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  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Helmuth Thomas; Elizabeth H. Shadwick; Frank Dehairs; Bruno Lansard; Alfonso Mucci; Jacques Navez; Yves Gratton; Friederike Prowe; Melissa Chierici; Agneta Fransson; +5 more
    Publisher: AGU / Wiley
    Countries: France, France, France, Germany, Belgium

    The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 ± 0.45 mol C m-2 yr-1. Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Peter J. Cranford; Pauline Kamermans; Gesche Krause; Joseph Mazurie; Bela H. Buck; Per Dolmer; David Fraser; Kris Van Nieuwenhove; Francis O'Beirn; A. Sanchez-Mata; +2 more
    Countries: Denmark, Ireland, France, Ireland, Netherlands

    An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture–environment interactions and policy-related developments and decisions. The Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response (DPSIR) management framework incorporates the connectivity between human and ecological issues and would permit available performance indicators to be identified and organized in a manner that facilitates different regulatory needs. Suitable performance indicators and modeling approaches, which are used to assess DPSIR framework components, are reviewed with a focus on the key environmental issues associated with bivalve farming. Indicator selection criteria are provided to facilitate constraining the number of indicators within the management framework. It is recommended that an ecosystem-based approach for bivalve aquaculture be based on a tiered indicator monitoring system that is structured on the principle that increased environmental risk requires increased monitoring effort. More than 1 threshold for each indicator would permit implementation of predetermined impact prevention and mitigation measures prior to reaching an unacceptable ecological state. We provide an example of a tiered monitoring program that would communicate knowledge to decision-makers on ecosystem State Change and Impact components of the DPSIR framework. Copyright © 2015 P.J. Cranford et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer-reviewed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    David C. Fritts; H. Iimura; Diego Janches; Ruth S. Lieberman; Dennis M. Riggin; Nicholas J. Mitchell; Robert A. Vincent; Iain M. Reid; Damian J. Murphy; Masaki Tsutsumi; +3 more
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
    Country: United Kingdom

    The structure, variability, and mean-flow interactions of the quasi-2-day wave (Q2DW) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during January 2015 were studied employing meteor and medium-frequency radar winds at eight sites from 23°S to 76°S and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature and geopotential height measurements from 30°S to 80°S. The event had a duration of ~20–25 days, dominant periods of ~44–52 hr, temperature amplitudes as large as ~16 K, and zonal and meridional wind amplitudes as high as ~40 and 80 m/s, respectively, at middle and lower latitudes. MLS measurements enabled definition of balance winds that agreed well with radar wind amplitudes and phases at middle latitudes where amplitudes were large and quantification of the various Q2DW modes contributing to the full wave field. The Q2DW event was composed primarily of the westward zonal wavenumber 3 (W3) mode but also had measurable amplitudes in other westward modes W1, W2, and W4; eastward modes E1 and E2; and stationary mode S0. Of the secondary modes, W1, W2, and E2 had the larger amplitudes. Inferred MLS balance winds enabled estimates of the Eliassen-Palm fluxes for each mode, and cumulative zonal accelerations that were found to be in reasonable agreement with radar estimates from ~35°S to 70°S at the lower altitudes at which radar winds were available.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Nicolás Talloni-Álvarez; U. Rashid Sumaila; Philippe Le Billon; William W. L. Cheung;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Germany

    Abstract Global warming is already affecting the oceans through changes in water temperature, acidification, oxygen content and sea level rise, amongst many others. These changes are having multiple effects on marine species worldwide, with subsequent impacts on marine fisheries, peoples' livelihoods and food security. This work presents a review of the recent literature on the current and projected impacts of climate change on Canada's Pacific marine ecosystem. We find that there is an increasing number of studies in British Columbia focusing on changes in ocean conditions and marine species responses under climate change, including an emerging literature on the socio-economic impacts of these changes considered to be a knowledge gap. According to the literature, it is well established that ocean temperatures are increasing over the long-term, especially, in southern areas of British Columbia. Warming trends are increasing in the spring and are strongest in summer. However, there are important uncertainties regarding other climate drivers, such as oxygen concentration and acidification, stemming mainly from the insufficiency of data. Pacific salmon, elasmobranchs, invertebrates and rockfishes are amongst the most vulnerable species groups to climate change in British Columbia. Also, shifts in stock distribution and fish abundance under climate change may have a significant impact on fish supply affecting the livelihoods and food security of some British Columbians. The magnitude of these impacts is likely to vary according to a latitudinal gradient, with southern coastal areas being more affected than northern and central areas; challenging multiple areas of governance, such as equity and fishing access amongst First Nations; and institutional arrangements for transboundary stocks between the U.S. and Canada.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    K. Baibakov; Norman T. O'Neill; Liviu Ivanescu; Thomas J. Duck; C. W. Perro; Andreas Herber; Karl-Heinz Schulz; O. Schrems;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Project: NSERC

    We present recent progress on nighttime retrievals of aerosol and cloud optical properties over the PEARL (Polar Environmental Atmospheric Research Laboratory) station at Eureka (Nunavut, Canada) in the High Arctic (80° N, 86° W). In the spring of 2011 and 2012, a star photometer was employed to acquire aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, while vertical aerosol and cloud backscatter profiles were measured using the CANDAC Raman Lidar (CRL). We used a simple backscatter coefficient threshold (βthr) to distinguish aerosols from clouds and, assuming that aerosols were largely fine mode (FM)/sub-micron, to distinguish FM aerosols from coarse mode (CM)/super-micron cloud or crystal particles. Using prescribed lidar ratios, we computed FM and CM AODs that were compared with analogous AODs estimated from spectral star photometry. We found (βthr dependent) coherences between the lidar and star photometer for both FM events and CM cloud and crystal events with averaged, FM absolute differences being R2 values were between 0.2 and 0.8. A βthr sensitivity study demonstrated that zero crossing absolute differences and R2 peaks were in comparable regions of the βthr range (or physical reasons were given for their disparity). The utility of spectral vs. temporal cloud screening of star photometer AODs was also illustrated. In general our results are critical to building confidence in the physical fidelity of derived, weak amplitude, star photometry AODs and, in turn, towards the development of AOD climatologies and validation databases for polar winter models and satellite sensors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olaf Morgenstern; Marco Giorgetta; Kiyotaka Shibata; Veronika Eyring; Darryn W. Waugh; Theodore G. Shepherd; Hideharu Akiyoshi; J. Austin; A. J. G. Baumgaertner; Slimane Bekki; +30 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Germany, Italy, France

    The goal of the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation (CCMVal) activity is to improve understanding of chemistry-climate models (CCMs) through process-oriented evaluation and to provide reliable projections of stratospheric ozone and its impact on climate. An appreciation of the details of model formulations is essential for understanding how models respond to the changing external forcings of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances, and hence for understanding the ozone and climate forecasts produced by the models participating in this activity. Here we introduce and review the models used for the second round (CCMVal-2) of this intercomparison, regarding the implementation of chemical, transport, radiative, and dynamical processes in these models. In particular, we review the advantages and problems associated with approaches used to model processes of relevance to stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. Furthermore, we state the definitions of the reference simulations performed, and describe the forcing data used in these simulations. We identify some developments in chemistry-climate modeling that make models more physically based or more comprehensive, including the introduction of an interactive ocean, online photolysis, troposphere-stratosphere chemistry, and non-orographic gravity-wave deposition as linked to tropospheric convection. The relatively new developments indicate that stratospheric CCM modeling is becoming more consistent with our physically based understanding of the atmosphere. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin L. Chazdon; Eben N. Broadbent; Danaë M. A. Rozendaal; Frans Bongers; Angelica M. Almeyda Zambrano; T. Mitchell Aide; Patricia Balvanera; Justin M. Becknell; Vanessa K. Boukili; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; +50 more
    Publisher: Science Advances
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639114), NSF | CNH-RCN: Tropical Refores... (1313788), NSF | COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: M... (1050957), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147429), EC | ROBIN (283093), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147434), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639393), NSF | CAREER: Ecosystem process... (1053237), NSF | Controls on the Storage a... (0129104), NSF | CAREER: Land Use and Envi... (1349952)

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Models reveal the high carbon mitigation potential of tropical forest regeneration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stephan J. Jorry; André W. Droxler; Gianni Mallarino; Gerald R. Dickens; Samuel J. Bentley; Luc Beaufort; Larry C. Peterson; Bradley N. Opdyke;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SNSF | Neuronal Plasticity of th... (62620), NSF | Collaborative Research: L... (0305688), SNSF | Late Quaternary Evolution... (111250)

    International audience; Since Last Glacial Maximum (23-19 ka), Earth climate warming and deglaciation occurred in two major steps (Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal), interrupted by a short cooling interval referred to as the Younger Dryas (12.5-11.5 ka B. P.). In this study, three cores (MV-33, MV-66, and MD-40) collected in the central part of Pandora Trough (Gulf of Papua) have been analyzed, and they reveal a detailed sedimentary pattern at millennial timescale. Siliciclastic turbidites disappeared during the Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal intervals to systematically reoccur during the Younger Dryas interval. Subsequent to the final disappearance of the siliciclastic turbidites a calciturbidite occurred during meltwater pulse 1B. The Holocene interval was characterized by a lack of siliciclastic turbidites, relatively high carbonate content, and fine bank-derived aragonitic sediment. The observed millennial timescale sedimentary variability can be explained by sea level fluctuations. During the Last Glacial Maximum, siliciclastic turbidites were numerous when the lowstand coastal system was located along the modern shelf edge. Although they did not occur during the intervals of maximum flooding of the shelf (during meltwater pulses 1A and 1B), siliciclastic turbidites reappear briefly during the Younger Dryas, an interval when sea level rise slowed, stopped, or perhaps even fell. The timing of the calciturbidite coincides with the first reflooding of Eastern Fields Reef, an atoll that remained exposed for most of the glacial stages.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederick W. Menk; Ian R. Mann; Andrew Smith; C. L. Waters; Mark A. Clilverd; David K. Milling;
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper discusses the use of ground magnetometer data to derive plasma mass density profiles of the dayside plasmapause region with spatial and temporal resolution in the range 0.15-0.4 R-E and 20-60 min. This is achieved using cross-phase techniques to identify field line resonance signatures that are not apparent in power spectra. Under quiet conditions, mass density profiles do not show a distinct plasmapause and closely resemble electron density profiles for similar conditions. Under more active conditions the plasmapause can be clearly identified, and its width can be resolved in about 20% of the cases. Spatial integration effects smooth the mass density profiles near the plasmapause boundaries, while comparison of the mass and electron densities allows estimates of the heavy ion mass loading. Temporal variations in the plasmapause position and plasmaspheric density depletions are readily resolved. Sudden changes in solar wind conditions cause a redistribution of plasma within similar to20 min, probably in response to penetration of the magnetospheric electric field into the plasmasphere. Field line resonances occur daily and provide a useful tool for investigating the plasmapause region, especially in conjunction with VLF whistler and in situ particle and imaging experiments. Furthermore, the extensive existing suites of magnetometer data permit retrospective studies of focus intervals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lars Kaleschke; Nina Maaß; Christian Haas; Stefan Hendricks; Georg Heygster; Rasmus Tonboe;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: Germany

    In preparation for the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, we investigated the potential of L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometry to measure sea-ice thickness. <br><br> Sea-ice brightness temperature was measured at 1.4 GHz and ice thickness was measured along nearly coincident flight tracks during the SMOS Sea-Ice campaign in the Bay of Bothnia in March 2007. A research aircraft was equipped with the L-band Radiometer EMIRAD and coordinated with helicopter based electromagnetic induction (EM) ice thickness measurements. <br><br> We developed a three layer (ocean-ice-atmosphere) dielectric slab model for the calculation of ice thickness from brightness temperature. The dielectric properties depend on the relative brine volume which is a function of the bulk ice salinity and temperature. <br><br> The model calculations suggest a thickness sensitivity of up to 1.5 m for low-salinity (multi-year or brackish) sea-ice. For Arctic first year ice the modelled thickness sensitivity is less than half a meter. It reduces to a few centimeters for temperatures approaching the melting point. <br><br> The campaign was conducted under unfavorable melting conditions and the spatial overlap between the L-band and EM-measurements was relatively small. Despite these disadvantageous conditions we demonstrate the possibility to measure the sea-ice thickness with the certain limitation up to 1.5 m. <br><br> The ice thickness derived from SMOS measurements would be complementary to ESA's CryoSat-2 mission in terms of the error characteristics and the spatiotemporal coverage. The relative error for the SMOS ice thickness retrieval is expected to be not less than about 20%.

Advanced search in
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Searching FieldsTerms
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arrow_drop_down
includes
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Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
329 Research products, page 1 of 33
  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Helmuth Thomas; Elizabeth H. Shadwick; Frank Dehairs; Bruno Lansard; Alfonso Mucci; Jacques Navez; Yves Gratton; Friederike Prowe; Melissa Chierici; Agneta Fransson; +5 more
    Publisher: AGU / Wiley
    Countries: France, France, France, Germany, Belgium

    The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 ± 0.45 mol C m-2 yr-1. Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Peter J. Cranford; Pauline Kamermans; Gesche Krause; Joseph Mazurie; Bela H. Buck; Per Dolmer; David Fraser; Kris Van Nieuwenhove; Francis O'Beirn; A. Sanchez-Mata; +2 more
    Countries: Denmark, Ireland, France, Ireland, Netherlands

    An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture–environment interactions and policy-related developments and decisions. The Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response (DPSIR) management framework incorporates the connectivity between human and ecological issues and would permit available performance indicators to be identified and organized in a manner that facilitates different regulatory needs. Suitable performance indicators and modeling approaches, which are used to assess DPSIR framework components, are reviewed with a focus on the key environmental issues associated with bivalve farming. Indicator selection criteria are provided to facilitate constraining the number of indicators within the management framework. It is recommended that an ecosystem-based approach for bivalve aquaculture be based on a tiered indicator monitoring system that is structured on the principle that increased environmental risk requires increased monitoring effort. More than 1 threshold for each indicator would permit implementation of predetermined impact prevention and mitigation measures prior to reaching an unacceptable ecological state. We provide an example of a tiered monitoring program that would communicate knowledge to decision-makers on ecosystem State Change and Impact components of the DPSIR framework. Copyright © 2015 P.J. Cranford et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer-reviewed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    David C. Fritts; H. Iimura; Diego Janches; Ruth S. Lieberman; Dennis M. Riggin; Nicholas J. Mitchell; Robert A. Vincent; Iain M. Reid; Damian J. Murphy; Masaki Tsutsumi; +3 more
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
    Country: United Kingdom

    The structure, variability, and mean-flow interactions of the quasi-2-day wave (Q2DW) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during January 2015 were studied employing meteor and medium-frequency radar winds at eight sites from 23°S to 76°S and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature and geopotential height measurements from 30°S to 80°S. The event had a duration of ~20–25 days, dominant periods of ~44–52 hr, temperature amplitudes as large as ~16 K, and zonal and meridional wind amplitudes as high as ~40 and 80 m/s, respectively, at middle and lower latitudes. MLS measurements enabled definition of balance winds that agreed well with radar wind amplitudes and phases at middle latitudes where amplitudes were large and quantification of the various Q2DW modes contributing to the full wave field. The Q2DW event was composed primarily of the westward zonal wavenumber 3 (W3) mode but also had measurable amplitudes in other westward modes W1, W2, and W4; eastward modes E1 and E2; and stationary mode S0. Of the secondary modes, W1, W2, and E2 had the larger amplitudes. Inferred MLS balance winds enabled estimates of the Eliassen-Palm fluxes for each mode, and cumulative zonal accelerations that were found to be in reasonable agreement with radar estimates from ~35°S to 70°S at the lower altitudes at which radar winds were available.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Nicolás Talloni-Álvarez; U. Rashid Sumaila; Philippe Le Billon; William W. L. Cheung;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Germany

    Abstract Global warming is already affecting the oceans through changes in water temperature, acidification, oxygen content and sea level rise, amongst many others. These changes are having multiple effects on marine species worldwide, with subsequent impacts on marine fisheries, peoples' livelihoods and food security. This work presents a review of the recent literature on the current and projected impacts of climate change on Canada's Pacific marine ecosystem. We find that there is an increasing number of studies in British Columbia focusing on changes in ocean conditions and marine species responses under climate change, including an emerging literature on the socio-economic impacts of these changes considered to be a knowledge gap. According to the literature, it is well established that ocean temperatures are increasing over the long-term, especially, in southern areas of British Columbia. Warming trends are increasing in the spring and are strongest in summer. However, there are important uncertainties regarding other climate drivers, such as oxygen concentration and acidification, stemming mainly from the insufficiency of data. Pacific salmon, elasmobranchs, invertebrates and rockfishes are amongst the most vulnerable species groups to climate change in British Columbia. Also, shifts in stock distribution and fish abundance under climate change may have a significant impact on fish supply affecting the livelihoods and food security of some British Columbians. The magnitude of these impacts is likely to vary according to a latitudinal gradient, with southern coastal areas being more affected than northern and central areas; challenging multiple areas of governance, such as equity and fishing access amongst First Nations; and institutional arrangements for transboundary stocks between the U.S. and Canada.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    K. Baibakov; Norman T. O'Neill; Liviu Ivanescu; Thomas J. Duck; C. W. Perro; Andreas Herber; Karl-Heinz Schulz; O. Schrems;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Project: NSERC

    We present recent progress on nighttime retrievals of aerosol and cloud optical properties over the PEARL (Polar Environmental Atmospheric Research Laboratory) station at Eureka (Nunavut, Canada) in the High Arctic (80° N, 86° W). In the spring of 2011 and 2012, a star photometer was employed to acquire aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, while vertical aerosol and cloud backscatter profiles were measured using the CANDAC Raman Lidar (CRL). We used a simple backscatter coefficient threshold (βthr) to distinguish aerosols from clouds and, assuming that aerosols were largely fine mode (FM)/sub-micron, to distinguish FM aerosols from coarse mode (CM)/super-micron cloud or crystal particles. Using prescribed lidar ratios, we computed FM and CM AODs that were compared with analogous AODs estimated from spectral star photometry. We found (βthr dependent) coherences between the lidar and star photometer for both FM events and CM cloud and crystal events with averaged, FM absolute differences being R2 values were between 0.2 and 0.8. A βthr sensitivity study demonstrated that zero crossing absolute differences and R2 peaks were in comparable regions of the βthr range (or physical reasons were given for their disparity). The utility of spectral vs. temporal cloud screening of star photometer AODs was also illustrated. In general our results are critical to building confidence in the physical fidelity of derived, weak amplitude, star photometry AODs and, in turn, towards the development of AOD climatologies and validation databases for polar winter models and satellite sensors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olaf Morgenstern; Marco Giorgetta; Kiyotaka Shibata; Veronika Eyring; Darryn W. Waugh; Theodore G. Shepherd; Hideharu Akiyoshi; J. Austin; A. J. G. Baumgaertner; Slimane Bekki; +30 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Germany, Italy, France

    The goal of the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation (CCMVal) activity is to improve understanding of chemistry-climate models (CCMs) through process-oriented evaluation and to provide reliable projections of stratospheric ozone and its impact on climate. An appreciation of the details of model formulations is essential for understanding how models respond to the changing external forcings of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances, and hence for understanding the ozone and climate forecasts produced by the models participating in this activity. Here we introduce and review the models used for the second round (CCMVal-2) of this intercomparison, regarding the implementation of chemical, transport, radiative, and dynamical processes in these models. In particular, we review the advantages and problems associated with approaches used to model processes of relevance to stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. Furthermore, we state the definitions of the reference simulations performed, and describe the forcing data used in these simulations. We identify some developments in chemistry-climate modeling that make models more physically based or more comprehensive, including the introduction of an interactive ocean, online photolysis, troposphere-stratosphere chemistry, and non-orographic gravity-wave deposition as linked to tropospheric convection. The relatively new developments indicate that stratospheric CCM modeling is becoming more consistent with our physically based understanding of the atmosphere. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin L. Chazdon; Eben N. Broadbent; Danaë M. A. Rozendaal; Frans Bongers; Angelica M. Almeyda Zambrano; T. Mitchell Aide; Patricia Balvanera; Justin M. Becknell; Vanessa K. Boukili; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; +50 more
    Publisher: Science Advances
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639114), NSF | CNH-RCN: Tropical Refores... (1313788), NSF | COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: M... (1050957), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147429), EC | ROBIN (283093), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147434), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639393), NSF | CAREER: Ecosystem process... (1053237), NSF | Controls on the Storage a... (0129104), NSF | CAREER: Land Use and Envi... (1349952)

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Models reveal the high carbon mitigation potential of tropical forest regeneration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stephan J. Jorry; André W. Droxler; Gianni Mallarino; Gerald R. Dickens; Samuel J. Bentley; Luc Beaufort; Larry C. Peterson; Bradley N. Opdyke;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SNSF | Neuronal Plasticity of th... (62620), NSF | Collaborative Research: L... (0305688), SNSF | Late Quaternary Evolution... (111250)

    International audience; Since Last Glacial Maximum (23-19 ka), Earth climate warming and deglaciation occurred in two major steps (Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal), interrupted by a short cooling interval referred to as the Younger Dryas (12.5-11.5 ka B. P.). In this study, three cores (MV-33, MV-66, and MD-40) collected in the central part of Pandora Trough (Gulf of Papua) have been analyzed, and they reveal a detailed sedimentary pattern at millennial timescale. Siliciclastic turbidites disappeared during the Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal intervals to systematically reoccur during the Younger Dryas interval. Subsequent to the final disappearance of the siliciclastic turbidites a calciturbidite occurred during meltwater pulse 1B. The Holocene interval was characterized by a lack of siliciclastic turbidites, relatively high carbonate content, and fine bank-derived aragonitic sediment. The observed millennial timescale sedimentary variability can be explained by sea level fluctuations. During the Last Glacial Maximum, siliciclastic turbidites were numerous when the lowstand coastal system was located along the modern shelf edge. Although they did not occur during the intervals of maximum flooding of the shelf (during meltwater pulses 1A and 1B), siliciclastic turbidites reappear briefly during the Younger Dryas, an interval when sea level rise slowed, stopped, or perhaps even fell. The timing of the calciturbidite coincides with the first reflooding of Eastern Fields Reef, an atoll that remained exposed for most of the glacial stages.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederick W. Menk; Ian R. Mann; Andrew Smith; C. L. Waters; Mark A. Clilverd; David K. Milling;
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper discusses the use of ground magnetometer data to derive plasma mass density profiles of the dayside plasmapause region with spatial and temporal resolution in the range 0.15-0.4 R-E and 20-60 min. This is achieved using cross-phase techniques to identify field line resonance signatures that are not apparent in power spectra. Under quiet conditions, mass density profiles do not show a distinct plasmapause and closely resemble electron density profiles for similar conditions. Under more active conditions the plasmapause can be clearly identified, and its width can be resolved in about 20% of the cases. Spatial integration effects smooth the mass density profiles near the plasmapause boundaries, while comparison of the mass and electron densities allows estimates of the heavy ion mass loading. Temporal variations in the plasmapause position and plasmaspheric density depletions are readily resolved. Sudden changes in solar wind conditions cause a redistribution of plasma within similar to20 min, probably in response to penetration of the magnetospheric electric field into the plasmasphere. Field line resonances occur daily and provide a useful tool for investigating the plasmapause region, especially in conjunction with VLF whistler and in situ particle and imaging experiments. Furthermore, the extensive existing suites of magnetometer data permit retrospective studies of focus intervals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lars Kaleschke; Nina Maaß; Christian Haas; Stefan Hendricks; Georg Heygster; Rasmus Tonboe;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: Germany

    In preparation for the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, we investigated the potential of L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometry to measure sea-ice thickness. <br><br> Sea-ice brightness temperature was measured at 1.4 GHz and ice thickness was measured along nearly coincident flight tracks during the SMOS Sea-Ice campaign in the Bay of Bothnia in March 2007. A research aircraft was equipped with the L-band Radiometer EMIRAD and coordinated with helicopter based electromagnetic induction (EM) ice thickness measurements. <br><br> We developed a three layer (ocean-ice-atmosphere) dielectric slab model for the calculation of ice thickness from brightness temperature. The dielectric properties depend on the relative brine volume which is a function of the bulk ice salinity and temperature. <br><br> The model calculations suggest a thickness sensitivity of up to 1.5 m for low-salinity (multi-year or brackish) sea-ice. For Arctic first year ice the modelled thickness sensitivity is less than half a meter. It reduces to a few centimeters for temperatures approaching the melting point. <br><br> The campaign was conducted under unfavorable melting conditions and the spatial overlap between the L-band and EM-measurements was relatively small. Despite these disadvantageous conditions we demonstrate the possibility to measure the sea-ice thickness with the certain limitation up to 1.5 m. <br><br> The ice thickness derived from SMOS measurements would be complementary to ESA's CryoSat-2 mission in terms of the error characteristics and the spatiotemporal coverage. The relative error for the SMOS ice thickness retrieval is expected to be not less than about 20%.