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  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tim Bayne; Anil K. Seth; Marcello Massimini;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | LUMINOUS (686764), EC | HBP SGA2 (785907), EC | HBP SGA3 (945539)

    Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory input nor able to be expressed by motor output. This Opinion paper considers conditions in which such islands might occur, including ex cranio brains, hemispherotomy, and in cerebral organoids. We examine possible methods for detecting islands of awareness, and consider their implications for ethics and for the nature of consciousness.

  • Publication . Article . 1905
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ernest Rutherford;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    IN a recent number of the Philosophical Magazine (November, 1904), I have shown that radium, after passing through four rapid changes, finally gives rise to two slow transformation products, which, on the scheme of changes there outlined, were called radium D and radium E.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    M.M. Freda; Jianfeng Weng; Tho Le-Ngoc;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    In this paper, we present a joint channel estimation and synchronization technique for burst-mode OFDM systems. The technique uses the nonlinear recursive least squares algorithm (NL-RLS) to jointly estimate the channel impulse response (CIR), the carrier frequency offset (CFO), the sampling clock offset (SCO), and the timing offset, and to correct for each of these in the digital domain and without the use of a delay-locked loop (DLL). The need for pilot symbols in the payload data is eliminated by a decision-directed operation mode. The time-domain NL-RLS algorithm needs a small number of parameters to be estimated and can suppress the effect of decision feedback errors. Simulation results confirm its improved performance and relatively low variance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gary A. P. Gibson;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of P. rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christopher G. Majka; Jan Klimaszewski;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Since 1970, 203 species of Aleocharinae have been recorded in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, 174 of which have been reported in the past decade. This rapid growth of knowledge of this hitherto neglected subfamily of rove beetles occasions the present compilation of species recorded in the region together with the chronology of their discovery. Sixteen new provincial records are reported, twelve from Nova Scotia, one from New Brunswick, and three from Prince Edward Island. Seven species, including Oxypoda chantali Klimaszewski, Oxypoda perexilis Casey, Myllaena cuneata Notman, Placusa canadensis Klimaszewski, Geostiba (Sibiota) appalachigena Gusarov, Lypoglossa angularis obtusa (LeConte), and Trichiusa postica Casey [tentative identification] are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces, one of which, Myllaena cuneata, is newly recorded in Canada. A preliminary analysis of the composition of the fauna indicates that the percentage of adventive species (18.2%) is consistent with that of other groups of Coleoptera. Both Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island are comparatively faunistically under-represented, in all probability as a result of insufficient collecting effort in these areas. A species accumulation curve indicates that it is probable that further species of aleocharines remain to be documented in the region.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ben Vandermeer; Ingeborg van der Tweel; Marijke C. Jansen-van der Weide; Stephanie S. Weinreich; Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis; Dirk Bassler; Ricardo M. Fernandes; Lisa M. Askie; Haroon Saloojee; Paola Baiardi; +2 more
    Countries: Switzerland, Netherlands, Netherlands, Netherlands
    Project: EC | GRIP (261060)

    Background: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former.Methods: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic-Reviews, with at least one pediatric-RCT and at least one adult-RCT. Within each meta-analysis of binary efficacy-outcomes, we calculated the pooled-control-group event-rate (CER) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials, using random-effect models and subsequently calculated the control-group event-rate risk-ratio (CER-RR) of the pooled-pediatric-CERs vs. adult-CERs. Within each meta-analysis with continuous outcomes we calculated the pooled-control-group effect standard deviation (CE-SD) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials and subsequently calculated the CE-SD-ratio of the pooled-pediatric-CE-SDs vs. adult-CE-SDs. We then calculated across all meta-analyses the pooled-CER-RRs and pooled-CE-SD-ratios (primary endpoints) and the pooled-magnitude of effect-sizes of CER-RRs and CE-SD-ratios using REMs. A ratio < 1 indicates that pediatric trials have smaller nuisance parameters than adult trials.Results: We analyzed 208 meta-analyses (135 for binary-outcomes, 73 for continuous-outcomes). For binary outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 10% smaller CERs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98). For mortality outcomes the summary-CE-RR was 0.48 (95% CIs: 0.31, 0.74). For continuous outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 26% smaller CE-SDs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-SD-ratio: 0.74).Conclusions: Clinically relevant differences in nuisance parameters between pediatric and adult trials were detected. These differences have implications for design of future studies. Extrapolation of nuisance parameters for sample-sizes calculations from adult-trials to pediatric-trials should be cautiously done.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Stephen A. Marshall;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The Micropezidae of Madagascar are reviewed, and the endemic genus Paramimegralla Hennig is revised. Twenty species are recognized including two Hybobata species and 18 Paramimegralla species, of which 12 are described as new (P. luteoscapus , brunnea , zinzala, zarpa, verticalis, taeniola, sulcata, campanula, anchivitta, quadrifasciata and longicephala ). Stiltissima Barraclough is synonymized with Paramimegralla Hennig and previous records of Rainieria Rondani from the island are shown to be incorrect. Paramimegralla steineri (Barraclough) and Paramimegralla volcanica (Barraclough) are given as new combinations, Paramimegralla stuckenbergi Barraclough is synonymized with P. nigra Barraclough, and Hybobata Enderlein is resurrected from synonymy with Mimegralla Rondani. All known Malagasy micropezid species are keyed and illustrated and all Paramimegralla species are described or redescribed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Karlberg; R. Collins; Susanne van den Berg; A. Flores; Martin Hammarström; Martin Högbom; Lovisa Holmberg Schiavone; J. Uppenberg;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Argininosuccinate synthetase catalyzes the transformation of citrulline and aspartate into argininosuccinate and pyrophos­phate using the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophos­phate. This enzymatic process constitutes the rate-limiting step in both the urea and arginine–citrulline cycles. Previous studies have investigated the crystal structures of argininosuccinate synthetase from bacterial species. In this work, the first crystal structure of human argininosuccinate synthetase in complex with the substrates citrulline and aspartate is presented. The human enzyme is compared with structures of argininosuccinate synthetase from bacteria. In addition, the structure also provides new insights into the function of the numerous clinical mutations identified in patients with type I citrullinaemia (also known as classic citrullinaemia).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Douglas A. Craig; Douglas C. Currie; Philippe Vernon;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The taxonomy of the genus Crozetia Davies (Diptera: Simuliidae) is reviewed. Apart from the eggs, all stages of Crozetia crozetensis (Womersley) and Cr. seguyi Beaucournu-Saguez and Vernon, are fully redescribed with only claws and genitalia detailed for the female of Cr. crozetensis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Simuliidae indicates that Crozetia is the sister group of all other members of the extant Simuliini, in agreement with current molecular evidence. Palaeogeological evidence on the age of the Crozet Islands is equivocal, but a very late Cretaceous to early Eocene age (79-54 Mya) is most likely, hence the presence of simuliids on this archipelago is not the result of vicariance from Gondwanaland. Method of dispersal to the Crozet Archipelago may have been via wind or possibly vectored by birds from Africa, as suggested by presence of a basal tooth on the adult female claw. Morphometric analysis of larvae of Cr. seguyi indicates seven instars which is typical for the Simuliidae.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jianguo Du; Kar-Hoe Loh; Amy Yee-Hui Then; Xinqing Zheng; Teguh Peristiwady; Mohammed Rizman-Idid; Man Alias;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    Five specimens of Epinephelusepistictus (Temminck &amp; Schlegel, 1843) were collected from a major landing site located on the west coast of Peninsula Malaysia during a fish faunal survey on 23 August 2017. The present study extends the distribution range of E.epistictus southwards from Andaman Sea to the Strait of Malacca. Species identification was confirmed by colour pattern and DNA barcoding (567 bp of cytochrome C oxidase I) of all E.epistictus specimens and nine closely related Epinephelus species. The interspecies genetic distance ranged from 0.002–0.245. This study also presents, for the first time for Malaysia, data on length-weight relationships and otolith measurements. It contributes to a better understanding of taxonomy, and phylogenetic and genetic diversity of E.epistictus.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
8,079 Research products, page 1 of 808
  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tim Bayne; Anil K. Seth; Marcello Massimini;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | LUMINOUS (686764), EC | HBP SGA2 (785907), EC | HBP SGA3 (945539)

    Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory input nor able to be expressed by motor output. This Opinion paper considers conditions in which such islands might occur, including ex cranio brains, hemispherotomy, and in cerebral organoids. We examine possible methods for detecting islands of awareness, and consider their implications for ethics and for the nature of consciousness.

  • Publication . Article . 1905
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ernest Rutherford;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    IN a recent number of the Philosophical Magazine (November, 1904), I have shown that radium, after passing through four rapid changes, finally gives rise to two slow transformation products, which, on the scheme of changes there outlined, were called radium D and radium E.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    M.M. Freda; Jianfeng Weng; Tho Le-Ngoc;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    In this paper, we present a joint channel estimation and synchronization technique for burst-mode OFDM systems. The technique uses the nonlinear recursive least squares algorithm (NL-RLS) to jointly estimate the channel impulse response (CIR), the carrier frequency offset (CFO), the sampling clock offset (SCO), and the timing offset, and to correct for each of these in the digital domain and without the use of a delay-locked loop (DLL). The need for pilot symbols in the payload data is eliminated by a decision-directed operation mode. The time-domain NL-RLS algorithm needs a small number of parameters to be estimated and can suppress the effect of decision feedback errors. Simulation results confirm its improved performance and relatively low variance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gary A. P. Gibson;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of P. rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christopher G. Majka; Jan Klimaszewski;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Since 1970, 203 species of Aleocharinae have been recorded in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, 174 of which have been reported in the past decade. This rapid growth of knowledge of this hitherto neglected subfamily of rove beetles occasions the present compilation of species recorded in the region together with the chronology of their discovery. Sixteen new provincial records are reported, twelve from Nova Scotia, one from New Brunswick, and three from Prince Edward Island. Seven species, including Oxypoda chantali Klimaszewski, Oxypoda perexilis Casey, Myllaena cuneata Notman, Placusa canadensis Klimaszewski, Geostiba (Sibiota) appalachigena Gusarov, Lypoglossa angularis obtusa (LeConte), and Trichiusa postica Casey [tentative identification] are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces, one of which, Myllaena cuneata, is newly recorded in Canada. A preliminary analysis of the composition of the fauna indicates that the percentage of adventive species (18.2%) is consistent with that of other groups of Coleoptera. Both Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island are comparatively faunistically under-represented, in all probability as a result of insufficient collecting effort in these areas. A species accumulation curve indicates that it is probable that further species of aleocharines remain to be documented in the region.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ben Vandermeer; Ingeborg van der Tweel; Marijke C. Jansen-van der Weide; Stephanie S. Weinreich; Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis; Dirk Bassler; Ricardo M. Fernandes; Lisa M. Askie; Haroon Saloojee; Paola Baiardi; +2 more
    Countries: Switzerland, Netherlands, Netherlands, Netherlands
    Project: EC | GRIP (261060)

    Background: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former.Methods: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic-Reviews, with at least one pediatric-RCT and at least one adult-RCT. Within each meta-analysis of binary efficacy-outcomes, we calculated the pooled-control-group event-rate (CER) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials, using random-effect models and subsequently calculated the control-group event-rate risk-ratio (CER-RR) of the pooled-pediatric-CERs vs. adult-CERs. Within each meta-analysis with continuous outcomes we calculated the pooled-control-group effect standard deviation (CE-SD) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials and subsequently calculated the CE-SD-ratio of the pooled-pediatric-CE-SDs vs. adult-CE-SDs. We then calculated across all meta-analyses the pooled-CER-RRs and pooled-CE-SD-ratios (primary endpoints) and the pooled-magnitude of effect-sizes of CER-RRs and CE-SD-ratios using REMs. A ratio < 1 indicates that pediatric trials have smaller nuisance parameters than adult trials.Results: We analyzed 208 meta-analyses (135 for binary-outcomes, 73 for continuous-outcomes). For binary outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 10% smaller CERs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98). For mortality outcomes the summary-CE-RR was 0.48 (95% CIs: 0.31, 0.74). For continuous outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 26% smaller CE-SDs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-SD-ratio: 0.74).Conclusions: Clinically relevant differences in nuisance parameters between pediatric and adult trials were detected. These differences have implications for design of future studies. Extrapolation of nuisance parameters for sample-sizes calculations from adult-trials to pediatric-trials should be cautiously done.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Stephen A. Marshall;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The Micropezidae of Madagascar are reviewed, and the endemic genus Paramimegralla Hennig is revised. Twenty species are recognized including two Hybobata species and 18 Paramimegralla species, of which 12 are described as new (P. luteoscapus , brunnea , zinzala, zarpa, verticalis, taeniola, sulcata, campanula, anchivitta, quadrifasciata and longicephala ). Stiltissima Barraclough is synonymized with Paramimegralla Hennig and previous records of Rainieria Rondani from the island are shown to be incorrect. Paramimegralla steineri (Barraclough) and Paramimegralla volcanica (Barraclough) are given as new combinations, Paramimegralla stuckenbergi Barraclough is synonymized with P. nigra Barraclough, and Hybobata Enderlein is resurrected from synonymy with Mimegralla Rondani. All known Malagasy micropezid species are keyed and illustrated and all Paramimegralla species are described or redescribed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tobias Karlberg; R. Collins; Susanne van den Berg; A. Flores; Martin Hammarström; Martin Högbom; Lovisa Holmberg Schiavone; J. Uppenberg;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Argininosuccinate synthetase catalyzes the transformation of citrulline and aspartate into argininosuccinate and pyrophos­phate using the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophos­phate. This enzymatic process constitutes the rate-limiting step in both the urea and arginine–citrulline cycles. Previous studies have investigated the crystal structures of argininosuccinate synthetase from bacterial species. In this work, the first crystal structure of human argininosuccinate synthetase in complex with the substrates citrulline and aspartate is presented. The human enzyme is compared with structures of argininosuccinate synthetase from bacteria. In addition, the structure also provides new insights into the function of the numerous clinical mutations identified in patients with type I citrullinaemia (also known as classic citrullinaemia).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Douglas A. Craig; Douglas C. Currie; Philippe Vernon;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The taxonomy of the genus Crozetia Davies (Diptera: Simuliidae) is reviewed. Apart from the eggs, all stages of Crozetia crozetensis (Womersley) and Cr. seguyi Beaucournu-Saguez and Vernon, are fully redescribed with only claws and genitalia detailed for the female of Cr. crozetensis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Simuliidae indicates that Crozetia is the sister group of all other members of the extant Simuliini, in agreement with current molecular evidence. Palaeogeological evidence on the age of the Crozet Islands is equivocal, but a very late Cretaceous to early Eocene age (79-54 Mya) is most likely, hence the presence of simuliids on this archipelago is not the result of vicariance from Gondwanaland. Method of dispersal to the Crozet Archipelago may have been via wind or possibly vectored by birds from Africa, as suggested by presence of a basal tooth on the adult female claw. Morphometric analysis of larvae of Cr. seguyi indicates seven instars which is typical for the Simuliidae.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jianguo Du; Kar-Hoe Loh; Amy Yee-Hui Then; Xinqing Zheng; Teguh Peristiwady; Mohammed Rizman-Idid; Man Alias;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    Five specimens of Epinephelusepistictus (Temminck &amp; Schlegel, 1843) were collected from a major landing site located on the west coast of Peninsula Malaysia during a fish faunal survey on 23 August 2017. The present study extends the distribution range of E.epistictus southwards from Andaman Sea to the Strait of Malacca. Species identification was confirmed by colour pattern and DNA barcoding (567 bp of cytochrome C oxidase I) of all E.epistictus specimens and nine closely related Epinephelus species. The interspecies genetic distance ranged from 0.002–0.245. This study also presents, for the first time for Malaysia, data on length-weight relationships and otolith measurements. It contributes to a better understanding of taxonomy, and phylogenetic and genetic diversity of E.epistictus.