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6,168 Research products, page 1 of 617

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aessa Tumi; Hassan A. Khan; Sidra Awan; Kosta Ikonomou; Katija Ali; Kristina Frain; Irfan Ahmed;
    Publisher: Royal College of General Practitioners

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on patient lifestyles with new measures designed to reduce transmission of the virus drastically transforming life as we know it. Public health interventions — alongside advances in medical treatments, vaccine technology, and gene sequencing — have drastically reduced the impact of the pandemic across the world. Yet there has been relatively little focus on the potential role of physical activity (PA) in reducing disease burden during the pandemic. We discuss the latest evidence related to the role of exercise or physical pre-rehabilitation before infection and consider whether this may be an overlooked public health strategy. ### Living with COVID-19: ’Exercise is medicine.’ As we progress through the second year of the pandemic, there has been a renewed focus on adjustments that individuals and society will have to make as we continually adapt to life with COVID-19. Key public health messages regarding the importance of ’ hands, face, space and fresh air ‘ appear prominently on all government briefings but exercise, once famously quoted as being the ‘ miracle cure ’ by the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, is conspicuously absent.1 Despite the evidence supporting the physical and mental health benefits of exercise at a population level, there remains a …

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rachel P. Rosovsky; Kristen M. Sanfilippo; Tzu-Fei Wang; Sandeep K. Rajan; Surbhi Shah; Karlyn Martin; Fionnuala Ní Áinle; Menno V. Huisman; Beverley J. Hunt; Susan R. Kahn; +4 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Best practice for prevention, diagnosis, and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is unknown due to limited published data in this population. Objectives We aimed to assess current global practice and experience in management of COVID‐19–associated coagulopathy to identify information to guide prospective and randomized studies. Methods Physicians were queried about their current approach to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID‐19 using an online survey tool distributed through multiple international organizations between April 10 and 14, 2020. Results Five hundred fifteen physicians from 41 countries responded. The majority of respondents (78%) recommended prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with COVID‐19, with most recommending use of low‐molecular‐weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. Significant practice variation was found regarding the need for dose escalation of anticoagulation outside the setting of confirmed or suspected VTE. Respondents reported the use of bedside testing when unable to perform standard diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of VTE. Two hundred ninety‐one respondents reported observing thrombotic complications in their patients, with 64% noting that the complication was pulmonary embolism. Of the 44% of respondents who estimated incidence of thrombosis in patients with COVID‐19 in their hospital, estimates ranged widely from 1% to 50%. One hundred seventy‐four respondents noted bleeding complications (34% minor bleeding, 14% clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and 12% major bleeding). Conclusion Well‐designed epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to understand the incidence and risk factors of VTE and bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19. Randomized clinical trials addressing use of anticoagulation are also needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabelle Bernard; Daniel Limonta; Lara K. Mahal; Tom C. Hobman;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Project: CIHR

    The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a persistent threat to global public health. Although primarily a respiratory illness, extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and neurological diseases. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of the endothelium during COVID-19 may exacerbate these deleterious events by inciting inflammatory and microvascular thrombotic processes. Although controversial, there is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may infect endothelial cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cellular receptor using the viral Spike protein. In this review, we explore current insights into the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, endothelial dysfunction due to ACE2 downregulation, and deleterious pulmonary and extra-pulmonary immunothrombotic complications in severe COVID-19. We also discuss preclinical and clinical development of therapeutic agents targeting SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication in primary human lung and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Accordingly, in striving to understand the parameters that lead to severe disease in COVID-19 patients, it is important to consider how direct infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to this process.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evelien Dekker; Han-Mo Chiu; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar; Luis E. Caro; Jason A. Dominitz; Stephen P Halloran; Cesare Hassan; Julia Ismael; Rodrigo Jover; Michal F. Kaminski; +13 more
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Justin Ashley; Graham Abra; Brigitte Schiller; Paul Bennett; Ali Poyan Mehr; Joanne M. Bargman; Christopher T. Chan;
    Publisher: Australia : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
    Country: Australia

    Home dialysis therapies are flexible kidney replacement strategies with documented clinical benefits. While the incidence of end-stage kidney disease continues to increase globally, the use of home dialysis remains low in most developed countries. Multiple barriers to providing home dialysis have been noted in the published literature. Among known challenges, gaps in clinician knowledge are potentially addressable with a focused education strategy. Recent national surveys in the United States and Australia have highlighted the need for enhanced home dialysis knowledge especially among nephrologists who have recently completed training. Traditional in-person continuing professional educational programmes have had modest success in promoting home dialysis and are limited by scale and the present global COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize that the use of a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of virtual home dialysis mentorship for nephrologists based on project ECHO would support home dialysis growth. We review the home dialysis literature, known educational gaps and plausible educational interventions to address current limitations in physician education Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Malvinder S. Parmar;
    Publisher: Wiley

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication, affecting up to 37% of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and is proportional to its severity and portends poor prognosis. Diverse mechanisms have been proposed and studies reported conflicting results. Moreover, renal tropism of SARS-CoV-2 does not equate to its renal pathogenicity. For a virus to be pathogenic, in addition to its affinity (tropism) for specific tissue(s), host cells must allow viral entry, and discuss the important role played by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and co-expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the same cells is important to cause damage. Lack of co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the same cells of the kidneys is the limiting factor of SARS-CoV-2 direct effects in the kidney. We present the rationale and cumulative evidence supporting that acute kidney injury is secondary to hemodynamic and immunologic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection than the direct injury or infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sanjay Beesoon; Nemeshwaree Behary; Anne Perwuelz;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 is spreading very quickly around the world. In less than 7 months since it became known to the international community, the virus has infected 18 million in more than 180 countries and killing more than 700,000 people. Person-to-person transmission through infected respiratory droplets from patients with symptoms and asymptomatic carriers is the main mode of spread in the community. There is currently no standard agreed upon drug to treat the disease and the prospect of having a safe and efficacious vaccine might be years away. Thus, public health interventions such as social distancing and hand washing have been introduced and has, to some extent, slowed the progression of the pandemic. Universal masking as a public health intervention is currently mandatory in a vast majority of countries around the world. To avoid personal protective equipment (PPE) shortage crisis for medical staff and other frontline workers, health authorities are recommending the use cloth masks. Although in theory, cloth masks can be helpful to limit the spread of the COVID-19, serious consideration should be given to the choice of textile, the number of layers of cloth used, pre-treatment of the material with water repellent material and other compounds that can enhance the filtration efficiency of the masks without compromising their breathability. This review uses concepts of textile engineering and the theoretical principles of filtration to make suggestions and recommendations to improve the quality and safety of cloth masks for the general public. Highlights • The COVID-19 pandemic is causing unprecedented mortality and morbidity worldwide. • Universal masking in public places is mandatory or recommended in many countries. • The textile material and number of layers used for cloth masks affect the performance. • Health authorities must advise the public on the choice of material for cloth masks.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    ElGhamrawy, Islam;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Plastics are versatile, durable, and can be manipulated to match different needs. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the importance of reducing plastic waste and is believed to be responsible for increasing the generation of plastic waste by 54,000 tons/day which was reported in 2020. Another widely available waste is biomass waste. Agriculture and agroforestry, forest and wood processing, municipal waste, and the food industry are all considered major producers of biowaste. Co-gasification is considered one of the most promising methods of chemical recycling that targets the production of syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and light hydrocarbon gases. In this study, the gasification of pure birch sawdust wood (BSD) and pure rice husk (RH) was compared with mixtures where each BSD and RH was mixed with both LDPE and HDPE in the presence of three different bed materials, namely silica sand, olivine, and red mud. It was found that mixing the biomass with LDPE and HDPE increased hydrogen gas (H2) production. The Hydrogen gas concentration in the product gas increased slightly from 10% to 12% by volume when birch sawdust (BSD) was mixed with LDPE with a ratio of 1:1, while the hydrogen gas concentration increased to 15-16% by volume when birch sawdust was mixed with HDPE with a ratio of 1:1 and olivine has been used as bed material. The lower heating value of the produced gas, which has a direct relationship with the hydrogen and light hydrocarbons concentration, increased from 2.8 to 5.7 MJ/Nm3. Red mud increased the lower heating value of the produced gas when rice husk was premixed with HDPE from 3-4 MJ/Nm3 to 5.5-6 MJ/J/Nm3, however, the main drawback of using red mud as a bed material was the occurrence of attrition which requires a precautionary measure to control the dust produced and prevent air pollution. The produced gases from the gasification processes are commonly used in internal combustion engines applications, but due to the high content of hydrogen gas (H2/CO range 2-3) in the product, it can be considered a renewable source of hydrogen by further processing the gas mixture to obtain pure hydrogen gas that is utilized in various chemical industries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raj S. Patel; Babita Agrawal;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Project: CIHR

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative infectious agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, has led to multiple (4-6) waves of infections worldwide during the past two years. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has led to successful mass immunizations worldwide, mitigating the worldwide mortality due the pandemic to a great extent. Yet the evolution of new variants highlights a need to develop a universal vaccine which can prevent infections from all virulent SARS-CoV-2. Most of the current first generation COVID-19 vaccines are based on the Spike protein from the original Wuhan-hu-1 virus strain. It is encouraging that they still protect from serious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality against a number of mutated viral strains, to varying degrees. Understanding the mechanisms by which these vaccines provide heterologous protection against multiple highly mutated variants can reveal strategies to develop a universal vaccine. In addition, many unexposed individuals have been found to harbor T cells that are cross-reactive against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, with a possible protective role. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of natural or vaccine-induced heterologous (cross-reactive) adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, and their role in achieving the concept of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
6,168 Research products, page 1 of 617
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aessa Tumi; Hassan A. Khan; Sidra Awan; Kosta Ikonomou; Katija Ali; Kristina Frain; Irfan Ahmed;
    Publisher: Royal College of General Practitioners

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on patient lifestyles with new measures designed to reduce transmission of the virus drastically transforming life as we know it. Public health interventions — alongside advances in medical treatments, vaccine technology, and gene sequencing — have drastically reduced the impact of the pandemic across the world. Yet there has been relatively little focus on the potential role of physical activity (PA) in reducing disease burden during the pandemic. We discuss the latest evidence related to the role of exercise or physical pre-rehabilitation before infection and consider whether this may be an overlooked public health strategy. ### Living with COVID-19: ’Exercise is medicine.’ As we progress through the second year of the pandemic, there has been a renewed focus on adjustments that individuals and society will have to make as we continually adapt to life with COVID-19. Key public health messages regarding the importance of ’ hands, face, space and fresh air ‘ appear prominently on all government briefings but exercise, once famously quoted as being the ‘ miracle cure ’ by the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, is conspicuously absent.1 Despite the evidence supporting the physical and mental health benefits of exercise at a population level, there remains a …

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rachel P. Rosovsky; Kristen M. Sanfilippo; Tzu-Fei Wang; Sandeep K. Rajan; Surbhi Shah; Karlyn Martin; Fionnuala Ní Áinle; Menno V. Huisman; Beverley J. Hunt; Susan R. Kahn; +4 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Abstract Background Best practice for prevention, diagnosis, and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is unknown due to limited published data in this population. Objectives We aimed to assess current global practice and experience in management of COVID‐19–associated coagulopathy to identify information to guide prospective and randomized studies. Methods Physicians were queried about their current approach to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in patients with COVID‐19 using an online survey tool distributed through multiple international organizations between April 10 and 14, 2020. Results Five hundred fifteen physicians from 41 countries responded. The majority of respondents (78%) recommended prophylactic anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients with COVID‐19, with most recommending use of low‐molecular‐weight heparin or unfractionated heparin. Significant practice variation was found regarding the need for dose escalation of anticoagulation outside the setting of confirmed or suspected VTE. Respondents reported the use of bedside testing when unable to perform standard diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of VTE. Two hundred ninety‐one respondents reported observing thrombotic complications in their patients, with 64% noting that the complication was pulmonary embolism. Of the 44% of respondents who estimated incidence of thrombosis in patients with COVID‐19 in their hospital, estimates ranged widely from 1% to 50%. One hundred seventy‐four respondents noted bleeding complications (34% minor bleeding, 14% clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and 12% major bleeding). Conclusion Well‐designed epidemiologic studies are urgently needed to understand the incidence and risk factors of VTE and bleeding complications in patients with COVID‐19. Randomized clinical trials addressing use of anticoagulation are also needed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabelle Bernard; Daniel Limonta; Lara K. Mahal; Tom C. Hobman;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Project: CIHR

    The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a persistent threat to global public health. Although primarily a respiratory illness, extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and neurological diseases. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of the endothelium during COVID-19 may exacerbate these deleterious events by inciting inflammatory and microvascular thrombotic processes. Although controversial, there is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may infect endothelial cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cellular receptor using the viral Spike protein. In this review, we explore current insights into the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, endothelial dysfunction due to ACE2 downregulation, and deleterious pulmonary and extra-pulmonary immunothrombotic complications in severe COVID-19. We also discuss preclinical and clinical development of therapeutic agents targeting SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication in primary human lung and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Accordingly, in striving to understand the parameters that lead to severe disease in COVID-19 patients, it is important to consider how direct infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to this process.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evelien Dekker; Han-Mo Chiu; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar; Luis E. Caro; Jason A. Dominitz; Stephen P Halloran; Cesare Hassan; Julia Ismael; Rodrigo Jover; Michal F. Kaminski; +13 more
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Justin Ashley; Graham Abra; Brigitte Schiller; Paul Bennett; Ali Poyan Mehr; Joanne M. Bargman; Christopher T. Chan;
    Publisher: Australia : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
    Country: Australia

    Home dialysis therapies are flexible kidney replacement strategies with documented clinical benefits. While the incidence of end-stage kidney disease continues to increase globally, the use of home dialysis remains low in most developed countries. Multiple barriers to providing home dialysis have been noted in the published literature. Among known challenges, gaps in clinician knowledge are potentially addressable with a focused education strategy. Recent national surveys in the United States and Australia have highlighted the need for enhanced home dialysis knowledge especially among nephrologists who have recently completed training. Traditional in-person continuing professional educational programmes have had modest success in promoting home dialysis and are limited by scale and the present global COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize that the use of a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of virtual home dialysis mentorship for nephrologists based on project ECHO would support home dialysis growth. We review the home dialysis literature, known educational gaps and plausible educational interventions to address current limitations in physician education Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Malvinder S. Parmar;
    Publisher: Wiley

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication, affecting up to 37% of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and is proportional to its severity and portends poor prognosis. Diverse mechanisms have been proposed and studies reported conflicting results. Moreover, renal tropism of SARS-CoV-2 does not equate to its renal pathogenicity. For a virus to be pathogenic, in addition to its affinity (tropism) for specific tissue(s), host cells must allow viral entry, and discuss the important role played by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and co-expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the same cells is important to cause damage. Lack of co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the same cells of the kidneys is the limiting factor of SARS-CoV-2 direct effects in the kidney. We present the rationale and cumulative evidence supporting that acute kidney injury is secondary to hemodynamic and immunologic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection than the direct injury or infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sanjay Beesoon; Nemeshwaree Behary; Anne Perwuelz;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 is spreading very quickly around the world. In less than 7 months since it became known to the international community, the virus has infected 18 million in more than 180 countries and killing more than 700,000 people. Person-to-person transmission through infected respiratory droplets from patients with symptoms and asymptomatic carriers is the main mode of spread in the community. There is currently no standard agreed upon drug to treat the disease and the prospect of having a safe and efficacious vaccine might be years away. Thus, public health interventions such as social distancing and hand washing have been introduced and has, to some extent, slowed the progression of the pandemic. Universal masking as a public health intervention is currently mandatory in a vast majority of countries around the world. To avoid personal protective equipment (PPE) shortage crisis for medical staff and other frontline workers, health authorities are recommending the use cloth masks. Although in theory, cloth masks can be helpful to limit the spread of the COVID-19, serious consideration should be given to the choice of textile, the number of layers of cloth used, pre-treatment of the material with water repellent material and other compounds that can enhance the filtration efficiency of the masks without compromising their breathability. This review uses concepts of textile engineering and the theoretical principles of filtration to make suggestions and recommendations to improve the quality and safety of cloth masks for the general public. Highlights • The COVID-19 pandemic is causing unprecedented mortality and morbidity worldwide. • Universal masking in public places is mandatory or recommended in many countries. • The textile material and number of layers used for cloth masks affect the performance. • Health authorities must advise the public on the choice of material for cloth masks.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    ElGhamrawy, Islam;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Plastics are versatile, durable, and can be manipulated to match different needs. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the importance of reducing plastic waste and is believed to be responsible for increasing the generation of plastic waste by 54,000 tons/day which was reported in 2020. Another widely available waste is biomass waste. Agriculture and agroforestry, forest and wood processing, municipal waste, and the food industry are all considered major producers of biowaste. Co-gasification is considered one of the most promising methods of chemical recycling that targets the production of syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and light hydrocarbon gases. In this study, the gasification of pure birch sawdust wood (BSD) and pure rice husk (RH) was compared with mixtures where each BSD and RH was mixed with both LDPE and HDPE in the presence of three different bed materials, namely silica sand, olivine, and red mud. It was found that mixing the biomass with LDPE and HDPE increased hydrogen gas (H2) production. The Hydrogen gas concentration in the product gas increased slightly from 10% to 12% by volume when birch sawdust (BSD) was mixed with LDPE with a ratio of 1:1, while the hydrogen gas concentration increased to 15-16% by volume when birch sawdust was mixed with HDPE with a ratio of 1:1 and olivine has been used as bed material. The lower heating value of the produced gas, which has a direct relationship with the hydrogen and light hydrocarbons concentration, increased from 2.8 to 5.7 MJ/Nm3. Red mud increased the lower heating value of the produced gas when rice husk was premixed with HDPE from 3-4 MJ/Nm3 to 5.5-6 MJ/J/Nm3, however, the main drawback of using red mud as a bed material was the occurrence of attrition which requires a precautionary measure to control the dust produced and prevent air pollution. The produced gases from the gasification processes are commonly used in internal combustion engines applications, but due to the high content of hydrogen gas (H2/CO range 2-3) in the product, it can be considered a renewable source of hydrogen by further processing the gas mixture to obtain pure hydrogen gas that is utilized in various chemical industries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raj S. Patel; Babita Agrawal;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Project: CIHR

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative infectious agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, has led to multiple (4-6) waves of infections worldwide during the past two years. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has led to successful mass immunizations worldwide, mitigating the worldwide mortality due the pandemic to a great extent. Yet the evolution of new variants highlights a need to develop a universal vaccine which can prevent infections from all virulent SARS-CoV-2. Most of the current first generation COVID-19 vaccines are based on the Spike protein from the original Wuhan-hu-1 virus strain. It is encouraging that they still protect from serious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality against a number of mutated viral strains, to varying degrees. Understanding the mechanisms by which these vaccines provide heterologous protection against multiple highly mutated variants can reveal strategies to develop a universal vaccine. In addition, many unexposed individuals have been found to harbor T cells that are cross-reactive against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, with a possible protective role. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of natural or vaccine-induced heterologous (cross-reactive) adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, and their role in achieving the concept of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.