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13 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • Canada
  • Research data
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  • 2012-2021
  • Open Access
  • Transport Research

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Stoyanovich, Sawyer; Zeyu Yang; Hanson, Mark; Hollebone, Bruce P; Orihel, Diane M; Palace, Vince; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose R; Faragher, Robert; Fatemah S Mirnaghi; Keval Shah; +1 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: NSERC

    The main petroleum product transported through pipelines in Canada is diluted bitumen (dilbit), a semi-liquid form of heavy crude oil mixed with natural gas condensates to facilitate transport. The weathering, fate, behaviour, and environmental effects of dilbit are crucial to consider when responding to a spill, however few environmental studies on dilbit have been completed. Here we report on 11-day long experimental spills of dilbit (Cold Lake Winter Blend) in outdoor micro-cosms meant to simulate a low-energy aquatic system containing natural lake water and sedi-ments treated with a low (1:8,000 oil:water) and high (1:800 oil:water) volume of dilbit. In the first 24 hours of the experiment, volatile hydrocarbons quickly evaporated from the dilbit, result-ing in increased dilbit density and viscosity. These changes in dilbit’s physical and chemical properties ultimately led to its submergence after 8 days. We also detected rapid accumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the water column of the treated-microcosms following the spills. Our study provides new information on the environmental fate and behaviour of dilbit in a freshwater environment that will be critical to environmental risk assessments of proposed pipe-line projects. In particular, our study demonstrates the propensity for dilbit to sink under ambient environmental conditions in fresh waters typical of many boreal lakes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thibault, Jenna;
    Country: Canada

    Overview: There is a growing need to develop age-friendly communities to meet the challenges seniors face as they age (Cerda and Bernier, 2013). By the year 2050, the population will be comprised of a greater proportion of older people (aged 60 and over) than children (aged 0 to 14) for the first time in human history (Plouffe and Kalache, 2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) is trying to encourage cities to become more age-friendly and has identified eight key themes, relating to a city’s structures, environment, services and policies, which are conducive to a community that promotes active aging (WHO, 2007a). Although active aging is a complex concept and extends beyond solely ensuring that seniors remain physically active, designing neighbourhoods that promote mobility is critical since many seniors want to “age in place” (Smith, 2009). Seniors that experience fewer limitations on their mobility maintain a stronger sense of independence and control over their lives (Hodge, 2008). Since 2012, the City of Kingston has been engaged in the process of becoming classified as an age-friendly city (City of Kingston, 2012). The City’s commitment to this initiative provided the rationale for conducting age-friendly research in Kingston. Specifically, this research sought to examine the age-friendly cities concept, with an explicit focus on those age-friendly features that influence mobility. According to Hodge (2008) the primary factor influencing mobility for seniors is the availability and accessibility of transportation, whether by foot, public transit, a personal vehicle or another mode of transportation. From the eight themes identified by the WHO, the topics of “Outdoor spaces and buildings” and “Transportation” are two topics closely linked to this idea that the physical environment influences an individual’s ease of mobility (WHO, 2007a). Report Objective: The objective of this report was to investigate how two suburban developments in Kingston, Ontario promote mobility for seniors by assessing and comparing the age-friendliness of the pedestrian environment and existing public transportation infrastructure and services. The two suburban developments selected were the recently developed Walnut Grove, an ‘adult-lifestyle community’, and Bayridge West, an older suburban development. These developments share the commonality of possessing a high proportion of older adults (aged 55+) compared to other areas in the City, and differ in terms of their built form. In addition to comparing the age-friendliness of these two suburban developments, this report also examined whether the weaknesses uncovered through the analyses of these sites were city-wide problems, or site-specific. Methods: This report used the comparative case study approach (Yin, 2014) to compare the age-friendliness of these two sites. The primary method of data collection involved conducting field observations using a comprehensive evaluation tool to assess different age-friendly attributes of the pedestrian environment and public transportation infrastructure and services. Field observations were conducted over four data collection periods in order to consider time-of-day and seasonal variations. Two rounds of document reviews were also conducted. Round One examined whether the shortfalls observed within the two suburban developments were city-wide challenges or site-specific problems, while Round Two examined the current commitments of the City to plan for age-friendly communities with respect to the built environment and public transportation. Key Findings and Recommendations: Bayridge West scored considerably better than Walnut Grove in terms of the public transportation theme, whereas the difference was much smaller in terms of the pedestrian environment. The first document review revealed considerable correspondence between the results of the field analyses and the problems identified by focus group participants for the City of Kingston in general. The second document review found that the City has various action-based and policy-based commitments, along with strategies and visions, for creating a more age-friendly city. However, these current commitments do not address all of the shortfalls identified through this research. As such, four recommendations are proposed for helping the City of Kingston achieve its goal of creating age-friendly communities: 1. Conduct an accessibility survey to address the observation of insufficient sidewalk widths. 2. Install bus shelters with benches, route information and lighting. 3. Investigate the feasibility of installing audible traffic signals at existing intersections. 4. Conduct age-friendly evaluation surveys throughout the city.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Askarianabyaneh, Iman;
    Country: Canada

    Bidirectional DC-DC converters are widely used in different applications such as energy storage systems, Electric Vehicles (EVs), UPS, etc. In particular, future EVs require bidirectional power flow in order to integrate energy storage units into smart grids. These bidirectional power converters provide Grid to Vehicle (V2G)/ Vehicle to Grid (G2V) power flow capability for future EVs. Generally, there are two control loops used for bidirectional DC-DC converters: The inner current loop and The outer loop. The control of DAB converters used in EVs are proved to be challenging due to the wide range of operating conditions and non-linear behavior of the converter. In this thesis, the precise mathematical model of the converter is derived and non-linear control schemes are proposed for the control system of bidirectional DC-DC converters based on the derived model. The proposed inner current control technique is developed based on a novel Geometric-Sequence Control (GSC) approach. The proposed control technique offers significantly improved performance as compared to one for conventional control approaches. The proposed technique utilizes a simple control algorithm which saves on the computational resources. Therefore, it has higher reliability, which is essential in this application. Although, the proposed control technique is based on the mathematical model of the converter, its robustness against parameter uncertainties is proven. Three different control modes for charging the traction batteries in EVs are investigated in this thesis: the voltage mode control, the current mode control, and the power mode control. The outer loop control is determined by each of the three control modes. The structure of the outer control loop provides the current reference for the inner current loop. Comprehensive computer simulations have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed control methods. In addition, the proposed control have been verified on a 3.3 kW experimental prototype. Simulation and experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed control techniques over the conventional ones.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michaux, Julien;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Ce mémoire de maîtrise a été rédigé dans l’objectif d’explorer une inégalité. Une inégalité dans les pratiques liées à la saisie et l’exploitation des données utilisateur dans la sphère des technologies et services Web, plus particulièrement dans la sphère des GIS (Geographic Information Systems). En 2014, de nombreuses entreprises exploitent les données de leurs utilisateurs afin d’améliorer leurs services ou générer du revenu publicitaire. Du côté de la sphère publique et gouvernementale, ce changement n’a pas été effectué. Ainsi, les gouvernements fédéraux et municipaux sont démunis de données qui permettraient d’améliorer les infrastructures et services publics. Des villes à travers le monde essayent d’améliorer leurs services et de devenir « intelligentes » mais sont dépourvues de ressources et de savoir faire pour assurer une transition respectueuse de la vie privée et des souhaits des citadins. Comment une ville peut-elle créer des jeux de données géo-référencés sans enfreindre les droits des citadins ? Dans l’objectif de répondre à ces interrogations, nous avons réalisé une étude comparative entre l’utilisation d’OpenStreetMap (OSM) et de Google Maps (GM). Grâce à une série d’entretiens avec des utilisateurs de GM et d’OSM, nous avons pu comprendre les significations et les valeurs d’usages de ces deux plateformes. Une analyse mobilisant les concepts de l’appropriation, de l’action collective et des perspectives critiques variées nous a permis d’analyser nos données d’entretiens pour comprendre les enjeux et problèmes derrière l’utilisation de technologies de géolocalisation, ainsi que ceux liés à la contribution des utilisateurs à ces GIS. Suite à cette analyse, la compréhension de la contribution et de l’utilisation de ces services a été recontextualisée pour explorer les moyens potentiels que les villes ont d’utiliser les technologies de géolocalisation afin d’améliorer leurs infrastructures publiques en respectant leurs citoyens. This master’s thesis was started to explore an inequality. An inequality in the way users of mobile web services hand over data, and an inequality in the way this data are exploited. As it becomes commonplace for web companies to exploit their users’ data to improve their services or generate advertising revenue, the public domain is left in the dark, with little data to work with to improve public services. Notably, as cities are increasingly striving to become ‘smart’, a lack of data and ethical ways in which to exploit what little data exists is becoming increasingly problematic. How can a city create georeferenced data to improve its infrastructures? How can this data be exploited whilst respecting citizens’ privacy and security? Through a comparative study of the use of OpenStreetMap (OSM), an open-source mapping platform, and Google Maps, we have aimed to understand possible future uses of GPS technologies by government bodies. Through a series of interviews with OSM and Google Maps users, we have apprehended why users choose to use and contribute to a platform, and not to another. Using the concepts of appropriation and collective action, as well as critical perspectives from the study of immaterial capitalism, this data was then analyzed. This enabled us to understand the underlying issues behind use and contribution practices in the GIS sector. This understanding was then recontextualized in order to understand what government bodies could do to create ethical smart cities that take into consideration the preferences and concerns of the citizens these cities are increasingly designed to serve.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hussain, Akhtar; Musilek, Petr;
    Country: Canada

    Instead of using a dedicated backup power source to fulfill the energy needs of buildings during contingencies, a reward mechanism for providing reliability-as-a-service (RaaS) via electric vehicles (EVs) is proposed in this study. The proposed positive reward mechanism comprises an upfront reward portion (paid upon registering) and a per-event reward portion (paid based on the amount of energy used). Similarly, a negative reward is applied to the registered EV owners not complying with their contracts. In addition, a score updating mechanism is proposed to incentivize EVs following their contracts and penalize the violating EVs. The score will be decisive during events when more EVs are available than the required energy. The use of EVs for providing RaaS is compared with two commonly used technologies for backup power, i.e., diesel generator and battery storage. Simulations have shown that the proposed scheme can significantly save the cost for building operators/owners while providing revenues for EV owners. The fairness in incentive allocation versus the amount of used energy is also demonstrated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shokrzadeh, Shahab;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Canada

    A comprehensive framework is presented for the integration of electrified transportation and renewable energy through repurposing batteries of plug-in electric vehicles towards a sustainable energy future. The framework considers future market penetration scenarios of plug-in electric vehicles, availability of batteries at their vehicular end of life, and the storage capacity required to generate base-load wind power in the region of study. The objective is to develop a model that can be used as a policy tool to investigate how different scenarios and pertinent parameters can effectively meet the challenges of sustainability in the energy and transportation sectors when the ultimate goal is to simultaneously displace fossil fuels with new generation of low-cost intermittent renewable energy. A sample case study is performed for Canada to investigate and verify the performance of the model. The analysis shows that the proposed approach can further improve the energy sustainability performance of Canada in 2050 by 1.65–4.11%, depending on the confidence level and in addition to electrification of transportation. In the framework, a statistical algorithm is developed to calculate the capacity of an energy storage system required for delivering base-load electricity for a wind farm in the future electric grids. The algorithm contributes towards the goal of utilizing low- cost intermittent wind energy to base-load power generation in the future electric grids. The introduced algorithm presents three methods to perform the sizing calculations each representing a scenario associated with the stages of the wind energy industry. The results of the studied case are applied to estimate the cost of wind energy to produce rated power at different confidence levels, which show cost-effectiveness and less intermittency on the power systems allowing for larger penetrations of renewables. Advanced statistical methods are used to more accurately characterize the operational wind power output versus manufacturer’s power curve. This is essential for effective integration of wind power into the power systems. Four parametric and nonparametric models are applied to estimate the power curve of wind turbines based on the available operational wind power data. The results of this study suggest that the penalized spline regression method presents a better performance over the other analyzed methods. Finally, an experimental testing is performed in laboratory to show the proof of concept of the capacity degradation of used batteries of plug-in electric vehicles in stationary applications using a 25 kWh repurposed energy storage system obtained from a taxi fleet in their “as-is” condition. The proposed comprehensive framework herein presents an approach leading to a sustainable transportation system by providing low-cost renewable energy, and can be used as a gold standard to compare other policies like hydrogen energy technologies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Verma, Aman; Nimana, Balwinder S.; Olateju, Babatunde; Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Radpour, Saeidreza; Canter, Christina E.; Subramanyam, Veena; Paramashivan, Deepak; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit;
    Country: Canada

    The growth in bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) production in the Canadian oil sands industry has superseded pipeline capacity growth in recent years, leading to the increased interest in the transport of crude oil by rail to desired markets. However, the specific techno-economic parameters that facilitate increased competitiveness of either transportation mode against the other is seldom addressed in the existing literature. This paper involves the development of a rail and pipeline techno-economic transport model, which is used to ascertain the transportation cost of both options for a market distance range of 1-3000 km and a production scale of 100,000-750,000 barrels per day (bpd). The transportation cost for either option is highly sensitive to the market distance, transportation scale and crude grade being transported; however, pipelines are generally more competitive for large transportation scales, while the cost-effectiveness of rail transport is realized particularly at smaller transportation scales. In general, pipelines are cost efficient for the transportation of crude oil in the majority of scenarios investigated. Rail can be more economical than pipeline under certain conditions. The use of insulated rail cars for the transport of raw bitumen is the area with greatest potential for cost competitiveness against pipelines.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McGowan, Ellen;
    Country: Canada

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has radically impacted public transport ridership and service provision across the country. Since the outbreak of the virus, transit agencies have had to adapt to new and rapidly evolving conditions. Many agencies modified services to reflect lower ridership levels and to ensure the safety of both riders and operators. These changes in service were guided by public health agencies, as well as major transit associations like the Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA) and International Association of Public Transport (UITP). Other agencies implemented precautionary measures like rear door boarding, temporary fare suspension, and reduced capacity limits to enable the safe continuity of operations. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, transit agencies are having to strike a balance between providing enough transportation options for essential travel and reducing service offerings to match the declining overall demand for mobility services. Using a case study of Grand River Transit (GRT) in the Region of Waterloo, this report will document the impacts of COVID-19 on transit agencies and their responses, with a focus on modifications to services. By analyzing the challenges that transit agencies faced in modifying transit services, this report will offer guidance on the protocols and procedures that should be established for an effective pandemic response. Further, the findings of this report will help to inform discussions and guide decisions on the role and operation of public transit in future pandemic events. 

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Grande, Giuseppe;
    Country: Canada

    This research presents a series of projects that contribute to the understanding of how traffic variability affects the measurement and application of annual average daily traffic (AADT). AADT is the most fundamental traffic statistic in transportation engineering. It is defined as the number of vehicles expected to use a facility on an average day. However, traffic is known to experience periodical fluctuations over time; these periodicities are location-specific. This underlying variability in time and space can be lost when calculating and reporting AADT. This research comprises four research projects. The first evaluates the effectiveness of multiple AADT formulations using simulated data loss scenarios. It finds that a relatively new methodology, proposed by the Federal Highway Administration in the United States, removes a small, systematic bias (0.1%) from the existing calculation convention and reduces the width of the 95% confidence interval by 0.5%. The second project provides a method for measuring and reducing the error produced during the assignment step of the AADT estimation process. It applies this method to a case study, finding that the novel assignment method reduces errors by 2.5% on average. The third project explores the use of unconventional traffic data sources (passively-collected vehicle probe data) in tandem with conventional sources. The research finds that speed-based probe data are most closely correlated with truck-specific volume data, specifically around urban centres and along major trade routes. In the studied data, the Pearson correlation coefficient reached 0.9 at some sites. The final project tests the sensitivity of grade crossing design and regulation to predicted fluctuations in traffic. The results show that daily variations in traffic can cause sites to be apparently over- or under-designed for a day or group of days, when compared to regulatory standards. Moreover, they show that within-day variations can be used to express more detailed grade crossing exposure estimates than the daily averages that are used in current regulations. On aggregate, the research finds that, while AADT estimates are convenient to calculate and ubiquitously applied, there is a need to better disclose the source data and methodologies used to produce AADT estimates to avoid misuse and false assumptions about comparability. Further, AADT summarizes the traffic at a site into a single average volume, which fails to express the known periodical traffic variability at a site.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    George, Tyler;
    Country: Canada

    Within the transit industry it is well known that transit buses have the potential to operate at weights that exceed vehicle weight limits. However, few attempts have been made to date to determine how often this occurs and to what degree. This research characterizes the current transit industry with respect to the regulatory environment, factors that have affected the weight of modern day transit buses, and methods for accommodating transit buses in pavement design. This research then develops and applies a methodology for calculating the in-service weights of standard 40-ft. transit buses using a combination of passenger characteristic data, transit bus curb weight data, and transit ridership data. The findings of this research suggest that the transit bus industry is in a state of competing interests. Weight estimates developed in this research identify that current transit bus models are unable to comply with vehicle weight limits in most jurisdictions even with no passengers on board. Further, these estimates indicate that transit buses have a significant impact on pavements – comparable to those of fully-loaded, five-axle semi-trucks on a per vehicle basis. To date this issue has been addressed in the Canadian Prairie Region by indefinitely granting transit buses overweight permits. However, based on the current state of the transit industry there is little incentive for transit agencies to operate lightweight transit buses and little incentive for transit bus manufacturers to produce lightweight transit buses in order to address pavement and regulatory concerns. Consequently, transit bus axle weight issues in the Canadian Prairie Region are expected to continue in the foreseeable future.

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
13 Research products, page 1 of 2
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Stoyanovich, Sawyer; Zeyu Yang; Hanson, Mark; Hollebone, Bruce P; Orihel, Diane M; Palace, Vince; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose R; Faragher, Robert; Fatemah S Mirnaghi; Keval Shah; +1 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: NSERC

    The main petroleum product transported through pipelines in Canada is diluted bitumen (dilbit), a semi-liquid form of heavy crude oil mixed with natural gas condensates to facilitate transport. The weathering, fate, behaviour, and environmental effects of dilbit are crucial to consider when responding to a spill, however few environmental studies on dilbit have been completed. Here we report on 11-day long experimental spills of dilbit (Cold Lake Winter Blend) in outdoor micro-cosms meant to simulate a low-energy aquatic system containing natural lake water and sedi-ments treated with a low (1:8,000 oil:water) and high (1:800 oil:water) volume of dilbit. In the first 24 hours of the experiment, volatile hydrocarbons quickly evaporated from the dilbit, result-ing in increased dilbit density and viscosity. These changes in dilbit’s physical and chemical properties ultimately led to its submergence after 8 days. We also detected rapid accumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the water column of the treated-microcosms following the spills. Our study provides new information on the environmental fate and behaviour of dilbit in a freshwater environment that will be critical to environmental risk assessments of proposed pipe-line projects. In particular, our study demonstrates the propensity for dilbit to sink under ambient environmental conditions in fresh waters typical of many boreal lakes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thibault, Jenna;
    Country: Canada

    Overview: There is a growing need to develop age-friendly communities to meet the challenges seniors face as they age (Cerda and Bernier, 2013). By the year 2050, the population will be comprised of a greater proportion of older people (aged 60 and over) than children (aged 0 to 14) for the first time in human history (Plouffe and Kalache, 2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) is trying to encourage cities to become more age-friendly and has identified eight key themes, relating to a city’s structures, environment, services and policies, which are conducive to a community that promotes active aging (WHO, 2007a). Although active aging is a complex concept and extends beyond solely ensuring that seniors remain physically active, designing neighbourhoods that promote mobility is critical since many seniors want to “age in place” (Smith, 2009). Seniors that experience fewer limitations on their mobility maintain a stronger sense of independence and control over their lives (Hodge, 2008). Since 2012, the City of Kingston has been engaged in the process of becoming classified as an age-friendly city (City of Kingston, 2012). The City’s commitment to this initiative provided the rationale for conducting age-friendly research in Kingston. Specifically, this research sought to examine the age-friendly cities concept, with an explicit focus on those age-friendly features that influence mobility. According to Hodge (2008) the primary factor influencing mobility for seniors is the availability and accessibility of transportation, whether by foot, public transit, a personal vehicle or another mode of transportation. From the eight themes identified by the WHO, the topics of “Outdoor spaces and buildings” and “Transportation” are two topics closely linked to this idea that the physical environment influences an individual’s ease of mobility (WHO, 2007a). Report Objective: The objective of this report was to investigate how two suburban developments in Kingston, Ontario promote mobility for seniors by assessing and comparing the age-friendliness of the pedestrian environment and existing public transportation infrastructure and services. The two suburban developments selected were the recently developed Walnut Grove, an ‘adult-lifestyle community’, and Bayridge West, an older suburban development. These developments share the commonality of possessing a high proportion of older adults (aged 55+) compared to other areas in the City, and differ in terms of their built form. In addition to comparing the age-friendliness of these two suburban developments, this report also examined whether the weaknesses uncovered through the analyses of these sites were city-wide problems, or site-specific. Methods: This report used the comparative case study approach (Yin, 2014) to compare the age-friendliness of these two sites. The primary method of data collection involved conducting field observations using a comprehensive evaluation tool to assess different age-friendly attributes of the pedestrian environment and public transportation infrastructure and services. Field observations were conducted over four data collection periods in order to consider time-of-day and seasonal variations. Two rounds of document reviews were also conducted. Round One examined whether the shortfalls observed within the two suburban developments were city-wide challenges or site-specific problems, while Round Two examined the current commitments of the City to plan for age-friendly communities with respect to the built environment and public transportation. Key Findings and Recommendations: Bayridge West scored considerably better than Walnut Grove in terms of the public transportation theme, whereas the difference was much smaller in terms of the pedestrian environment. The first document review revealed considerable correspondence between the results of the field analyses and the problems identified by focus group participants for the City of Kingston in general. The second document review found that the City has various action-based and policy-based commitments, along with strategies and visions, for creating a more age-friendly city. However, these current commitments do not address all of the shortfalls identified through this research. As such, four recommendations are proposed for helping the City of Kingston achieve its goal of creating age-friendly communities: 1. Conduct an accessibility survey to address the observation of insufficient sidewalk widths. 2. Install bus shelters with benches, route information and lighting. 3. Investigate the feasibility of installing audible traffic signals at existing intersections. 4. Conduct age-friendly evaluation surveys throughout the city.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Askarianabyaneh, Iman;
    Country: Canada

    Bidirectional DC-DC converters are widely used in different applications such as energy storage systems, Electric Vehicles (EVs), UPS, etc. In particular, future EVs require bidirectional power flow in order to integrate energy storage units into smart grids. These bidirectional power converters provide Grid to Vehicle (V2G)/ Vehicle to Grid (G2V) power flow capability for future EVs. Generally, there are two control loops used for bidirectional DC-DC converters: The inner current loop and The outer loop. The control of DAB converters used in EVs are proved to be challenging due to the wide range of operating conditions and non-linear behavior of the converter. In this thesis, the precise mathematical model of the converter is derived and non-linear control schemes are proposed for the control system of bidirectional DC-DC converters based on the derived model. The proposed inner current control technique is developed based on a novel Geometric-Sequence Control (GSC) approach. The proposed control technique offers significantly improved performance as compared to one for conventional control approaches. The proposed technique utilizes a simple control algorithm which saves on the computational resources. Therefore, it has higher reliability, which is essential in this application. Although, the proposed control technique is based on the mathematical model of the converter, its robustness against parameter uncertainties is proven. Three different control modes for charging the traction batteries in EVs are investigated in this thesis: the voltage mode control, the current mode control, and the power mode control. The outer loop control is determined by each of the three control modes. The structure of the outer control loop provides the current reference for the inner current loop. Comprehensive computer simulations have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed control methods. In addition, the proposed control have been verified on a 3.3 kW experimental prototype. Simulation and experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed control techniques over the conventional ones.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michaux, Julien;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Ce mémoire de maîtrise a été rédigé dans l’objectif d’explorer une inégalité. Une inégalité dans les pratiques liées à la saisie et l’exploitation des données utilisateur dans la sphère des technologies et services Web, plus particulièrement dans la sphère des GIS (Geographic Information Systems). En 2014, de nombreuses entreprises exploitent les données de leurs utilisateurs afin d’améliorer leurs services ou générer du revenu publicitaire. Du côté de la sphère publique et gouvernementale, ce changement n’a pas été effectué. Ainsi, les gouvernements fédéraux et municipaux sont démunis de données qui permettraient d’améliorer les infrastructures et services publics. Des villes à travers le monde essayent d’améliorer leurs services et de devenir « intelligentes » mais sont dépourvues de ressources et de savoir faire pour assurer une transition respectueuse de la vie privée et des souhaits des citadins. Comment une ville peut-elle créer des jeux de données géo-référencés sans enfreindre les droits des citadins ? Dans l’objectif de répondre à ces interrogations, nous avons réalisé une étude comparative entre l’utilisation d’OpenStreetMap (OSM) et de Google Maps (GM). Grâce à une série d’entretiens avec des utilisateurs de GM et d’OSM, nous avons pu comprendre les significations et les valeurs d’usages de ces deux plateformes. Une analyse mobilisant les concepts de l’appropriation, de l’action collective et des perspectives critiques variées nous a permis d’analyser nos données d’entretiens pour comprendre les enjeux et problèmes derrière l’utilisation de technologies de géolocalisation, ainsi que ceux liés à la contribution des utilisateurs à ces GIS. Suite à cette analyse, la compréhension de la contribution et de l’utilisation de ces services a été recontextualisée pour explorer les moyens potentiels que les villes ont d’utiliser les technologies de géolocalisation afin d’améliorer leurs infrastructures publiques en respectant leurs citoyens. This master’s thesis was started to explore an inequality. An inequality in the way users of mobile web services hand over data, and an inequality in the way this data are exploited. As it becomes commonplace for web companies to exploit their users’ data to improve their services or generate advertising revenue, the public domain is left in the dark, with little data to work with to improve public services. Notably, as cities are increasingly striving to become ‘smart’, a lack of data and ethical ways in which to exploit what little data exists is becoming increasingly problematic. How can a city create georeferenced data to improve its infrastructures? How can this data be exploited whilst respecting citizens’ privacy and security? Through a comparative study of the use of OpenStreetMap (OSM), an open-source mapping platform, and Google Maps, we have aimed to understand possible future uses of GPS technologies by government bodies. Through a series of interviews with OSM and Google Maps users, we have apprehended why users choose to use and contribute to a platform, and not to another. Using the concepts of appropriation and collective action, as well as critical perspectives from the study of immaterial capitalism, this data was then analyzed. This enabled us to understand the underlying issues behind use and contribution practices in the GIS sector. This understanding was then recontextualized in order to understand what government bodies could do to create ethical smart cities that take into consideration the preferences and concerns of the citizens these cities are increasingly designed to serve.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hussain, Akhtar; Musilek, Petr;
    Country: Canada

    Instead of using a dedicated backup power source to fulfill the energy needs of buildings during contingencies, a reward mechanism for providing reliability-as-a-service (RaaS) via electric vehicles (EVs) is proposed in this study. The proposed positive reward mechanism comprises an upfront reward portion (paid upon registering) and a per-event reward portion (paid based on the amount of energy used). Similarly, a negative reward is applied to the registered EV owners not complying with their contracts. In addition, a score updating mechanism is proposed to incentivize EVs following their contracts and penalize the violating EVs. The score will be decisive during events when more EVs are available than the required energy. The use of EVs for providing RaaS is compared with two commonly used technologies for backup power, i.e., diesel generator and battery storage. Simulations have shown that the proposed scheme can significantly save the cost for building operators/owners while providing revenues for EV owners. The fairness in incentive allocation versus the amount of used energy is also demonstrated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shokrzadeh, Shahab;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Canada

    A comprehensive framework is presented for the integration of electrified transportation and renewable energy through repurposing batteries of plug-in electric vehicles towards a sustainable energy future. The framework considers future market penetration scenarios of plug-in electric vehicles, availability of batteries at their vehicular end of life, and the storage capacity required to generate base-load wind power in the region of study. The objective is to develop a model that can be used as a policy tool to investigate how different scenarios and pertinent parameters can effectively meet the challenges of sustainability in the energy and transportation sectors when the ultimate goal is to simultaneously displace fossil fuels with new generation of low-cost intermittent renewable energy. A sample case study is performed for Canada to investigate and verify the performance of the model. The analysis shows that the proposed approach can further improve the energy sustainability performance of Canada in 2050 by 1.65–4.11%, depending on the confidence level and in addition to electrification of transportation. In the framework, a statistical algorithm is developed to calculate the capacity of an energy storage system required for delivering base-load electricity for a wind farm in the future electric grids. The algorithm contributes towards the goal of utilizing low- cost intermittent wind energy to base-load power generation in the future electric grids. The introduced algorithm presents three methods to perform the sizing calculations each representing a scenario associated with the stages of the wind energy industry. The results of the studied case are applied to estimate the cost of wind energy to produce rated power at different confidence levels, which show cost-effectiveness and less intermittency on the power systems allowing for larger penetrations of renewables. Advanced statistical methods are used to more accurately characterize the operational wind power output versus manufacturer’s power curve. This is essential for effective integration of wind power into the power systems. Four parametric and nonparametric models are applied to estimate the power curve of wind turbines based on the available operational wind power data. The results of this study suggest that the penalized spline regression method presents a better performance over the other analyzed methods. Finally, an experimental testing is performed in laboratory to show the proof of concept of the capacity degradation of used batteries of plug-in electric vehicles in stationary applications using a 25 kWh repurposed energy storage system obtained from a taxi fleet in their “as-is” condition. The proposed comprehensive framework herein presents an approach leading to a sustainable transportation system by providing low-cost renewable energy, and can be used as a gold standard to compare other policies like hydrogen energy technologies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Verma, Aman; Nimana, Balwinder S.; Olateju, Babatunde; Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Radpour, Saeidreza; Canter, Christina E.; Subramanyam, Veena; Paramashivan, Deepak; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit;
    Country: Canada

    The growth in bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) production in the Canadian oil sands industry has superseded pipeline capacity growth in recent years, leading to the increased interest in the transport of crude oil by rail to desired markets. However, the specific techno-economic parameters that facilitate increased competitiveness of either transportation mode against the other is seldom addressed in the existing literature. This paper involves the development of a rail and pipeline techno-economic transport model, which is used to ascertain the transportation cost of both options for a market distance range of 1-3000 km and a production scale of 100,000-750,000 barrels per day (bpd). The transportation cost for either option is highly sensitive to the market distance, transportation scale and crude grade being transported; however, pipelines are generally more competitive for large transportation scales, while the cost-effectiveness of rail transport is realized particularly at smaller transportation scales. In general, pipelines are cost efficient for the transportation of crude oil in the majority of scenarios investigated. Rail can be more economical than pipeline under certain conditions. The use of insulated rail cars for the transport of raw bitumen is the area with greatest potential for cost competitiveness against pipelines.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McGowan, Ellen;
    Country: Canada

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has radically impacted public transport ridership and service provision across the country. Since the outbreak of the virus, transit agencies have had to adapt to new and rapidly evolving conditions. Many agencies modified services to reflect lower ridership levels and to ensure the safety of both riders and operators. These changes in service were guided by public health agencies, as well as major transit associations like the Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA) and International Association of Public Transport (UITP). Other agencies implemented precautionary measures like rear door boarding, temporary fare suspension, and reduced capacity limits to enable the safe continuity of operations. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, transit agencies are having to strike a balance between providing enough transportation options for essential travel and reducing service offerings to match the declining overall demand for mobility services. Using a case study of Grand River Transit (GRT) in the Region of Waterloo, this report will document the impacts of COVID-19 on transit agencies and their responses, with a focus on modifications to services. By analyzing the challenges that transit agencies faced in modifying transit services, this report will offer guidance on the protocols and procedures that should be established for an effective pandemic response. Further, the findings of this report will help to inform discussions and guide decisions on the role and operation of public transit in future pandemic events. 

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Grande, Giuseppe;
    Country: Canada

    This research presents a series of projects that contribute to the understanding of how traffic variability affects the measurement and application of annual average daily traffic (AADT). AADT is the most fundamental traffic statistic in transportation engineering. It is defined as the number of vehicles expected to use a facility on an average day. However, traffic is known to experience periodical fluctuations over time; these periodicities are location-specific. This underlying variability in time and space can be lost when calculating and reporting AADT. This research comprises four research projects. The first evaluates the effectiveness of multiple AADT formulations using simulated data loss scenarios. It finds that a relatively new methodology, proposed by the Federal Highway Administration in the United States, removes a small, systematic bias (0.1%) from the existing calculation convention and reduces the width of the 95% confidence interval by 0.5%. The second project provides a method for measuring and reducing the error produced during the assignment step of the AADT estimation process. It applies this method to a case study, finding that the novel assignment method reduces errors by 2.5% on average. The third project explores the use of unconventional traffic data sources (passively-collected vehicle probe data) in tandem with conventional sources. The research finds that speed-based probe data are most closely correlated with truck-specific volume data, specifically around urban centres and along major trade routes. In the studied data, the Pearson correlation coefficient reached 0.9 at some sites. The final project tests the sensitivity of grade crossing design and regulation to predicted fluctuations in traffic. The results show that daily variations in traffic can cause sites to be apparently over- or under-designed for a day or group of days, when compared to regulatory standards. Moreover, they show that within-day variations can be used to express more detailed grade crossing exposure estimates than the daily averages that are used in current regulations. On aggregate, the research finds that, while AADT estimates are convenient to calculate and ubiquitously applied, there is a need to better disclose the source data and methodologies used to produce AADT estimates to avoid misuse and false assumptions about comparability. Further, AADT summarizes the traffic at a site into a single average volume, which fails to express the known periodical traffic variability at a site.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    George, Tyler;
    Country: Canada

    Within the transit industry it is well known that transit buses have the potential to operate at weights that exceed vehicle weight limits. However, few attempts have been made to date to determine how often this occurs and to what degree. This research characterizes the current transit industry with respect to the regulatory environment, factors that have affected the weight of modern day transit buses, and methods for accommodating transit buses in pavement design. This research then develops and applies a methodology for calculating the in-service weights of standard 40-ft. transit buses using a combination of passenger characteristic data, transit bus curb weight data, and transit ridership data. The findings of this research suggest that the transit bus industry is in a state of competing interests. Weight estimates developed in this research identify that current transit bus models are unable to comply with vehicle weight limits in most jurisdictions even with no passengers on board. Further, these estimates indicate that transit buses have a significant impact on pavements – comparable to those of fully-loaded, five-axle semi-trucks on a per vehicle basis. To date this issue has been addressed in the Canadian Prairie Region by indefinitely granting transit buses overweight permits. However, based on the current state of the transit industry there is little incentive for transit agencies to operate lightweight transit buses and little incentive for transit bus manufacturers to produce lightweight transit buses in order to address pavement and regulatory concerns. Consequently, transit bus axle weight issues in the Canadian Prairie Region are expected to continue in the foreseeable future.