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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. Aaltonen; Ronen Alon; S. Amerio; A. Anastassov; Alberto Annovi; Giorgio Apollinari; J. A. Appel; J. Asaadi; W. Ashmanskas; A. Aurisano; +207 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: Spain, Italy
    Project: EC | TAUKITFORNEWPHYSICS (302103), SNSF | Measurements of Higgs bos... (153664), NSERC

    This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; the Swiss National Science Foundation; the A. P. Sloan Foundation; the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Germany; the Korean World Class University Program, the National Research Foundation of Korea; the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Royal Society, United Kingdom; the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, and Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010, Spain; the Slovak R&D Agency; the Academy of Finland; the Australian Research Council (ARC); and the EU community Marie Curie Fellowship Contract No. 302103. This work was also supported by the Shrum Foundation, the Weizman Institute of Science and the Israel Science Foundation. Results of a study of the substructure of the highest transverse momentum (pT) jets observed by the CDF Collaboration are presented. Events containing at least one jet with pT>400 GeV/c in a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.95 fb−1, collected in 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, are selected. A study of the jet mass, angularity, and planar-flow distributions is presented, and the measurements are compared with predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics. A search for boosted top-quark production is also described, leading to a 95% confidence level upper limit of 38 fb on the production cross section of top quarks with pT>400 GeV/c. Peer Reviewed et al.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Georges Aad; Leszek Adamczyk; Jahred Adelman; Tim Adye; Tatjana Agatonovic-Jovin; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; Faig Ahmadov; Giulio Aielli; Gian Luigi Alberghi; J. Albert; +599 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: NSERC

    Many extensions of the Standard Model posit the existence of heavy particles with long lifetimes. This article presents the results of a search for events containing at least one long-lived particle that decays at a significant distance from its production point into two leptons or into five or more charged particles. This analysis uses a data sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1) collected in 2012 by the ATLAS detector operating at the Large Hadron Collider. No events are observed in any of the signal regions, and limits are set on model parameters within supersymmetric scenarios involving R-parity violation, split supersymmetry, and gauge mediation. In some of the search channels, the trigger and search strategy are based only on the decay products of individual long-lived particles, irrespective of the rest of the event. In these cases, the provided limits can easily be reinterpreted in different scenarios.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Dengler; Thomas J. Matthews; Manuel J. Steinbauer; Sebastian Wolfrum; Steffen Boch; Alessandro Chiarucci; Timo Conradi; Iwona Dembicz; Corrado Marcenò; Itziar García-Mijangos; +35 more
    Countries: Portugal, Norway, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Norway, Italy, Italy, Spain, Belgium ...

    Aim Species-area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location Palaearctic grasslands and other non-forested habitats. Taxa Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation-plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested-plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm(2) to 1,024 m(2). Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis-Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis-Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. We thank all vegetation scientists who carefully collected multi‐ scale plant diversity data from Palaearctic Grasslands available in GrassPlot. The Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) and the International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS) sup‐ ported the EDGG Field Workshops, which generated a core part of the GrassPlot data. The Bavarian Research Alliance (grant BayIntAn_UBT_2017_58) and the Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) funded the initial GrassPlot workshop during which the database was established and the cur‐ rent paper was initiated. A.N. acknowledges support by the Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration (CISSC), Iran. C.M., I.B., I.G.‐M and J.A.C. were funded by the Basque Government (IT936‐16). D.V. carried out the research supported by a grant of the State Fund For Fundamental Research Ф83/53427. G.F. carried out the research in the frame of the MIUR initiative ‘Department of excellence' (Law 232/2016). I.D. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (grant DEC‐2013/09/N/NZ8/03234). J.Do. was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA 17‐19376S). M.J. was supported by grant by Slovak Academy of Sciences (VEGA 02/0095/19). W.U. ac‐ knowledges support from the Polish National Science Centre (grant 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Graham J. Schapel; Sheila J. Wallace; Gillian S. Gordon;
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    A retrospective survey was carried out of add-on treatment with lamotrigine (LTG) and vigabatrin (GVG) in 109 children with severe epilepsy, treated between 1987 and 1994, identified from a total population of 300 patients seen annually, in a tertiary referral outpatient clinic in Cardiff, Wales. Of 79 patient treatments with LTG and 86 with GVG, 42 patients were treated with add-on LTG, 52 with add-on GVG and 20 with both drugs simultaneously. A Kaplan-Meier curve, applied to each of the two index drugs, indicated that 71 and 62% of patients would be expected to continue taking LTG or GVG, respectively after 40 months. Improved seizure control (≥ 50%) at the time of audit was seen in 65% of LTG and 58% of GVG patient treatments for all epilepsy syndromes, but there was a higher proportion of patients with generalized epilepsy improved by LTG (28/41, 68%) than that improved by GVG (8/20, 40%), and only those with generalized epilepsy treated with LTG became seizure free (8/38, 21%). Similar proportions of patients discontinued LTG (16%) and GVG (15%) due to an adverse experience, but a higher proportion discontinued GVG (18%) compared with LTG (6%) because of lack of efficacy. This study supports the relative clinical effectiveness of LTG and GVG in the real world, where children with severe epilepsy are treated in clinical practice and serves to generate hypotheses to enable design of prospectively controlled trials, which should enable more rational use of these two drugs in the paediatric population with epilepsy.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Sabine Beuermann; Michael Buback; Thomas P. Davis; Nuria García; Robert G. Gilbert; Robin A. Hutchinson; Atsushi Kajiwara; Mikiharu Kamachi; Igor Lacík; Gregory T. Russell;
    Publisher: Wiley

    Propagation rate coefficients, k(p), which have been previously reported by several groups for free-radical bulk polymerizations of cyclohexyl methacrylate (CHMA), glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), benzyl methacrylate (BzMA), and isobomyl methacrylate (iBoMA) are critically evaluated. All data were determined by the combination of pulsed-laser polymerization (PLP) and subsequent polymer analysis by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). This-so-called PLP-SEC technique has been recommended as the method of choice for the determination of k(p) by the IUPAC Working Party on Modeling of Polymerisation Kinetics and Processes. The present data fulfill consistency criteria and the agreement among the data from different laboratories is remarkable. The values for CHMA, GMA, and BzMA are therefore recommended as constituting benchmark data sets for each monomer. The data for iBoMA are also considered reliable, but since SEC calibration was established only by a single group, the data are not considered as a benchmark data set. All k(p) data for each monomer are best fitted by the following Arrhenius relations: CHMA: k(P) = 10(6.80) L . mol(-1) . s(-1) exp( -23.0 kJ.mol(-1) / (R.T), GMA: k(p) = 10(6.79) L . mol(-1) . s(-1) exp (-22.9 kJ.mol(-1)) / (R.T), BzMA: k(p) = 10(6.83) L . mol(-1) .s(-1) exp(-22.9 kJ.mol(-1)) / (R.T), iBoMA: k(p) =10(6.79)L . mol(-1) . s(-1) exp(-23.1 kJ.mol(-1)) / (R.T). Rather remarkably, for the methacrylates under investigation, the k(p) values are all very similar. Thus, all data can be fitted well by a single Arrhenius relation resulting in a pre-exponential factor of 4.24 x 10(6) L . mol(-1) . s(-1) and an activation energy of 21.9 kJ . mol(-1). All activation parameters refer to bulk polymerizations at ambient pressure and temperatures below 100degreesC. Joint confidence intervals are also provided, enabling values and uncertainties for k(p) to be estimated at any temperature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    G. Aad; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A.A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; H. Abreu; +191 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    The cross section for the production of W bosons with subsequent decay W to tau nu is measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on a data sample that was recorded in 2010 at a proton-proton center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34 pb^-1. The cross section is measured in a region of high detector acceptance and then extrapolated to the full phase space. The product of the total W production cross section and the W to tau nu branching ratio is measured to be 11.1 +/- 0.3 (stat) +/- 1.7 (syst) +/- 0.4 (lumi) nb.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    R.H Crowell;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lan Hsin Wang; Sue Jean Chiu; Y. Henry Sun;
    Publisher: Elsevier Inc.

    AbstractThe Pax gene eyg is important for Drosophila eye development. eyg expression in the visual system changes dynamically during development. In this study, we found that the transcriptional regulation of eyg can be separated into four distinct temporal phases (E, L1, L2, and L3) and each is regulated by distinct cis-regulatory elements. Utilizing these enhancers for temporal and spatially specific manipulations, we addressed the regulation and function of eyg at different developmental stages. We found that Notch signaling is required and sufficient for eyg expression and this activity is restricted only to the L2 stage. We further showed that the function of eyg in eye development is required only at the second instar larval stage, while its function for head and antenna development can be provided at any time during embryo and larval development. Thus there is a temporal switch of the regulatory mechanism and function of eyg. We propose that eyg expression at L2 is induced and maintained by N signaling, and is turned off at L3 by a negative feedback loop involving the morphogenetic furrow.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tzenka Radoukova; Valtcho D. Zheljazkov; Ivanka Semerdjieva; Ivayla Dincheva; Albena Stoyanova; Miroslava Kačániová; Tatjana Marković; Dragoja Radanović; Tess Astatkie; Ivan Salamon;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Juniperus communis L. is one of the widest spread species on earth, while J. pygmaea C. Koch. and J. sibirica Burgsd. are taxonomically controversial with some authors and the official Flora of Bulgaria recognizing them as separate species and other authors considering them sub-species of J. communis. There are current efforts on developing J. communis as agricultural crop to provide consistency of supply and quality of juniper essential oil (EO) and juniper galbuli (cones or berries). The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of the leaf EO of juniper species collected in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Slovakia. The leaf EO content and EO composition varied among species and within species and also depended on the plant sex and location. In J. communis EO from Slovakia and Serbia, the major oil constituent was α-pinene (25.1–27.0 % and 21.8–22.2% respectively). However, sabinene (19.8–27.9%) was the major constituent in J. communis EO from Bulgaria. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (MHs) were the main group of EO constituents in J. communis from Bulgaria (17–22% α-pinene, 20–27% sabinene, and 8.8–11.7% γ-terpinene) and Serbia (25–27% α-pinene, 23–25% sabinene, and 4.9 to 5.3% γ-terpinene). J. communis oils originating from Slovakia showed more similarity to those from Bulgaria. The main group of EO constituents in J. pygmaea belonged to MHs (26–28% α-pinene, 17–19% sabinene, and 4.8–6.1% β-phellandrene). The oxygenated sesquiterpenes (OSs) were the second largest group of components in the EO of J. pygmaea, a noted difference compared with J. communis. The main group of EO constituents of J. sibirica from Bulgaria were MHs (36–44% α-pinene, 10–13% δ-3 carene, and 4.5–12% limonene). Eleven components found in the EO of J. sibirica from Bulgaria were not detected in the EOs of other species. In J. sibirica originating in Serbia, the main group of EO constituents belonged to MHs (∼ 24%, sabinene, ∼ 19% α-pinene, and 6% γ-terpinene). The results support the concept that the three junipers should be considered separate species. The leaf EOs of J. communis, J. sibirica, and J. pygmaea did not exhibit significant antimicrobial activity. The results contribute to further understanding of juniper leaf EO in Eastern Europe and can be used by policymakers and industry in conservation planning and in the development of juniper species as agricultural crops.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Other literature type . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; +197 more
    Countries: Italy, Germany, Turkey, Italy, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom ...

    The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during the 2011 data taking period is described. During 2011 the LHC provided proton-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and heavy ion collisions with a 2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision energy. The ATLAS trigger is a three level system designed to reduce the rate of events from the 40 MHz nominal maximum bunch crossing rate to the approximate 400 Hz which can be written to offline storage. The ATLAS jet trigger is the primary means for the online selection of events containing jets. Events are accepted by the trigger if they contain one or more jets above some transverse energy threshold. During 2011 data taking the jet trigger was fully efficient for jets with transverse energy above 25 GeV for triggers seeded randomly at Level 1. For triggers which require a jet to be identified at each of the three trigger levels, full efficiency is reached for offline jets with transverse energy above 60 GeV. Jets reconstructed in the Event Filter and corresponding to offline jets with transverse energy greater than 60 GeV, are reconstructed with a resolution in transverse energy of better than 4% in the central region and better than 2.5% in the forward direction. 51 pages plus author list (68 pages total), 29 figures, 4 tables, published version, all figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/TRIG-2012-01/

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,627 Research products, page 1 of 263
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. Aaltonen; Ronen Alon; S. Amerio; A. Anastassov; Alberto Annovi; Giorgio Apollinari; J. A. Appel; J. Asaadi; W. Ashmanskas; A. Aurisano; +207 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: Spain, Italy
    Project: EC | TAUKITFORNEWPHYSICS (302103), SNSF | Measurements of Higgs bos... (153664), NSERC

    This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; the Swiss National Science Foundation; the A. P. Sloan Foundation; the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Germany; the Korean World Class University Program, the National Research Foundation of Korea; the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Royal Society, United Kingdom; the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, and Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010, Spain; the Slovak R&D Agency; the Academy of Finland; the Australian Research Council (ARC); and the EU community Marie Curie Fellowship Contract No. 302103. This work was also supported by the Shrum Foundation, the Weizman Institute of Science and the Israel Science Foundation. Results of a study of the substructure of the highest transverse momentum (pT) jets observed by the CDF Collaboration are presented. Events containing at least one jet with pT>400 GeV/c in a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.95 fb−1, collected in 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, are selected. A study of the jet mass, angularity, and planar-flow distributions is presented, and the measurements are compared with predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics. A search for boosted top-quark production is also described, leading to a 95% confidence level upper limit of 38 fb on the production cross section of top quarks with pT>400 GeV/c. Peer Reviewed et al.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Georges Aad; Leszek Adamczyk; Jahred Adelman; Tim Adye; Tatjana Agatonovic-Jovin; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; Faig Ahmadov; Giulio Aielli; Gian Luigi Alberghi; J. Albert; +599 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: NSERC

    Many extensions of the Standard Model posit the existence of heavy particles with long lifetimes. This article presents the results of a search for events containing at least one long-lived particle that decays at a significant distance from its production point into two leptons or into five or more charged particles. This analysis uses a data sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1) collected in 2012 by the ATLAS detector operating at the Large Hadron Collider. No events are observed in any of the signal regions, and limits are set on model parameters within supersymmetric scenarios involving R-parity violation, split supersymmetry, and gauge mediation. In some of the search channels, the trigger and search strategy are based only on the decay products of individual long-lived particles, irrespective of the rest of the event. In these cases, the provided limits can easily be reinterpreted in different scenarios.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Dengler; Thomas J. Matthews; Manuel J. Steinbauer; Sebastian Wolfrum; Steffen Boch; Alessandro Chiarucci; Timo Conradi; Iwona Dembicz; Corrado Marcenò; Itziar García-Mijangos; +35 more
    Countries: Portugal, Norway, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Norway, Italy, Italy, Spain, Belgium ...

    Aim Species-area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location Palaearctic grasslands and other non-forested habitats. Taxa Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation-plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested-plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm(2) to 1,024 m(2). Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis-Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis-Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. We thank all vegetation scientists who carefully collected multi‐ scale plant diversity data from Palaearctic Grasslands available in GrassPlot. The Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) and the International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS) sup‐ ported the EDGG Field Workshops, which generated a core part of the GrassPlot data. The Bavarian Research Alliance (grant BayIntAn_UBT_2017_58) and the Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) funded the initial GrassPlot workshop during which the database was established and the cur‐ rent paper was initiated. A.N. acknowledges support by the Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration (CISSC), Iran. C.M., I.B., I.G.‐M and J.A.C. were funded by the Basque Government (IT936‐16). D.V. carried out the research supported by a grant of the State Fund For Fundamental Research Ф83/53427. G.F. carried out the research in the frame of the MIUR initiative ‘Department of excellence' (Law 232/2016). I.D. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (grant DEC‐2013/09/N/NZ8/03234). J.Do. was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA 17‐19376S). M.J. was supported by grant by Slovak Academy of Sciences (VEGA 02/0095/19). W.U. ac‐ knowledges support from the Polish National Science Centre (grant 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Graham J. Schapel; Sheila J. Wallace; Gillian S. Gordon;
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    A retrospective survey was carried out of add-on treatment with lamotrigine (LTG) and vigabatrin (GVG) in 109 children with severe epilepsy, treated between 1987 and 1994, identified from a total population of 300 patients seen annually, in a tertiary referral outpatient clinic in Cardiff, Wales. Of 79 patient treatments with LTG and 86 with GVG, 42 patients were treated with add-on LTG, 52 with add-on GVG and 20 with both drugs simultaneously. A Kaplan-Meier curve, applied to each of the two index drugs, indicated that 71 and 62% of patients would be expected to continue taking LTG or GVG, respectively after 40 months. Improved seizure control (≥ 50%) at the time of audit was seen in 65% of LTG and 58% of GVG patient treatments for all epilepsy syndromes, but there was a higher proportion of patients with generalized epilepsy improved by LTG (28/41, 68%) than that improved by GVG (8/20, 40%), and only those with generalized epilepsy treated with LTG became seizure free (8/38, 21%). Similar proportions of patients discontinued LTG (16%) and GVG (15%) due to an adverse experience, but a higher proportion discontinued GVG (18%) compared with LTG (6%) because of lack of efficacy. This study supports the relative clinical effectiveness of LTG and GVG in the real world, where children with severe epilepsy are treated in clinical practice and serves to generate hypotheses to enable design of prospectively controlled trials, which should enable more rational use of these two drugs in the paediatric population with epilepsy.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Sabine Beuermann; Michael Buback; Thomas P. Davis; Nuria García; Robert G. Gilbert; Robin A. Hutchinson; Atsushi Kajiwara; Mikiharu Kamachi; Igor Lacík; Gregory T. Russell;
    Publisher: Wiley

    Propagation rate coefficients, k(p), which have been previously reported by several groups for free-radical bulk polymerizations of cyclohexyl methacrylate (CHMA), glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), benzyl methacrylate (BzMA), and isobomyl methacrylate (iBoMA) are critically evaluated. All data were determined by the combination of pulsed-laser polymerization (PLP) and subsequent polymer analysis by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). This-so-called PLP-SEC technique has been recommended as the method of choice for the determination of k(p) by the IUPAC Working Party on Modeling of Polymerisation Kinetics and Processes. The present data fulfill consistency criteria and the agreement among the data from different laboratories is remarkable. The values for CHMA, GMA, and BzMA are therefore recommended as constituting benchmark data sets for each monomer. The data for iBoMA are also considered reliable, but since SEC calibration was established only by a single group, the data are not considered as a benchmark data set. All k(p) data for each monomer are best fitted by the following Arrhenius relations: CHMA: k(P) = 10(6.80) L . mol(-1) . s(-1) exp( -23.0 kJ.mol(-1) / (R.T), GMA: k(p) = 10(6.79) L . mol(-1) . s(-1) exp (-22.9 kJ.mol(-1)) / (R.T), BzMA: k(p) = 10(6.83) L . mol(-1) .s(-1) exp(-22.9 kJ.mol(-1)) / (R.T), iBoMA: k(p) =10(6.79)L . mol(-1) . s(-1) exp(-23.1 kJ.mol(-1)) / (R.T). Rather remarkably, for the methacrylates under investigation, the k(p) values are all very similar. Thus, all data can be fitted well by a single Arrhenius relation resulting in a pre-exponential factor of 4.24 x 10(6) L . mol(-1) . s(-1) and an activation energy of 21.9 kJ . mol(-1). All activation parameters refer to bulk polymerizations at ambient pressure and temperatures below 100degreesC. Joint confidence intervals are also provided, enabling values and uncertainties for k(p) to be estimated at any temperature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    G. Aad; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A.A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; H. Abreu; +191 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    The cross section for the production of W bosons with subsequent decay W to tau nu is measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on a data sample that was recorded in 2010 at a proton-proton center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34 pb^-1. The cross section is measured in a region of high detector acceptance and then extrapolated to the full phase space. The product of the total W production cross section and the W to tau nu branching ratio is measured to be 11.1 +/- 0.3 (stat) +/- 1.7 (syst) +/- 0.4 (lumi) nb.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    R.H Crowell;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lan Hsin Wang; Sue Jean Chiu; Y. Henry Sun;
    Publisher: Elsevier Inc.

    AbstractThe Pax gene eyg is important for Drosophila eye development. eyg expression in the visual system changes dynamically during development. In this study, we found that the transcriptional regulation of eyg can be separated into four distinct temporal phases (E, L1, L2, and L3) and each is regulated by distinct cis-regulatory elements. Utilizing these enhancers for temporal and spatially specific manipulations, we addressed the regulation and function of eyg at different developmental stages. We found that Notch signaling is required and sufficient for eyg expression and this activity is restricted only to the L2 stage. We further showed that the function of eyg in eye development is required only at the second instar larval stage, while its function for head and antenna development can be provided at any time during embryo and larval development. Thus there is a temporal switch of the regulatory mechanism and function of eyg. We propose that eyg expression at L2 is induced and maintained by N signaling, and is turned off at L3 by a negative feedback loop involving the morphogenetic furrow.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tzenka Radoukova; Valtcho D. Zheljazkov; Ivanka Semerdjieva; Ivayla Dincheva; Albena Stoyanova; Miroslava Kačániová; Tatjana Marković; Dragoja Radanović; Tess Astatkie; Ivan Salamon;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Juniperus communis L. is one of the widest spread species on earth, while J. pygmaea C. Koch. and J. sibirica Burgsd. are taxonomically controversial with some authors and the official Flora of Bulgaria recognizing them as separate species and other authors considering them sub-species of J. communis. There are current efforts on developing J. communis as agricultural crop to provide consistency of supply and quality of juniper essential oil (EO) and juniper galbuli (cones or berries). The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of the leaf EO of juniper species collected in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Slovakia. The leaf EO content and EO composition varied among species and within species and also depended on the plant sex and location. In J. communis EO from Slovakia and Serbia, the major oil constituent was α-pinene (25.1–27.0 % and 21.8–22.2% respectively). However, sabinene (19.8–27.9%) was the major constituent in J. communis EO from Bulgaria. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (MHs) were the main group of EO constituents in J. communis from Bulgaria (17–22% α-pinene, 20–27% sabinene, and 8.8–11.7% γ-terpinene) and Serbia (25–27% α-pinene, 23–25% sabinene, and 4.9 to 5.3% γ-terpinene). J. communis oils originating from Slovakia showed more similarity to those from Bulgaria. The main group of EO constituents in J. pygmaea belonged to MHs (26–28% α-pinene, 17–19% sabinene, and 4.8–6.1% β-phellandrene). The oxygenated sesquiterpenes (OSs) were the second largest group of components in the EO of J. pygmaea, a noted difference compared with J. communis. The main group of EO constituents of J. sibirica from Bulgaria were MHs (36–44% α-pinene, 10–13% δ-3 carene, and 4.5–12% limonene). Eleven components found in the EO of J. sibirica from Bulgaria were not detected in the EOs of other species. In J. sibirica originating in Serbia, the main group of EO constituents belonged to MHs (∼ 24%, sabinene, ∼ 19% α-pinene, and 6% γ-terpinene). The results support the concept that the three junipers should be considered separate species. The leaf EOs of J. communis, J. sibirica, and J. pygmaea did not exhibit significant antimicrobial activity. The results contribute to further understanding of juniper leaf EO in Eastern Europe and can be used by policymakers and industry in conservation planning and in the development of juniper species as agricultural crops.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Other literature type . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; +197 more
    Countries: Italy, Germany, Turkey, Italy, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom ...

    The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during the 2011 data taking period is described. During 2011 the LHC provided proton-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and heavy ion collisions with a 2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision energy. The ATLAS trigger is a three level system designed to reduce the rate of events from the 40 MHz nominal maximum bunch crossing rate to the approximate 400 Hz which can be written to offline storage. The ATLAS jet trigger is the primary means for the online selection of events containing jets. Events are accepted by the trigger if they contain one or more jets above some transverse energy threshold. During 2011 data taking the jet trigger was fully efficient for jets with transverse energy above 25 GeV for triggers seeded randomly at Level 1. For triggers which require a jet to be identified at each of the three trigger levels, full efficiency is reached for offline jets with transverse energy above 60 GeV. Jets reconstructed in the Event Filter and corresponding to offline jets with transverse energy greater than 60 GeV, are reconstructed with a resolution in transverse energy of better than 4% in the central region and better than 2.5% in the forward direction. 51 pages plus author list (68 pages total), 29 figures, 4 tables, published version, all figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/TRIG-2012-01/