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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    R. Thomas Lumbers; Sonia Shah; Honghuang Lin; Tomasz Czuba; Albert Henry; Daniel I. Swerdlow; Anders Mälarstig; Niek Verweij; Michael V. Holmes; Johan Ärnlöv; +157 more
    Countries: Netherlands, France, Sweden, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | BigData Heart (116074), EC | inHForm (679242)

    Funder: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004063 Funder: Swedish National Health Service Funder: Skåne University Hospital; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011077 Funder: Crafoord Foundation; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003173 Funder: Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100008748 Funder: Evans Medical Foundation; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100015927 Funder: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000050 Funder: British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Biomedicine Funder: NIHR UCLH Biomedical Research Centre; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100012317 Abstract: Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure. Methods and results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome‐wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow‐up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty‐nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34–90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low‐frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01–0.05) at P < 5 × 10−8 under an additive genetic model. Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.

  • Publication . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Susanna F. de Rezende; Or Meir; Jakob Nordström; Toniann Pitassi; Robert Robere; Marc Vinyals;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC , EC | UTHOTP (279611)

    We significantly strengthen and generalize the theorem lifting Nullstellensatz degree to monotone span program size by Pitassi and Robere (2018) so that it works for any gadget with high enough rank, in particular, for useful gadgets such as equality and greater-than. We apply our generalized theorem to solve three open problems: •We present the first result that demonstrates a separation in proof power for cutting planes with unbounded versus polynomially bounded coefficients. Specifically, we exhibit CNF formulas that can be refuted in quadratic length and constant line space in cutting planes with unbounded coefficients, but for which there are no refutations in subexponential length and subpolynomial line space if coefficients are restricted to be of polynomial magnitude. •We give the first explicit separation between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone real formulas. Specifically, we give an explicit family of functions that can be computed with monotone real formulas of nearly linear size but require monotone Boolean formulas of exponential size. Previously only a non-explicit separation was known. •We give the strongest separation to-date between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone Boolean circuits. Namely, we show that the classical GEN problem, which has polynomial-size monotone Boolean circuits, requires monotone Boolean formulas of size $2^{\Omega(n/\text{polylog}(n))}$ . An important technical ingredient, which may be of independent interest, is that we show that the Nullstellensatz degree of refuting the pebbling formula over a DAG $G$ over any field coincides exactly with the reversible pebbling price of $G$ . In particular, this implies that the standard decision tree complexity and the parity decision tree complexity of the corresponding falsified clause search problem are equal. This is an extended abstract. The full version of the paper is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.02144.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Wei Lv; Guangming Zhang; Cyril Barinka; James H. Eubanks; Alan P. Kozikowski;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)
    Project: CIHR

    A series of nonhydroxamate HDAC6 inhibitors were prepared in our effort to develop potent and selective compounds for possible use in central nervous system (CNS) disorders, thus obviating the genotoxicity often associated with the hydroxamates. Halogens are incorporated in the cap groups of the designed mercaptoacetamides in order to increase brain accessibility. The indole analogue 7e and quinoline analogue 13a displayed potent HDAC6 inhibitory activity (IC50, 11 and 2.8 nM) and excellent selectivity against HDAC1. Both 7e and 13a together with their ester prodrug 14 and disulfide prodrugs 15 and 16 were found to be effective in promoting tubulin acetylation in HEK cells. The disulfide prodrugs 15 and 16 also released a stable concentration of 7e and 13a upon microsomal incubation. Administration of 15 and 16 in vivo was found to trigger an increase of tubulin acetylation in mouse cortex. These results suggest that further exploration of these compounds for the treatment of CNS disorders is warranted.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew Spencer; Suzanne Lentzsch; Katja Weisel; Hervé Avet-Loiseau; Tomer M Mark; Ivan Spicka; Tamás Masszi; Birgitta Lauri; Mark-David Levin; Alberto Bosi; +27 more
    Publisher: Ferrata Storti Foundation (Haematologica)
    Countries: Netherlands, Italy

    Daratumumab, a CD38 human monoclonal antibody, demonstrated significant clinical activity in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in the primary analysis of CASTOR, a phase 3 study in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. A post hoc analysis based on treatment history and longer follow up is presented. After 19.4 (range: 0–27.7) months of median follow up, daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival (median: 16.7 versus 7.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.39; P12, ≤6, or >6 months), or cytogenetic risk. Minimal residual disease–negative rates were >2.5-fold higher with daratumumab across subgroups. The safety profile of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone remained consistent with longer follow up. Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone demonstrated significant clinical activity across clinically relevant subgroups and provided the greatest benefit to patients treated at first relapse. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02136134.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    John Eastwood; Denise E. De Souza; Miranda Shaw; Pankaj Garg; Susan Woolfenden; Ingrid Tyler; Lynn Kemp;
    Publisher: Ubiquity Press
    Country: Singapore

    Introduction: Intergenerational cycles of poverty, violence and crime, poor education and employment opportunities, psychopathology, and poor lifestyle and health behaviours require innovative models of health care delivery to break them. We describe a programme of research informed service development targeting vulnerable families in inner metropolitan Sydney, Australia that is designed to build and confirm a “Theory of Neighbourhood Context, Stress, Depression, and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)”. We describe the development of an intervention design and business case that drew on earlier realist causal and programme theoretical work. Methods: Realist causal and programme theory were used to inform the collaborative design of initiatives for vulnerable families. The collaborative design process included: identification of desirable and undesirable outcomes and contextual factors, consultation forums, interagency planning, and development of a service proposal. Results: The design elements included: perinatal coordination, sustained home visiting, integrated service model development, two place-based hubs, health promotion and strengthened research and analysis capability. Conclusions: We demonstrate here the design of interventions for vulnerable families in Sydney utilising translational research from previous realist causal and program theory building to operational service design. We have identified the importance of our earlier analysis of underlying causal mechanisms and related programme mechanisms for identifying the elements for the full intervention design. The application of theory added rigour to the design of the integrated care initiatives. In applying the theory to the local situation the analysis took into account: the role of the local agencies; evidence of program effectiveness; determinants and outcomes for local children and their families; the current deployment of service resources; and insights from front-line staff and interagency partners. Published version

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Dengler; Thomas J. Matthews; Manuel J. Steinbauer; Sebastian Wolfrum; Steffen Boch; Alessandro Chiarucci; Timo Conradi; Iwona Dembicz; Corrado Marcenò; Itziar García-Mijangos; +35 more
    Countries: Portugal, Norway, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Norway, Italy, Italy, Spain, Belgium ...

    Aim Species-area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location Palaearctic grasslands and other non-forested habitats. Taxa Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation-plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested-plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm(2) to 1,024 m(2). Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis-Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis-Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. We thank all vegetation scientists who carefully collected multi‐ scale plant diversity data from Palaearctic Grasslands available in GrassPlot. The Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) and the International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS) sup‐ ported the EDGG Field Workshops, which generated a core part of the GrassPlot data. The Bavarian Research Alliance (grant BayIntAn_UBT_2017_58) and the Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) funded the initial GrassPlot workshop during which the database was established and the cur‐ rent paper was initiated. A.N. acknowledges support by the Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration (CISSC), Iran. C.M., I.B., I.G.‐M and J.A.C. were funded by the Basque Government (IT936‐16). D.V. carried out the research supported by a grant of the State Fund For Fundamental Research Ф83/53427. G.F. carried out the research in the frame of the MIUR initiative ‘Department of excellence' (Law 232/2016). I.D. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (grant DEC‐2013/09/N/NZ8/03234). J.Do. was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA 17‐19376S). M.J. was supported by grant by Slovak Academy of Sciences (VEGA 02/0095/19). W.U. ac‐ knowledges support from the Polish National Science Centre (grant 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Morad Aaboud; Alexander Kupco; Stefan Schmitt; Ahmed Bassalat; Matej Melo; Marjorie Shapiro; Maximiliano Sioli; Nello Bruscino; Toshi Sumida; Andrei Snesarev; +834 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: NSERC

    A measurement of the associated production of a top-quark pair (tt) with a vector boson (W, Z) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented, using 36.1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected in channels with two same- or opposite-sign leptons (electrons or muons), three leptons or four leptons, and each channel is further divided into multiple regions to maximize the sensitivity of the measurement. The ttZ and ttW production cross sections are simultaneously measured using a combined fit to all regions. The best-fit values of the production cross sections are σttZ=0.95±0.08stat±0.10syst pb and σttW=0.87±0.13stat±0.14syst pb in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. The measurement of the ttZ cross section is used to set constraints on effective field theory operators which modify the ttZ vertex.

  • Publication . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alena Skálová; Michal Michal; Roderick H.W. Simpson;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    This review concentrates on three salivary gland tumors that have been accepted in the recent literature as new neoplastic entities: mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), sclerosing polycystic adenoma (SPA) and cribriform adenocarcinoma of tongue and other minor salivary glands (CAMSGs). MASC is a distinctive low-grade malignant salivary cancer that harbors a characteristic chromosomal translocation, t(12;15) (p13;q25) resulting in an ETV6–NTRK3 fusion. SPA is a rare lesion often mistaken histologically for low-grade salivary carcinoma. Previously thought to be a reactive fibroinflammatory process, but recent evidence of clonality, recurrences in up 30%, and dysplastic foci suggest it may be truly neoplastic. CAMSG is a distinct tumor entity that differs from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) by location (ie, most often arising on the tongue), by prominent nuclear clearing, alterations of the PRKD gene family and clinical behavior with frequent metastases at the time of presentation of the primary tumor. Early metastatic disease seen in most cases of CAMSG associated with indolent behavior makes it a unique neoplasm among all low-grade salivary gland tumors. Salivary glands may give rise to a wide spectrum of different tumors. They are often diagnostically challenging as morphological features often overlap between different entities. Although conventional morphology in combination with immunohistochemical findings still provide the most important clues for diagnosis, recent advances in molecular pathology offer new diagnostic tools in investigating the differential diagnosis, as well as providing potentially valuable prognostic indicators. In the last two decades, several new salivary gland tumor entities have been described, namely MASC, SPA and CAMSGs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amy Shakeshaft; Naim Panjwani; Robert John Stewart McDOWALL; Holly Crudgington; Javier Peña Ceballos; Danielle M. Andrade; Christoph P. Beier; Choong Yi Fong; Joanna Gesche; David A. Greenberg; +16 more
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Countries: United Kingdom, Denmark, Denmark

    Objective\ud \ud Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that can predispose to psychopathology. Meta‐analysis demonstrates an association between response impulsivity and Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME), a common genetic generalized epilepsy. Here, we test the hypotheses that trait impulsivity is (i) elevated in JME compared to controls; (ii) moderated by specific seizure characteristics; and (iii) associated with psychiatric adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).\ud Methods\ud \ud 322 participants with JME and 126 age and gender‐matched controls completed the Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale (BIS‐brief) alongside information on seizure history and AED use. We compared group BIS‐brief scores and assessed associations of JME BIS‐brief scores with seizure characteristics and AED adverse effects.\ud Results\ud \ud The mean BIS‐brief score in JME was 18.1 ± 4.4 compared with 16.2 ± 4.1 in controls (P = 0.0007). Elevated impulsivity was associated with male gender (P = 0.027), frequent absence seizures (P = 0.0004) and lack of morning predominance of myoclonus (P = 0.008). High impulsivity significantly increased the odds of a psychiatric adverse event on levetiracetam (P = 0.036), but not any other psychiatric or somatic adverse effects.\ud Interpretation\ud \ud Trait impulsivity is elevated in JME and comparable to scores in personality and neurotic disorders. Increased seizure frequency and absence of circadian seizure pattern moderate BIS score, suggesting disruption of both cortico‐striatal and thalamocortical networks as a shared mechanism between seizures and impulsivity in JME. These findings warrant consideration of impulsivity as a distinct target of intervention, and as a stratifying factor for AED treatment in JME, and perhaps other types of epilepsy. The role of impulsivity in treatment adherence and psychosocial outcome requires further investigation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rovin, B.H.; Adler, S.G.; Barratt, J.; Bridoux, F.; Burdge, K.A.; Chan, T.M.; Cook, H.T.; Fervenza, F.C.; Gibson, K.L.; Glassock, R.J.; +26 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: United Kingdom, Netherlands

    The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases is an update to the KDIGO 2012 guideline. The aim is to assist clinicians caring for individuals with glomerulonephritis (GN), both adults and children. The scope includes various glomerular diseases, including IgA nephropathy and IgA vasculitis, membranous nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), infection-related GN, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis, lupus nephritis, and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody GN. In addition, this guideline will be the first to address the subtype of complement-mediated diseases. Each chapter follows the same format providing guidance related to diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and special situations. The goal of the guideline is to generate a useful resource for clinicians and patients by providing actionable recommendations based on evidence syntheses, with useful infographics incorporating views from experts in the field. Another aim is to propose research recommendations for areas where there are gaps in knowledge. The guideline targets a broad global audience of clinicians treating GN while being mindful of implications for policy and cost. Development of this guideline update followed an explicit process whereby treatment approaches and guideline recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant studies, and appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the "Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation" (GRADE) approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed, with areas of future research also presented.

Advanced search in
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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3,987 Research products, page 1 of 399
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    R. Thomas Lumbers; Sonia Shah; Honghuang Lin; Tomasz Czuba; Albert Henry; Daniel I. Swerdlow; Anders Mälarstig; Niek Verweij; Michael V. Holmes; Johan Ärnlöv; +157 more
    Countries: Netherlands, France, Sweden, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | BigData Heart (116074), EC | inHForm (679242)

    Funder: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004063 Funder: Swedish National Health Service Funder: Skåne University Hospital; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011077 Funder: Crafoord Foundation; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003173 Funder: Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100008748 Funder: Evans Medical Foundation; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100015927 Funder: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000050 Funder: British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Biomedicine Funder: NIHR UCLH Biomedical Research Centre; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100012317 Abstract: Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure. Methods and results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome‐wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow‐up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty‐nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34–90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low‐frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01–0.05) at P < 5 × 10−8 under an additive genetic model. Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.

  • Publication . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Susanna F. de Rezende; Or Meir; Jakob Nordström; Toniann Pitassi; Robert Robere; Marc Vinyals;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC , EC | UTHOTP (279611)

    We significantly strengthen and generalize the theorem lifting Nullstellensatz degree to monotone span program size by Pitassi and Robere (2018) so that it works for any gadget with high enough rank, in particular, for useful gadgets such as equality and greater-than. We apply our generalized theorem to solve three open problems: •We present the first result that demonstrates a separation in proof power for cutting planes with unbounded versus polynomially bounded coefficients. Specifically, we exhibit CNF formulas that can be refuted in quadratic length and constant line space in cutting planes with unbounded coefficients, but for which there are no refutations in subexponential length and subpolynomial line space if coefficients are restricted to be of polynomial magnitude. •We give the first explicit separation between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone real formulas. Specifically, we give an explicit family of functions that can be computed with monotone real formulas of nearly linear size but require monotone Boolean formulas of exponential size. Previously only a non-explicit separation was known. •We give the strongest separation to-date between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone Boolean circuits. Namely, we show that the classical GEN problem, which has polynomial-size monotone Boolean circuits, requires monotone Boolean formulas of size $2^{\Omega(n/\text{polylog}(n))}$ . An important technical ingredient, which may be of independent interest, is that we show that the Nullstellensatz degree of refuting the pebbling formula over a DAG $G$ over any field coincides exactly with the reversible pebbling price of $G$ . In particular, this implies that the standard decision tree complexity and the parity decision tree complexity of the corresponding falsified clause search problem are equal. This is an extended abstract. The full version of the paper is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.02144.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Wei Lv; Guangming Zhang; Cyril Barinka; James H. Eubanks; Alan P. Kozikowski;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)
    Project: CIHR

    A series of nonhydroxamate HDAC6 inhibitors were prepared in our effort to develop potent and selective compounds for possible use in central nervous system (CNS) disorders, thus obviating the genotoxicity often associated with the hydroxamates. Halogens are incorporated in the cap groups of the designed mercaptoacetamides in order to increase brain accessibility. The indole analogue 7e and quinoline analogue 13a displayed potent HDAC6 inhibitory activity (IC50, 11 and 2.8 nM) and excellent selectivity against HDAC1. Both 7e and 13a together with their ester prodrug 14 and disulfide prodrugs 15 and 16 were found to be effective in promoting tubulin acetylation in HEK cells. The disulfide prodrugs 15 and 16 also released a stable concentration of 7e and 13a upon microsomal incubation. Administration of 15 and 16 in vivo was found to trigger an increase of tubulin acetylation in mouse cortex. These results suggest that further exploration of these compounds for the treatment of CNS disorders is warranted.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew Spencer; Suzanne Lentzsch; Katja Weisel; Hervé Avet-Loiseau; Tomer M Mark; Ivan Spicka; Tamás Masszi; Birgitta Lauri; Mark-David Levin; Alberto Bosi; +27 more
    Publisher: Ferrata Storti Foundation (Haematologica)
    Countries: Netherlands, Italy

    Daratumumab, a CD38 human monoclonal antibody, demonstrated significant clinical activity in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in the primary analysis of CASTOR, a phase 3 study in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. A post hoc analysis based on treatment history and longer follow up is presented. After 19.4 (range: 0–27.7) months of median follow up, daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival (median: 16.7 versus 7.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.39; P12, ≤6, or >6 months), or cytogenetic risk. Minimal residual disease–negative rates were >2.5-fold higher with daratumumab across subgroups. The safety profile of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone remained consistent with longer follow up. Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone demonstrated significant clinical activity across clinically relevant subgroups and provided the greatest benefit to patients treated at first relapse. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02136134.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    John Eastwood; Denise E. De Souza; Miranda Shaw; Pankaj Garg; Susan Woolfenden; Ingrid Tyler; Lynn Kemp;
    Publisher: Ubiquity Press
    Country: Singapore

    Introduction: Intergenerational cycles of poverty, violence and crime, poor education and employment opportunities, psychopathology, and poor lifestyle and health behaviours require innovative models of health care delivery to break them. We describe a programme of research informed service development targeting vulnerable families in inner metropolitan Sydney, Australia that is designed to build and confirm a “Theory of Neighbourhood Context, Stress, Depression, and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)”. We describe the development of an intervention design and business case that drew on earlier realist causal and programme theoretical work. Methods: Realist causal and programme theory were used to inform the collaborative design of initiatives for vulnerable families. The collaborative design process included: identification of desirable and undesirable outcomes and contextual factors, consultation forums, interagency planning, and development of a service proposal. Results: The design elements included: perinatal coordination, sustained home visiting, integrated service model development, two place-based hubs, health promotion and strengthened research and analysis capability. Conclusions: We demonstrate here the design of interventions for vulnerable families in Sydney utilising translational research from previous realist causal and program theory building to operational service design. We have identified the importance of our earlier analysis of underlying causal mechanisms and related programme mechanisms for identifying the elements for the full intervention design. The application of theory added rigour to the design of the integrated care initiatives. In applying the theory to the local situation the analysis took into account: the role of the local agencies; evidence of program effectiveness; determinants and outcomes for local children and their families; the current deployment of service resources; and insights from front-line staff and interagency partners. Published version

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Dengler; Thomas J. Matthews; Manuel J. Steinbauer; Sebastian Wolfrum; Steffen Boch; Alessandro Chiarucci; Timo Conradi; Iwona Dembicz; Corrado Marcenò; Itziar García-Mijangos; +35 more
    Countries: Portugal, Norway, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Norway, Italy, Italy, Spain, Belgium ...

    Aim Species-area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location Palaearctic grasslands and other non-forested habitats. Taxa Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation-plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested-plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm(2) to 1,024 m(2). Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis-Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis-Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. We thank all vegetation scientists who carefully collected multi‐ scale plant diversity data from Palaearctic Grasslands available in GrassPlot. The Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) and the International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS) sup‐ ported the EDGG Field Workshops, which generated a core part of the GrassPlot data. The Bavarian Research Alliance (grant BayIntAn_UBT_2017_58) and the Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) funded the initial GrassPlot workshop during which the database was established and the cur‐ rent paper was initiated. A.N. acknowledges support by the Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration (CISSC), Iran. C.M., I.B., I.G.‐M and J.A.C. were funded by the Basque Government (IT936‐16). D.V. carried out the research supported by a grant of the State Fund For Fundamental Research Ф83/53427. G.F. carried out the research in the frame of the MIUR initiative ‘Department of excellence' (Law 232/2016). I.D. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (grant DEC‐2013/09/N/NZ8/03234). J.Do. was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA 17‐19376S). M.J. was supported by grant by Slovak Academy of Sciences (VEGA 02/0095/19). W.U. ac‐ knowledges support from the Polish National Science Centre (grant 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Morad Aaboud; Alexander Kupco; Stefan Schmitt; Ahmed Bassalat; Matej Melo; Marjorie Shapiro; Maximiliano Sioli; Nello Bruscino; Toshi Sumida; Andrei Snesarev; +834 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: NSERC

    A measurement of the associated production of a top-quark pair (tt) with a vector boson (W, Z) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented, using 36.1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected in channels with two same- or opposite-sign leptons (electrons or muons), three leptons or four leptons, and each channel is further divided into multiple regions to maximize the sensitivity of the measurement. The ttZ and ttW production cross sections are simultaneously measured using a combined fit to all regions. The best-fit values of the production cross sections are σttZ=0.95±0.08stat±0.10syst pb and σttW=0.87±0.13stat±0.14syst pb in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. The measurement of the ttZ cross section is used to set constraints on effective field theory operators which modify the ttZ vertex.

  • Publication . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alena Skálová; Michal Michal; Roderick H.W. Simpson;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    This review concentrates on three salivary gland tumors that have been accepted in the recent literature as new neoplastic entities: mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), sclerosing polycystic adenoma (SPA) and cribriform adenocarcinoma of tongue and other minor salivary glands (CAMSGs). MASC is a distinctive low-grade malignant salivary cancer that harbors a characteristic chromosomal translocation, t(12;15) (p13;q25) resulting in an ETV6–NTRK3 fusion. SPA is a rare lesion often mistaken histologically for low-grade salivary carcinoma. Previously thought to be a reactive fibroinflammatory process, but recent evidence of clonality, recurrences in up 30%, and dysplastic foci suggest it may be truly neoplastic. CAMSG is a distinct tumor entity that differs from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) by location (ie, most often arising on the tongue), by prominent nuclear clearing, alterations of the PRKD gene family and clinical behavior with frequent metastases at the time of presentation of the primary tumor. Early metastatic disease seen in most cases of CAMSG associated with indolent behavior makes it a unique neoplasm among all low-grade salivary gland tumors. Salivary glands may give rise to a wide spectrum of different tumors. They are often diagnostically challenging as morphological features often overlap between different entities. Although conventional morphology in combination with immunohistochemical findings still provide the most important clues for diagnosis, recent advances in molecular pathology offer new diagnostic tools in investigating the differential diagnosis, as well as providing potentially valuable prognostic indicators. In the last two decades, several new salivary gland tumor entities have been described, namely MASC, SPA and CAMSGs.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amy Shakeshaft; Naim Panjwani; Robert John Stewart McDOWALL; Holly Crudgington; Javier Peña Ceballos; Danielle M. Andrade; Christoph P. Beier; Choong Yi Fong; Joanna Gesche; David A. Greenberg; +16 more
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Countries: United Kingdom, Denmark, Denmark

    Objective\ud \ud Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that can predispose to psychopathology. Meta‐analysis demonstrates an association between response impulsivity and Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME), a common genetic generalized epilepsy. Here, we test the hypotheses that trait impulsivity is (i) elevated in JME compared to controls; (ii) moderated by specific seizure characteristics; and (iii) associated with psychiatric adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).\ud Methods\ud \ud 322 participants with JME and 126 age and gender‐matched controls completed the Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale (BIS‐brief) alongside information on seizure history and AED use. We compared group BIS‐brief scores and assessed associations of JME BIS‐brief scores with seizure characteristics and AED adverse effects.\ud Results\ud \ud The mean BIS‐brief score in JME was 18.1 ± 4.4 compared with 16.2 ± 4.1 in controls (P = 0.0007). Elevated impulsivity was associated with male gender (P = 0.027), frequent absence seizures (P = 0.0004) and lack of morning predominance of myoclonus (P = 0.008). High impulsivity significantly increased the odds of a psychiatric adverse event on levetiracetam (P = 0.036), but not any other psychiatric or somatic adverse effects.\ud Interpretation\ud \ud Trait impulsivity is elevated in JME and comparable to scores in personality and neurotic disorders. Increased seizure frequency and absence of circadian seizure pattern moderate BIS score, suggesting disruption of both cortico‐striatal and thalamocortical networks as a shared mechanism between seizures and impulsivity in JME. These findings warrant consideration of impulsivity as a distinct target of intervention, and as a stratifying factor for AED treatment in JME, and perhaps other types of epilepsy. The role of impulsivity in treatment adherence and psychosocial outcome requires further investigation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rovin, B.H.; Adler, S.G.; Barratt, J.; Bridoux, F.; Burdge, K.A.; Chan, T.M.; Cook, H.T.; Fervenza, F.C.; Gibson, K.L.; Glassock, R.J.; +26 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: United Kingdom, Netherlands

    The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases is an update to the KDIGO 2012 guideline. The aim is to assist clinicians caring for individuals with glomerulonephritis (GN), both adults and children. The scope includes various glomerular diseases, including IgA nephropathy and IgA vasculitis, membranous nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), infection-related GN, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis, lupus nephritis, and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody GN. In addition, this guideline will be the first to address the subtype of complement-mediated diseases. Each chapter follows the same format providing guidance related to diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and special situations. The goal of the guideline is to generate a useful resource for clinicians and patients by providing actionable recommendations based on evidence syntheses, with useful infographics incorporating views from experts in the field. Another aim is to propose research recommendations for areas where there are gaps in knowledge. The guideline targets a broad global audience of clinicians treating GN while being mindful of implications for policy and cost. Development of this guideline update followed an explicit process whereby treatment approaches and guideline recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant studies, and appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the "Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation" (GRADE) approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed, with areas of future research also presented.