibit wide inter-patient variability and benefit from pharmacokinetic (PK) tailoring. OBJECTIVE: Identify limited sampling strategies for rFVIIIFc, an EHL FVIII product, that produce accurate estimates of PK parameters and relevant troughs. METHODS: We performed a limited sampling analysis on simulated populations of adults, adolescents, and children based on published population PK data. Sampling strategies were evaluated by comparing the error in estimates of half-life, clearance, and trough levels, to a full 6-sample design. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of incorporating knowledge about prior doses, and the day of the PK study within the regimen. We also evaluated the potential inappropriate dose adjustment rate (IDAR) among the modeled sampling strategies. RESULTS: Many sampling strategies, including several 2-sample designs, accurately predicted the PK and exposure measures (median absolute error 20% to ~5% for adults/adolescents. In this same scenario, appropriate scheduling of the PK study decreases likelihood of unmeasurable predose samples, reducing median error on the 72-hour trough from 25% to <12% in the youngest population. CONCLUSIONS: The PK of rFVIIIFc can be accurately estimated using only peak and trough samples, provided that knowledge of prior doses is incorporated and the PK study is planned on an appropriate day within the dosing regimen.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mahdi Nasrullah Al-Ameen; Apoorva Chauhan; M. A. Manazir Ahsan; Huzeyfe Kocabas;
    Publisher: Emerald

    Purpose With the rapid deployment of internet of things (IoT) technologies, it has been essential to address the security and privacy issues through maintaining transparency in data practices. The prior research focused on identifying people's privacy preferences in different contexts of IoT usage and their mental models of security threats. However, there is a dearth in existing literature to understand the mismatch between user's perceptions and the actual data practices of IoT devices. Such mismatches could lead users unknowingly sharing their private information, exposing themselves to unanticipated privacy risks. The paper aims to identify these mismatched privacy perceptions in this work. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a lab study with 42 participants, where they compared participants’ perceptions with the data practices stated in the privacy policy of 28 IoT devices from different categories, including health and exercise, entertainment, smart homes, toys and games and pets. Findings The authors identified the mismatched privacy perceptions of users in terms of data collection, sharing, protection and storage period. The findings revealed the mismatches between user's perceptions and the data practices of IoT devices for various types of information, including personal, contact, financial, heath, location, media, connected device, online social media and IoT device usage. Originality/value The findings from this study lead to the recommendations on designing simplified privacy notice by highlighting the unexpected data practices, which in turn, would contribute to the secure and privacy-preserving use of IoT devices.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rebekah Sherburn; William D. Tolbert; Suneetha Gottumukkala; Andrew P Hederman; Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières; Sherry Stanfield-Oakley; Marina Tuyishime; Guido Ferrari; Andrés Finzi; Margaret E. Ackerman; +1 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: CIHR

    The generation of a potent vaccine for the prevention and/or control of HIV-1 has been unsuccessful to date, despite decades of research. Existing evidence from both infected individuals and clinical trials support a role for non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing antibodies with potent Fc-effector functions in the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection. Vaccination strategies that induce such antibodies have proven partially successful in preventing HIV-1 infection. This is largely thought to be due to the polyclonal response that is induced in a vaccine setting, as opposed to the infusion of a single therapeutic antibody, which is capable of diverse Fc-effector functions and targets multiple but highly conserved epitopes. Here, we build on the success of our inner domain antigen, ID2, which incorporates conformational CD4-inducible (CD4i) epitopes of constant region 1 and 2 (C1C2 or Cluster A), in the absence of neutralizing antibody epitopes, into a minimal structural unit of gp120. ID2 has been shown to induce Cluster A-specific antibodies in a BALB/c mouse model with Fc-effector functions against CD4i targets. In order to generate an immunogen that incorporates both epitope targets implicated in the protective Fc-effector functions of antibodies from the only partially successful human vaccine trial, RV144, we incorporated the V1V2 domain into our ID2 antigen generating ID2-V1V2, which we used to immunize in combination with ID2. Immunized BALB/c mice generated both Cluster A- and V1V2-specific antibodies, which synergized to significantly improve the Fc-mediated effector functions compared to mice immunized with ID2 alone. The sera were able to mediate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). We therefore conclude that ID2-V1V2 + ID2 represents a promising vaccine immunogen candidate for the induction of antibodies with optimal Fc-mediated effector functions against HIV-1.

Advanced search in
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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
103,043 Research products, page 1 of 10,305
  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Amine Bellahsen; Hanane Dagdougui;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract System operations and planning are crucial aspects of power system management. They aim to maintain the equilibrium of electricity supply and demand while ensuring reliable and secure power system operation. Consumers have to pay more for electricity during periods of high peak demand in various sectors. If consumers have knowledge about expected peak load ahead of time, such extra charges could potentially be avoided. Accurate energy demand forecasting, and therefore expected peak load information, not only will help to provide a reliable supply of electricity, but also can be useful in reducing the cost of electricity at the consumer level. In this paper, we develop a comparative study for aggregated short-term load forecasting using different data strategies and compare two prediction levels: predicting the aggregated load using a district-level data set, and performing predictions on a lower level and then aggregating them at the district level. After finding the best forecasting model and strategy, these accurate predictions will help to predict the percentage of peak over a certain subscribed power in the entire district. The results showed that the mean absolute percentage error is between 1.67% and 4.80% depending on the machine learning algorithm and the prediction horizon used.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Sandeep Mohapatra;
    Publisher: Wiley
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cassiane Gomes dos Santos; Gabriel M. Dallago; Mariana Almeida Dumont; Leandro Vitor de Figueiredo; Marcela Ramos Duarte; Cleube Andrade Boari; Gustavo Henrique de Frias Castro; Roseli Aparecida dos Santos;
    Publisher: Research, Society and Development

    Milk is rich in nutrients, but several factors in the production system interfere with its quality. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and microbiological quality of raw milk stored in community tanks from the municipality of Aricanduva – Minas Gerais. Samples were collected from eight community tanks at different properties. The milk composition and temperature were analyzed using the digital milk analyzer. The total count of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was performed at the Laboratory of Science and Technology of Products of Animal Origin, Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina – Minas Gerais. The data obtained were compared to the values established by Normative Instruction (IN) n° 76, by means of Student's t-test and Wilcoxon's non-parametric test at the level of 5% of significance. The average levels of fat (3.55 g/100g), protein (3.00 g/100g), lactose (4.45 g/100g) and total solids (11.76 g/100g) were within the standards minimum required. The content of defatted solids (8.21 g/100g) was the limiting factor to the compliance with IN76, with an average value lower than that established (8.40 g/100g). The temperature of the milk was higher than the standard required by the legislation and the count of mesophilic microorganisms did not differ from the legislation. It is concluded that the composition of raw milk stored in community tanks in the municipality of Aricanduva – Minas Gerais, compared to IN 76, did not fully met the legislation in all evaluated parameters. La leche es rica en nutrientes, pero varios factores del sistema de producción interfieren con su calidad. El objetivo fue analizar la composición y calidad microbiológica de la leche cruda almacenada en tanques comunitarios en el municipio de Aricanduva MG. Se recolectaron muestras por duplicado de ocho tanques comunitarios en diferentes propiedades. Los análisis de composición y temperatura de la leche se realizaron utilizando un analizador de leche digital. El recuento total de microorganismos aeróbicos mesófilos se realizó en el Laboratorio de Ciencia y Tecnología de Productos de Origen Animal, Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Universidad Federal de Vales do Jequitinhonha y Mucuri, Diamantina MG. Los datos obtenidos se contrastaron con los valores establecidos por la Instrucción Normativa (IN) No. 76, utilizando las pruebas t de Student y Wilcoxon a un nivel de significancia del 5%. Los contenidos medios de grasa (3,55 g / 100 g), proteína (3,00 g / 100 g), lactosa (4,45 g / 100 g) y sólidos totales (11,76 g / 100 g) estuvieron dentro de los estándares mínimos requeridos. El contenido de sólidos desgrasados (8.21 g / 100g) fue el factor limitante para cumplir con la IN76, con un valor promedio menor al establecido (8.40 g / 100g). La temperatura de la leche fue más alta que el estándar requerido por la legislación y el recuento de microorganismos mesófilos no difirió de la legislación. Se concluye que la composición de la leche cruda almacenada en tanques comunitarios en el municipio de Aricanduva MG, en comparación con la EN 76, no cumplió con la legislación en todos los parámetros evaluados y su calidad microbiológica se vio comprometida, ya que las temperaturas estuvieron por encima del valor recomendado por legislación. O leite é rico em nutrientes, porém vários fatores do sistema de produção interferem em sua qualidade. Objetivou-se analisar a composição e qualidade microbiológica do leite cru armazenado em tanques comunitários no município de Aricanduva MG. Foram coletadas amostras em duplicatas de oito tanques comunitários em diferentes propriedades. As análises de composição e temperatura do leite foram realizadas através do analisador de leite digital. A contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos foi realizada no Laboratório de Ciência e Tecnologia de Produtos de Origem Animal do Departamento de Zootecnia, da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina MG. Os dados obtidos foram contrastados aos valores estabelecidos pela Instrução Normativa (IN) n° 76, por meio dos testes t de Student e Wilcoxon ao nível de 5% de significância. Os teores médios de gordura (3,55 g/100g), proteína (3,00 g/100g), lactose (4,45 g/100g) e sólidos totais (11,76 g/100g) encontraram-se dentro dos padrões mínimos exigidos. O teor de sólidos desengordurados (8,21 g/100g) foi o fator limitante ao atendimento à IN76, com valor médio menor que o estabelecido (8,40 g/100g). A temperatura do leite foi maior que o padrão exigido pela legislação e a contagem de microrganismos mesófilos não diferiu da legislação. Conclui-se que a composição do leite cru armazenado em tanques comunitários no município de Aricanduva MG, comparada à IN 76, não atendeu a legislação em todos os parâmetros avaliados e a sua qualidade microbiológica estava comprometida, uma vez que as temperaturas estavam acima do valor preconizado pela legislação.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jihwan Oh; Yehao Zhou;
    Publisher: SciPost
    Country: United Kingdom

    We derive the simplest commutation relations of operator algebras associated to M2 branes and an M5 brane in the $\Omega$-deformed M-theory, which is a natural set-up for Twisted holography. Feynman diagram 1-loop computations in the twisted-holographic dual side reproduce the same algebraic relations. Comment: 50 pages; v2: a submitted version to SciPost

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Li Liu; Colin A. Capaldi; Heather M. Orpana; Mark S. Kaplan; Lil Tonmyr;
    Publisher: Joule Inc.

    BACKGROUND: Ongoing surveillance of the means of suicide is necessary for effective prevention. We examined how mortality rates owing to different means of suicide changed in Canada from 1981 to 2018. METHODS: We obtained data from 1981 to 2018 on suicide deaths of individuals aged 10 years and older, from the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database. We used joinpoint regression analysis to examine changes over time in the suicide mortality rate for the 3 most common means of suicide. RESULTS: The age-standardized suicide mortality rate declined in earlier decades for both sexes, but did not significantly change in recent decades for either sex. The age-standardized rate of suicide by suffocation increased from 1993 for females (2.1% per year) and from 1996 for males (0.4% per year). The age-standardized rate of suicide by poisoning decreased for females (2.2% per year) and males (2.1% per year) from 1981 to 2018. The age-standardized rate of suicide by firearm decreased from 1981 to 2008 (7.4% per year) but did not significantly change there-after for females; for males, it decreased 2.1% per year from 1981 to 1993 and 5.7% per year from 1993 to 2007, but did not significantly change thereafter. INTERPRETATION: For both sexes, the rate of suicide by poisoning is decreasing, the rate of suicide by suffocation is increasing, and the rate of suicide by firearm has not significantly changed in the last decade. Given the high proportion of suicide deaths by suffocation, its increasing rate and the difficulty of restricting the means of suffocation, other approaches to suicide prevention are needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mairead O'Connor; Lisa A McSherry; Stephan U Dombrowski; Jill J Francis; Cara Martin; John J. O'Leary; Linda Sharp;
    Publisher: F1000 Research Limited
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background: Cervical screening uptake is declining in several countries. Primary care practitioners could play a greater role in maximising uptake, but better understanding is needed of practitioners’ cervical screening-related behaviours. Among general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses, we aimed to identify cervical screening-related clinical behaviours; clarify practitioners’ roles/responsibilities; and determine factors likely to influence clinical behaviours. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses in Ireland. Interview transcripts were analysed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), a comprehensive psychological framework of factors influencing clinical behaviour. Results: 14 GPs and 19 practice nurses participated. Key clinical behaviours identified were offering smears and encouraging women to attend for smears. Smeartaking responsibility was considered a predominantly female role. Of 12 possible theoretical domains, 11 were identified in relation to these behaviours. Those judged to be the most important were beliefs about capabilities; environmental context and resources; social influences; and behavioural regulation. Difficulties in obtaining smears from certain subgroups of women and inexperience of some GPs in smeartaking arose in relation to beliefs about capabilities. The need for public health education and reluctance of male practitioners to discuss cervical screening with female patients emerged in relation to social influences. Conclusions: We identified - for the first time - primary care practitioners’ cervical-screening related clinical behaviours, their perceived roles and responsibilities, and factors likely to influence behaviours. The results could inform initiatives to enable practitioners to encourage women to have smear tests which in turn, may help increase cervical screening uptake.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alanna McEneny-King; Pierre Chelle; Margaret H Goggans; Patricia J. Barker; Timothy W. Jacobs; Ellis J. Neufeld; Ulrike M. Reiss; John C. Panetta;
    Project: CIHR

    BACKGROUND: Extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII (FVIII) products may decrease the burden of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia A by reducing infusion frequency. However, these products still exhibit wide inter-patient variability and benefit from pharmacokinetic (PK) tailoring. OBJECTIVE: Identify limited sampling strategies for rFVIIIFc, an EHL FVIII product, that produce accurate estimates of PK parameters and relevant troughs. METHODS: We performed a limited sampling analysis on simulated populations of adults, adolescents, and children based on published population PK data. Sampling strategies were evaluated by comparing the error in estimates of half-life, clearance, and trough levels, to a full 6-sample design. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of incorporating knowledge about prior doses, and the day of the PK study within the regimen. We also evaluated the potential inappropriate dose adjustment rate (IDAR) among the modeled sampling strategies. RESULTS: Many sampling strategies, including several 2-sample designs, accurately predicted the PK and exposure measures (median absolute error 20% to ~5% for adults/adolescents. In this same scenario, appropriate scheduling of the PK study decreases likelihood of unmeasurable predose samples, reducing median error on the 72-hour trough from 25% to <12% in the youngest population. CONCLUSIONS: The PK of rFVIIIFc can be accurately estimated using only peak and trough samples, provided that knowledge of prior doses is incorporated and the PK study is planned on an appropriate day within the dosing regimen.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mahdi Nasrullah Al-Ameen; Apoorva Chauhan; M. A. Manazir Ahsan; Huzeyfe Kocabas;
    Publisher: Emerald

    Purpose With the rapid deployment of internet of things (IoT) technologies, it has been essential to address the security and privacy issues through maintaining transparency in data practices. The prior research focused on identifying people's privacy preferences in different contexts of IoT usage and their mental models of security threats. However, there is a dearth in existing literature to understand the mismatch between user's perceptions and the actual data practices of IoT devices. Such mismatches could lead users unknowingly sharing their private information, exposing themselves to unanticipated privacy risks. The paper aims to identify these mismatched privacy perceptions in this work. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a lab study with 42 participants, where they compared participants’ perceptions with the data practices stated in the privacy policy of 28 IoT devices from different categories, including health and exercise, entertainment, smart homes, toys and games and pets. Findings The authors identified the mismatched privacy perceptions of users in terms of data collection, sharing, protection and storage period. The findings revealed the mismatches between user's perceptions and the data practices of IoT devices for various types of information, including personal, contact, financial, heath, location, media, connected device, online social media and IoT device usage. Originality/value The findings from this study lead to the recommendations on designing simplified privacy notice by highlighting the unexpected data practices, which in turn, would contribute to the secure and privacy-preserving use of IoT devices.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rebekah Sherburn; William D. Tolbert; Suneetha Gottumukkala; Andrew P Hederman; Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières; Sherry Stanfield-Oakley; Marina Tuyishime; Guido Ferrari; Andrés Finzi; Margaret E. Ackerman; +1 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: CIHR

    The generation of a potent vaccine for the prevention and/or control of HIV-1 has been unsuccessful to date, despite decades of research. Existing evidence from both infected individuals and clinical trials support a role for non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing antibodies with potent Fc-effector functions in the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection. Vaccination strategies that induce such antibodies have proven partially successful in preventing HIV-1 infection. This is largely thought to be due to the polyclonal response that is induced in a vaccine setting, as opposed to the infusion of a single therapeutic antibody, which is capable of diverse Fc-effector functions and targets multiple but highly conserved epitopes. Here, we build on the success of our inner domain antigen, ID2, which incorporates conformational CD4-inducible (CD4i) epitopes of constant region 1 and 2 (C1C2 or Cluster A), in the absence of neutralizing antibody epitopes, into a minimal structural unit of gp120. ID2 has been shown to induce Cluster A-specific antibodies in a BALB/c mouse model with Fc-effector functions against CD4i targets. In order to generate an immunogen that incorporates both epitope targets implicated in the protective Fc-effector functions of antibodies from the only partially successful human vaccine trial, RV144, we incorporated the V1V2 domain into our ID2 antigen generating ID2-V1V2, which we used to immunize in combination with ID2. Immunized BALB/c mice generated both Cluster A- and V1V2-specific antibodies, which synergized to significantly improve the Fc-mediated effector functions compared to mice immunized with ID2 alone. The sera were able to mediate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). We therefore conclude that ID2-V1V2 + ID2 represents a promising vaccine immunogen candidate for the induction of antibodies with optimal Fc-mediated effector functions against HIV-1.