Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
20,249 Research products, page 1 of 2,025

  • Canada
  • 2021-2021
  • Other literature type
  • Project proposal

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jihwan Oh; Yehao Zhou;
    Publisher: SciPost
    Country: United Kingdom

    We derive the simplest commutation relations of operator algebras associated to M2 branes and an M5 brane in the $\Omega$-deformed M-theory, which is a natural set-up for Twisted holography. Feynman diagram 1-loop computations in the twisted-holographic dual side reproduce the same algebraic relations. Comment: 50 pages; v2: a submitted version to SciPost

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alanna McEneny-King; Pierre Chelle; Margaret H Goggans; Patricia J. Barker; Timothy W. Jacobs; Ellis J. Neufeld; Ulrike M. Reiss; John C. Panetta;
    Project: CIHR

    BACKGROUND: Extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII (FVIII) products may decrease the burden of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia A by reducing infusion frequency. However, these products still exhibit wide inter-patient variability and benefit from pharmacokinetic (PK) tailoring. OBJECTIVE: Identify limited sampling strategies for rFVIIIFc, an EHL FVIII product, that produce accurate estimates of PK parameters and relevant troughs. METHODS: We performed a limited sampling analysis on simulated populations of adults, adolescents, and children based on published population PK data. Sampling strategies were evaluated by comparing the error in estimates of half-life, clearance, and trough levels, to a full 6-sample design. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of incorporating knowledge about prior doses, and the day of the PK study within the regimen. We also evaluated the potential inappropriate dose adjustment rate (IDAR) among the modeled sampling strategies. RESULTS: Many sampling strategies, including several 2-sample designs, accurately predicted the PK and exposure measures (median absolute error 20% to ~5% for adults/adolescents. In this same scenario, appropriate scheduling of the PK study decreases likelihood of unmeasurable predose samples, reducing median error on the 72-hour trough from 25% to <12% in the youngest population. CONCLUSIONS: The PK of rFVIIIFc can be accurately estimated using only peak and trough samples, provided that knowledge of prior doses is incorporated and the PK study is planned on an appropriate day within the dosing regimen.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rebekah Sherburn; William D. Tolbert; Suneetha Gottumukkala; Andrew P Hederman; Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières; Sherry Stanfield-Oakley; Marina Tuyishime; Guido Ferrari; Andrés Finzi; Margaret E. Ackerman; +1 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: CIHR

    The generation of a potent vaccine for the prevention and/or control of HIV-1 has been unsuccessful to date, despite decades of research. Existing evidence from both infected individuals and clinical trials support a role for non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing antibodies with potent Fc-effector functions in the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection. Vaccination strategies that induce such antibodies have proven partially successful in preventing HIV-1 infection. This is largely thought to be due to the polyclonal response that is induced in a vaccine setting, as opposed to the infusion of a single therapeutic antibody, which is capable of diverse Fc-effector functions and targets multiple but highly conserved epitopes. Here, we build on the success of our inner domain antigen, ID2, which incorporates conformational CD4-inducible (CD4i) epitopes of constant region 1 and 2 (C1C2 or Cluster A), in the absence of neutralizing antibody epitopes, into a minimal structural unit of gp120. ID2 has been shown to induce Cluster A-specific antibodies in a BALB/c mouse model with Fc-effector functions against CD4i targets. In order to generate an immunogen that incorporates both epitope targets implicated in the protective Fc-effector functions of antibodies from the only partially successful human vaccine trial, RV144, we incorporated the V1V2 domain into our ID2 antigen generating ID2-V1V2, which we used to immunize in combination with ID2. Immunized BALB/c mice generated both Cluster A- and V1V2-specific antibodies, which synergized to significantly improve the Fc-mediated effector functions compared to mice immunized with ID2 alone. The sera were able to mediate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). We therefore conclude that ID2-V1V2 + ID2 represents a promising vaccine immunogen candidate for the induction of antibodies with optimal Fc-mediated effector functions against HIV-1.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Balaton, Bradley P.; Fornes, Oriol; Wyeth W. Wasserman; Brown, Carolyn J.;
    Publisher: figshare
    Project: CIHR

    Additional file 1: Figure S1. The Xi/Xa expression ratio vs promoter DNAme level in individual human samples. Figure S2. The Xi/Xa expression ratio vs promoter DNAme level in individual mouse samples. Figure S3. Male vs female DNAme across species. Figure S4. A comparison of imprinted genes and genes subject to XCI. Figure S5. Comparison of DNAme data generated using WGBS and the 450 k array. Figure S6. Cross-species comparison of a primate-specific escape domain. Figure S7. Number of repeats within 15kb per TSS for genes subject or escaping XCI across species. Figure S8. Tests on mouse CTCF of our model trained on human CTCF. Figure S9. Mean female/male ATAC-seq signal across samples within 250 bp of TSSs, separated by tissue. Figure S10. Clustering of species by XCI status calls.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shengnan Ke; Jun Gong; Songnian Li; Qing Zhu; Xintao Liu; Yeting Zhang;
    Publisher: Ryerson University Library and Archives

    In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Errol Colak; Felipe Kitamura; Stephen B Hobbs; Carol C Wu; Matthew P. Lungren; Luciano M. Prevedello; Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer; Robyn L Ball; George Shih; Anouk Stein; +20 more
    Publisher: Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)
    Country: Belgium

    This dataset is composed of CT pulmonary angiograms and annotations related to pulmonary embolism. It is available at https://www.rsna.org/education/ai-resources-and-training/ai-image-challenge/rsn...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Carolina Fernandez Branson; Michelle Williams; Teresa M. Chan; Mark L. Graber; Kathleen P Lane; Skip Grieser; Zach Landis-Lewis; James M. Cooke; Divvy K. Upadhyay; Shawn Mondoux; +4 more
    Publisher: BMJ
    Country: Netherlands

    BackgroundErrors in reasoning are a common cause of diagnostic error. However, it is difficult to improve performance partly because providers receive little feedback on diagnostic performance. Examining means of providing consistent feedback and enabling continuous improvement may provide novel insights for diagnostic performance.MethodsWe developed a model for improving diagnostic performance through feedback using a six-step qualitative research process, including a review of existing models from within and outside of medicine, a survey, semistructured interviews with individuals working in and outside of medicine, the development of the new model, an interdisciplinary consensus meeting, and a refinement of the model.ResultsWe applied theory and knowledge from other fields to help us conceptualise learning and comparison and translate that knowledge into an applied diagnostic context. This helped us develop a model, the Diagnosis Learning Cycle, which illustrates the need for clinicians to be given feedback about both their confidence and reasoning in a diagnosis and to be able to seamlessly compare diagnostic hypotheses and outcomes. This information would be stored in a repository to allow accessibility. Such a process would standardise diagnostic feedback and help providers learn from their practice and improve diagnostic performance. This model adds to existing models in diagnosis by including a detailed picture of diagnostic reasoning and the elements required to improve outcomes and calibration.ConclusionA consistent, standard programme of feedback that includes representations of clinicians’ confidence and reasoning is a common element in non-medical fields that could be applied to medicine. Adapting this approach to diagnosis in healthcare is a promising next step. This information must be stored reliably and accessed consistently. The next steps include testing the Diagnosis Learning Cycle in clinical settings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    René Maltais; Jenny Roy; Martin Perreault; Sachiko Sato; Julie-Christine Lévesque; Donald Poirier;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    Aminosteroid derivative RM-581 was previously identified as an endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress inducer with potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. We report its evaluation in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. RM-581 efficiently blocks PC-3 cell proliferation with stronger activity than that of a selection of known antineoplastic agents. This later also showed a synergistic effect with docetaxel, able to block the proliferation of docetaxel-resistant PC-3 cells and, contrary to docetaxel, did not induce cell resistance. RM-581 induced an increase in the expression level of ER stress-related markers of apoptosis, potentially triggered by the presence of RM-581 in the ER of PC-3 cells. These in vitro results were then successfully translated in vivo in a PC-3 xenograft tumor model in nude mice, showing superior blockade than that of docetaxel. RM-581 was also able to stop the progression of PC-3 cells when they had become resistant to docetaxel treatment. Concomitantly, we observed a decrease in gene markers of mevalonate and fatty acid pathways, and intratumoral levels of cholesterol by 19% and fatty acids by 22%. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential of an ER stress inducer as an anticancer agent for the treatment of prostate cancers that are refractory to commonly used chemotherapy treatments.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Elyse Bell;
    Publisher: The Canadian Historical Association / La Société historique du Canada
    Country: Canada

    Le concept de « chez-soi » peut se référer à toute une gamme de sujets, allant d’une maison ou d’un pays, à la famille et à la communauté, ou même à un sentiment d’appartenance ou d’exclusion. Cet article s’interroge sur la signification du chez-soi pour les employés de la Compagnie de la Baie d’Hudson et leurs familles en prenant comme cas d’étude James Hargrave, employé de la CBH, et sa femme Letitia, et en examinant les différentes façons dont ils concevaient leur chez-soi dans les lettres qu’ils écrivaient à leurs familles au Bas-Canada et en Grande-Bretagne, et entre eux, entre 1826 et 1854. Pour les Hargrave, le mot « chez-soi » avait plusieurs significations qui ont changé au fil du temps en fonction de leur emplacement et des circonstances. La nature instable de la vie dans le commerce des fourrures et l’avenir incertain qu’elle leur réservait, ont créé un sentiment d’anxiété. Les Hargrave se réconfortaient à l’idée d’un chez-soi fondé sur les liens avec leur patrie, leur famille et leur communauté en Écosse et au Bas-Canada, et finalement la famille qu’ils ont fondée. Leur chez-soi avait également des connotations très matérielles, et était intrinsèquement lié à leurs souvenirs, expériences, et conception des gens, des lieux et des choses ; de James Hargrave s’imaginant assis au coin du feu de son père, à Letitia Hargrave chérissant des pots de confiture envoyés d’Écosse par sa mère. En réfléchissant à la matérialité du passé, l’examen des lettres des Hargrave révèle certaines des stratégies qu’ils ont utilisées pour renforcer leurs liens avec leur famille et leurs amis, et comment ces relations ont créé et maintenu un sentiment de chez-soi et d’appartenance. The concept of “home” can refer to a range of things, from a house or a homeland, to family and community, or even a feeling of belonging or exclusion. This paper asks what home meant for employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company and their families by taking HBC employee James Hargrave and his wife Letitia as a case study, examining the different ways they conceived of home in the letters that they wrote to their families in Lower Canada and Britain, and to each other, between 1826 and 1854. Home had multiple meanings for the Hargraves, which changed over time depending on their location and circumstances. The unsettled nature of life in the fur trade, and the uncertain future it held for them, led to a sense of anxiety. The Hargraves found comfort in ideas of home that were grounded in connections to their homeland, their family and community in Scotland and Lower Canada, and eventually the family that they created for themselves. Home also had very material connotations, and was entangled with the memories, experiences, and imaginings of people, places and things, from James Hargrave picturing himself seated by his father’s fireside, to Letitia Hargrave cherishing jars of marmalade sent from Scotland by her mother. Thinking about the materiality of the past when examining the Hargraves’ letters reveals some of the strategies that they employed to reinforce their connections to family and friends, and how these relationships created and maintained a sense of home and belonging.

  • Publication . 2021
    Authors: 
    Licia Canton;
    Publisher: University of Toronto Libraries - UOTL
    Country: Canada
Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
20,249 Research products, page 1 of 2,025
  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jihwan Oh; Yehao Zhou;
    Publisher: SciPost
    Country: United Kingdom

    We derive the simplest commutation relations of operator algebras associated to M2 branes and an M5 brane in the $\Omega$-deformed M-theory, which is a natural set-up for Twisted holography. Feynman diagram 1-loop computations in the twisted-holographic dual side reproduce the same algebraic relations. Comment: 50 pages; v2: a submitted version to SciPost

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alanna McEneny-King; Pierre Chelle; Margaret H Goggans; Patricia J. Barker; Timothy W. Jacobs; Ellis J. Neufeld; Ulrike M. Reiss; John C. Panetta;
    Project: CIHR

    BACKGROUND: Extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII (FVIII) products may decrease the burden of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia A by reducing infusion frequency. However, these products still exhibit wide inter-patient variability and benefit from pharmacokinetic (PK) tailoring. OBJECTIVE: Identify limited sampling strategies for rFVIIIFc, an EHL FVIII product, that produce accurate estimates of PK parameters and relevant troughs. METHODS: We performed a limited sampling analysis on simulated populations of adults, adolescents, and children based on published population PK data. Sampling strategies were evaluated by comparing the error in estimates of half-life, clearance, and trough levels, to a full 6-sample design. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of incorporating knowledge about prior doses, and the day of the PK study within the regimen. We also evaluated the potential inappropriate dose adjustment rate (IDAR) among the modeled sampling strategies. RESULTS: Many sampling strategies, including several 2-sample designs, accurately predicted the PK and exposure measures (median absolute error 20% to ~5% for adults/adolescents. In this same scenario, appropriate scheduling of the PK study decreases likelihood of unmeasurable predose samples, reducing median error on the 72-hour trough from 25% to <12% in the youngest population. CONCLUSIONS: The PK of rFVIIIFc can be accurately estimated using only peak and trough samples, provided that knowledge of prior doses is incorporated and the PK study is planned on an appropriate day within the dosing regimen.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rebekah Sherburn; William D. Tolbert; Suneetha Gottumukkala; Andrew P Hederman; Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières; Sherry Stanfield-Oakley; Marina Tuyishime; Guido Ferrari; Andrés Finzi; Margaret E. Ackerman; +1 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: CIHR

    The generation of a potent vaccine for the prevention and/or control of HIV-1 has been unsuccessful to date, despite decades of research. Existing evidence from both infected individuals and clinical trials support a role for non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing antibodies with potent Fc-effector functions in the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection. Vaccination strategies that induce such antibodies have proven partially successful in preventing HIV-1 infection. This is largely thought to be due to the polyclonal response that is induced in a vaccine setting, as opposed to the infusion of a single therapeutic antibody, which is capable of diverse Fc-effector functions and targets multiple but highly conserved epitopes. Here, we build on the success of our inner domain antigen, ID2, which incorporates conformational CD4-inducible (CD4i) epitopes of constant region 1 and 2 (C1C2 or Cluster A), in the absence of neutralizing antibody epitopes, into a minimal structural unit of gp120. ID2 has been shown to induce Cluster A-specific antibodies in a BALB/c mouse model with Fc-effector functions against CD4i targets. In order to generate an immunogen that incorporates both epitope targets implicated in the protective Fc-effector functions of antibodies from the only partially successful human vaccine trial, RV144, we incorporated the V1V2 domain into our ID2 antigen generating ID2-V1V2, which we used to immunize in combination with ID2. Immunized BALB/c mice generated both Cluster A- and V1V2-specific antibodies, which synergized to significantly improve the Fc-mediated effector functions compared to mice immunized with ID2 alone. The sera were able to mediate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). We therefore conclude that ID2-V1V2 + ID2 represents a promising vaccine immunogen candidate for the induction of antibodies with optimal Fc-mediated effector functions against HIV-1.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Balaton, Bradley P.; Fornes, Oriol; Wyeth W. Wasserman; Brown, Carolyn J.;
    Publisher: figshare
    Project: CIHR

    Additional file 1: Figure S1. The Xi/Xa expression ratio vs promoter DNAme level in individual human samples. Figure S2. The Xi/Xa expression ratio vs promoter DNAme level in individual mouse samples. Figure S3. Male vs female DNAme across species. Figure S4. A comparison of imprinted genes and genes subject to XCI. Figure S5. Comparison of DNAme data generated using WGBS and the 450 k array. Figure S6. Cross-species comparison of a primate-specific escape domain. Figure S7. Number of repeats within 15kb per TSS for genes subject or escaping XCI across species. Figure S8. Tests on mouse CTCF of our model trained on human CTCF. Figure S9. Mean female/male ATAC-seq signal across samples within 250 bp of TSSs, separated by tissue. Figure S10. Clustering of species by XCI status calls.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shengnan Ke; Jun Gong; Songnian Li; Qing Zhu; Xintao Liu; Yeting Zhang;
    Publisher: Ryerson University Library and Archives

    In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Errol Colak; Felipe Kitamura; Stephen B Hobbs; Carol C Wu; Matthew P. Lungren; Luciano M. Prevedello; Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer; Robyn L Ball; George Shih; Anouk Stein; +20 more
    Publisher: Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)
    Country: Belgium

    This dataset is composed of CT pulmonary angiograms and annotations related to pulmonary embolism. It is available at https://www.rsna.org/education/ai-resources-and-training/ai-image-challenge/rsn...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Carolina Fernandez Branson; Michelle Williams; Teresa M. Chan; Mark L. Graber; Kathleen P Lane; Skip Grieser; Zach Landis-Lewis; James M. Cooke; Divvy K. Upadhyay; Shawn Mondoux; +4 more
    Publisher: BMJ
    Country: Netherlands

    BackgroundErrors in reasoning are a common cause of diagnostic error. However, it is difficult to improve performance partly because providers receive little feedback on diagnostic performance. Examining means of providing consistent feedback and enabling continuous improvement may provide novel insights for diagnostic performance.MethodsWe developed a model for improving diagnostic performance through feedback using a six-step qualitative research process, including a review of existing models from within and outside of medicine, a survey, semistructured interviews with individuals working in and outside of medicine, the development of the new model, an interdisciplinary consensus meeting, and a refinement of the model.ResultsWe applied theory and knowledge from other fields to help us conceptualise learning and comparison and translate that knowledge into an applied diagnostic context. This helped us develop a model, the Diagnosis Learning Cycle, which illustrates the need for clinicians to be given feedback about both their confidence and reasoning in a diagnosis and to be able to seamlessly compare diagnostic hypotheses and outcomes. This information would be stored in a repository to allow accessibility. Such a process would standardise diagnostic feedback and help providers learn from their practice and improve diagnostic performance. This model adds to existing models in diagnosis by including a detailed picture of diagnostic reasoning and the elements required to improve outcomes and calibration.ConclusionA consistent, standard programme of feedback that includes representations of clinicians’ confidence and reasoning is a common element in non-medical fields that could be applied to medicine. Adapting this approach to diagnosis in healthcare is a promising next step. This information must be stored reliably and accessed consistently. The next steps include testing the Diagnosis Learning Cycle in clinical settings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    René Maltais; Jenny Roy; Martin Perreault; Sachiko Sato; Julie-Christine Lévesque; Donald Poirier;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    Aminosteroid derivative RM-581 was previously identified as an endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress inducer with potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. We report its evaluation in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. RM-581 efficiently blocks PC-3 cell proliferation with stronger activity than that of a selection of known antineoplastic agents. This later also showed a synergistic effect with docetaxel, able to block the proliferation of docetaxel-resistant PC-3 cells and, contrary to docetaxel, did not induce cell resistance. RM-581 induced an increase in the expression level of ER stress-related markers of apoptosis, potentially triggered by the presence of RM-581 in the ER of PC-3 cells. These in vitro results were then successfully translated in vivo in a PC-3 xenograft tumor model in nude mice, showing superior blockade than that of docetaxel. RM-581 was also able to stop the progression of PC-3 cells when they had become resistant to docetaxel treatment. Concomitantly, we observed a decrease in gene markers of mevalonate and fatty acid pathways, and intratumoral levels of cholesterol by 19% and fatty acids by 22%. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential of an ER stress inducer as an anticancer agent for the treatment of prostate cancers that are refractory to commonly used chemotherapy treatments.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Elyse Bell;
    Publisher: The Canadian Historical Association / La Société historique du Canada
    Country: Canada

    Le concept de « chez-soi » peut se référer à toute une gamme de sujets, allant d’une maison ou d’un pays, à la famille et à la communauté, ou même à un sentiment d’appartenance ou d’exclusion. Cet article s’interroge sur la signification du chez-soi pour les employés de la Compagnie de la Baie d’Hudson et leurs familles en prenant comme cas d’étude James Hargrave, employé de la CBH, et sa femme Letitia, et en examinant les différentes façons dont ils concevaient leur chez-soi dans les lettres qu’ils écrivaient à leurs familles au Bas-Canada et en Grande-Bretagne, et entre eux, entre 1826 et 1854. Pour les Hargrave, le mot « chez-soi » avait plusieurs significations qui ont changé au fil du temps en fonction de leur emplacement et des circonstances. La nature instable de la vie dans le commerce des fourrures et l’avenir incertain qu’elle leur réservait, ont créé un sentiment d’anxiété. Les Hargrave se réconfortaient à l’idée d’un chez-soi fondé sur les liens avec leur patrie, leur famille et leur communauté en Écosse et au Bas-Canada, et finalement la famille qu’ils ont fondée. Leur chez-soi avait également des connotations très matérielles, et était intrinsèquement lié à leurs souvenirs, expériences, et conception des gens, des lieux et des choses ; de James Hargrave s’imaginant assis au coin du feu de son père, à Letitia Hargrave chérissant des pots de confiture envoyés d’Écosse par sa mère. En réfléchissant à la matérialité du passé, l’examen des lettres des Hargrave révèle certaines des stratégies qu’ils ont utilisées pour renforcer leurs liens avec leur famille et leurs amis, et comment ces relations ont créé et maintenu un sentiment de chez-soi et d’appartenance. The concept of “home” can refer to a range of things, from a house or a homeland, to family and community, or even a feeling of belonging or exclusion. This paper asks what home meant for employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company and their families by taking HBC employee James Hargrave and his wife Letitia as a case study, examining the different ways they conceived of home in the letters that they wrote to their families in Lower Canada and Britain, and to each other, between 1826 and 1854. Home had multiple meanings for the Hargraves, which changed over time depending on their location and circumstances. The unsettled nature of life in the fur trade, and the uncertain future it held for them, led to a sense of anxiety. The Hargraves found comfort in ideas of home that were grounded in connections to their homeland, their family and community in Scotland and Lower Canada, and eventually the family that they created for themselves. Home also had very material connotations, and was entangled with the memories, experiences, and imaginings of people, places and things, from James Hargrave picturing himself seated by his father’s fireside, to Letitia Hargrave cherishing jars of marmalade sent from Scotland by her mother. Thinking about the materiality of the past when examining the Hargraves’ letters reveals some of the strategies that they employed to reinforce their connections to family and friends, and how these relationships created and maintained a sense of home and belonging.

  • Publication . 2021
    Authors: 
    Licia Canton;
    Publisher: University of Toronto Libraries - UOTL
    Country: Canada