Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
257 Research products, page 1 of 26

  • Canada
  • Publications
  • Research data
  • Research software
  • 2021-2021
  • Restricted

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jean Sánchez-Sánchez; Janis Alarcón-Loayza; Luz Villa-Castillo; Mikashmi Kohli; Catharina Boehme; Sergio Carmona; Patricia J. Garcia; Madhukar Pai; Cesar Ugarte-Gil;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Peru

    Even though the WHO Essential Medicines List has been published and updated for the last 40 years, diagnostics only got their due recognition in the last two years. WHO published the first Essential Diagnostics List (EDL) in 2018 and subsequently updated in 2019...

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Saba Safdar; Elcin Ray-Yol; Julia A. M. Reif; Rita Berger;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract European countries have been the key destination for many Syrians since the beginning of the civil war in 2011. In this new context, refugees have faced various challenges, including negative public attitudes and pressure of assimilation that might negatively influence psychophysical adaptation. This indicates the necessity of exploring the factors associated with the adaptation of refugees in their new society. Using a multidimensional individual difference acculturation (MIDA) model as a theoretical framework, the present study investigated the psychophysical adaptation of Syrian refugees (N = 265, Mage = 33.03 years) in Germany. The MIDA model is a theoretical model on immigrants’ adaptation that takes into account the role of psychosocial resources (e.g., psychological strength), co-national connectedness (e.g., ingroup support), hassles, and acculturation orientations in predicting adaptation of immigrants. Using structural equation modelling, specific hypotheses drawn from the MIDA model were tested. It was found that Syrian refugees with high psychological strength and cultural competence reported high levels of adjustment as indicated by low levels of distress. On the other hand, refugees with high levels of perceived hassles reported low levels of adjustment as indicated by high level of distress. The results highlight the importance of psychological strength, cultural competence, and hassles in refugees’ adaption. The study’s findings have the potential to inform host country policymakers regarding the positive integration of refugees into German society, and specific recommendations have been made.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Fan Xuan Chen; Xinyu Zhang; Lasse Laustsen; Joey T. Cheng;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Project: SSHRC

    Dominant leadership is, surprisingly, on the rise globally. Previous studies have found that intergroup conflict increases followers’ support for dominant leaders, but identifying the potential benefits that such leaders can supply is crucial to explaining their rise. We took a behavioral-economics approach in Study 1 ( N = 288 adults), finding that cooperation among followers increases under leaders with a dominant reputation. This pattern held regardless of whether dominant leaders were assigned to groups, elected through a bidding process, or leading under intergroup competition. Moreover, Studies 2a to 2e ( N = 1,022 adults) show that impressions of leader dominance evoked by personality profiles, authoritarian attitudes, or physical formidability similarly increase follower cooperation. We found a weaker but nonsignificant trend when dominance was cued by facial masculinity and no evidence when dominance was cued by aggressive disposition in a decision game. These findings highlight the unexpected benefits that dominant leaders can bestow on group cooperation through threat of punishment.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Supriya Chopra; Akshay Mangaj; Alisha Sharma; Li Tee Tan; Alina Sturdza; Ina M. Jürgenliemk-Schulz; Kathy Han; Fleur Huang; Maximilian Schmid; Lars Fokdal; +5 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Background: In the metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, systemic chemotherapy constitutes the main treatment. Though there is an increasing use of high dose external radiation and brachytherapy in the metastatic setting, no consensus exists. Methods: A 17-item survey was designed with additional case-based questions to explore present management of oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervix cancer within EMBRACE research group participating sites. The questions were designed to elicit prevailing practices in the management of de-novo oligo-metastasis and oligo-recurrent setting after completing the primary treatment of cervix cancer. The survey was sent electronically with two rounds of email reminders to respond over a 2-week survey period. The online survey was designed such that it was mandatory to complete all questions. The responses were recorded and results were summarized as proportions and summary statistics were generated. Results: Twenty-two centers responded to this survey. A majority (90%) of respondents reported a low incidence of de-novo oligo-metastatic cervical cancer in their practice (<5%), with a higher proportion of patients with oligo-recurrence after completing primary treatment (5–10%). All responding sites preferred to treat pelvic disease in the de-novo oligo-metastatic setting albeit with different fractionation regimens. While 68.2% of respondents recommended chemo-radiation and brachytherapy, 31.8% considered additional systemic therapy. Overall 77.3% centers recommended the use of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy to oligo-metastasis. For out-of-field nodal recurrences, 63.7% of respondents considered treating with curative intent, while 59% preferred treating in-field recurrence with palliative intent. A vast majority of the participating centers (90%) have stereotactic radiation therapy capacity and would consider a clinical trial addressing oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervical cancer. Conclusion: Although contemporary practice is variable, a substantial proportion of EMBRACE centers consider high dose radiation in de-novo metastatic and oligo-recurrence settings. However, there is clear need for a joint clinical protocol and prospective studies to address the role of high dose radiation within oligo-recurrent and oligo-metastatic scenarios.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Qin Zhu; Zhenchang Zhu; Reinier Nauta; Klaas R. Timmermans; Long Jiang; Yanpeng Cai; Zhifeng Yang; Theo Gerkema;
    Country: Netherlands

    The seaweed industry is growing worldwide to meet future resource needs in terms of food and fuel. In the meantime, the impact of expanding off-bottom seaweed cultivation on its environment is unclear. For example, it remains poorly understood how off-bottom seaweeds affect the local hydrodynamic environment, especially concerning turbulence that is more important for nutrient transport and availability than the mean flow velocity. Here, we carried out well-controlled flume experiments with mimic seaweed thalli, which are available, controllable, and stable, to investigate the impact of off-bottom seaweed canopies on whole-depth flow velocities in terms of both mean flow and turbulence velocity profiles. A careful comparison of behavior in the flow between natural and mimic seaweed thalli was made before these experiments. The results show that the floating seaweed thalli generate a surface boundary layer and have a profound impact on the velocity structure in the bottom boundary layer. More importantly, the generation, growth and dissipation of turbulence in the seaweed thalli area deeply affect the downstream distribution of near-bed turbulent strength and associated bed shear stress. Ignoring this turbulent variation would cause inaccurate predictions of morphological changes of the seabed. Our findings suggest that expanding the seaweed cultivation area may cause high risks of bed degradation and low diffusion in the downstream cultivation area. These findings provide novel insights into the environmental influence of off-bottom seaweed cultivation, with important implications for optimizing management strategies to promote seaweed productivity while minimizing seabed destabilization.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Yannick Molgat-Seon; Sabina A. Guler; Carli M. Peters; Dragoş M. Vasilescu; Joseph H. Puyat; Harvey O. Coxson; Christopher J. Ryerson; Jordan A. Guenette;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    RATIONALE The pathophysiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) impacts body composition, whereby ILD severity is linked to lower lean mass. OBJECTIVES To determine i) if pectoralis muscle area (PMA) is a surrogate for whole-body lean mass in ILD, ii) whether PMA is associated with ILD severity, and iii) if the longitudinal change in PMA is associated with pulmonary function and mortality in ILD. METHODS Patients with ILD (n = 164) were analyzed retrospectively. PMA was quantified from a chest computed tomography scan. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and pulmonary function were obtained as part of routine clinical care. Dyspnea and quality of life were assessed using the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS PMA was associated with whole-body lean mass (p  0.05). The annual negative PMA slope was associated with annual negative slopes in FVC, FEV1, and DLCO (all p < 0.05), but not FEV1/FVC (p = 0.46). Annual slope in PMA was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = -0.80, 95% CI:0.889-0.959; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In patients with ILD, PMA is a suitable surrogate for whole-body lean mass. A lower PMA is associated with indices of ILD severity, which supports the notion that ILD progression may involve sarcopenia.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Zehua Pan; Roy Brouwer;
    Country: Netherlands

    Green infrastructure for source water protection in the form of forest protection and afforestation is gaining interest worldwide. It is considered more sustainable in the long-term than traditional engineering-based approaches. This paper presents a theoretical model to support investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water. We first develop a static optimal control model accounting for the uncertainties surrounding green infrastructure. This model is then extended to factor in key characteristics surrounding investment decisions aimed at optimizing the stock of green and grey infrastructure. We first include dynamic forest growth, followed by the risk of wildfires and finally the potential offsetting effect of carbon sequestration on long-term climate change and the reduced risk of wildfires. We provide a numerical example to analyze the performance of the different model specifications, interpret their outcomes and draw conclusions to guide future investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Xue-Gang Chen; Ming-Zhen Yu; Zhongyan Qiu; Pei Sun Loh; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Dieter Garbe-Schönberg; Mark Schmidt; Xiaoyuan Wang; Ying Ye;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Germany

    Abstract The chemical and isotopic characteristics of calcium (Ca) in subduction zones are closely related to the budget of Ca and carbon cycles. Here we investigate the ultra-high Ca concentrations that characterize the hydrothermal fluids discharged from two types of vents, named the Zhudanqu brine vent (ZDQ) and the Huwaichi vapor spring (HWC), in the Lutao hydrothermal system at the north Luzon arc. The Ca concentrations of up to 159 mM and Ca/Cl ratio of up to 0.26 in the ZDQ vent fluids are possibly the highest ever reported for Ca enrichment in global seawater-circulated hydrothermal/geothermal systems. The differences in chemical compositions between the ZDQ and the HWC vent fluids are primary controlled by subcritical phase separation. The brine phase constitutes the ZDQ vent fluids, while the HWC vent fluids represent mixtures of the vapor phase and seawater. Both the vapor and the brine phases exhibit similar δ44/40Ca values (0.72 ± 0.05‰), suggesting no significant Ca isotope fractionation has occurred during phase separation. The hydrothermal endmember before phase separation (the “Lutao endmember”) presents depletions of 213 ± 15 mM of Na, 24.4 ± 0.4 mM of SO42−, and 10.2 mM of K, and enrichment of 130.2 ± 5.5 mM of Ca with respect to the percolated seawater. The total gained Ca is 154.6 ± 5.9 mM with a δ44/40Ca value of 0.67‰ – 0.77‰ (0.72 ± 0.05‰), considering anhydrite precipitation during hydrothermal circulation. The Holocene raised coral reef is unlikely to contribute substantial Ca into the Lutao system. Much of the gained Ca (111.6 ± 7.5 mM) is produced by high-degree albitization of the Lutao host rock, which is promoted by the low water/rock ratio (~ 2), slightly alkaline conditions, and relatively lower temperature of the Lutao system with respect to most mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Ca derived from this process inherits the Ca isotopes of plagioclase in the Lutao host rocks (δ44/40Ca = 0.82 ± 0.06‰). According to mass and isotopic balances, the recycled marine carbonate is proposed to contribute 43 ± 13.4 mM Ca with a δ44/40Ca value of 0.46−0.63+0.35‰ into the Lutao system. Such isotopically lighter Ca is derived from either pore fluids expulsed from underlying Philippine Sea sediments, or more probably, carbonate-bearing subduction fluids from the subducting South China Sea sediments and slab. The carbonate solubility in the subduction fluids could maintain at 600 mM near the reaction zone. The carbonate-rich fluids were subsequently migrated into the Lutao reaction zone and released an additional 43 ± 13.4 mM Ca via dolomitization. A small amount (~ 9%) addition of carbonate-rich fluids would not significantly change the budgets of Na, Mg, and Cl but could generate substantial Ca enrichment and Ca isotopic variations.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    V. Massel; Yuan Fang; Milena Corredig;
    Project: NSERC

    Pectin nanocapsules were obtained by gelling the inner droplets, in situ, in a multiple emulsion of the water in oil in water (W/O/W) type, using the enzyme Pectin methyl esterase. The inner phase was tested for its encapsulation efficiency by addition of brilliant blue or magnesium chloride. Rheological measurements and light scattering showed similarities for gelled and non gelled droplets containing high methoxy pectin. After one month of storage, the gelled nanocapsules showed a population of larger droplets, not appearing in the other W/O/W emulsions: the non gelled pectin droplets or control with no pectin. Confocal microscopy observations demonstrated the presence of the inner water droplets in all emulsions after one month of storage at 4 °C. Brilliant blue was retained in the inner droplets containing pectin, and the retention was not affected by the gelled inner phase. Magnesium ions were retained in all treatments, even in the case of control W/O/W emulsions, not containing pectin. With both systems studied, the presence of gelled nanocapsules did not cause significant differences in the encapsulation efficiency or stability of the W/O/W emulsions.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Sarah Callinan; Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe; Sarah C. M. Roberts; Won Kim Cook; Sandra Kuntsche; Ulrike Grittner; Kathryn Graham; Robin Room; Kim Bloomfield; Thomas K. Greenfield; +1 more
    Publisher: La Trobe

    BackgroundThe aim of this study was to examine how gender, age and education, regional prevalence of male and female risky drinking and country-level economic gender equality are associated with harms from other people’s drinking.Methods24,823 adults in 10 countries were surveyed about harms from drinking by people they know and strangers. Country-level economic gender equality and regional prevalence of risky drinking along with age and gender were entered as independent variables into three-level random intercept models predicting alcohol-related harm.FindingsAt the individual level, younger respondents were consistently more likely to report harms from others’ drinking, while, for women, higher education was associated with lower risk of harms from known drinkers but higher risk of harms from strangers. Regional rate of men’s risky drinking was associated with known and stranger harm, while regional-level women’s risky drinking was associated with harm from strangers. Gender equality was only associated with harms in models that did not include risky drinking.ConclusionsYouth and regional levels of men’s drinking were consistently associated with harm from others attributable to alcohol. Policies that decrease the risky drinking of men would be likely to reduce harms attributable to the drinking of others.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
257 Research products, page 1 of 26
  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jean Sánchez-Sánchez; Janis Alarcón-Loayza; Luz Villa-Castillo; Mikashmi Kohli; Catharina Boehme; Sergio Carmona; Patricia J. Garcia; Madhukar Pai; Cesar Ugarte-Gil;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Peru

    Even though the WHO Essential Medicines List has been published and updated for the last 40 years, diagnostics only got their due recognition in the last two years. WHO published the first Essential Diagnostics List (EDL) in 2018 and subsequently updated in 2019...

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Saba Safdar; Elcin Ray-Yol; Julia A. M. Reif; Rita Berger;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract European countries have been the key destination for many Syrians since the beginning of the civil war in 2011. In this new context, refugees have faced various challenges, including negative public attitudes and pressure of assimilation that might negatively influence psychophysical adaptation. This indicates the necessity of exploring the factors associated with the adaptation of refugees in their new society. Using a multidimensional individual difference acculturation (MIDA) model as a theoretical framework, the present study investigated the psychophysical adaptation of Syrian refugees (N = 265, Mage = 33.03 years) in Germany. The MIDA model is a theoretical model on immigrants’ adaptation that takes into account the role of psychosocial resources (e.g., psychological strength), co-national connectedness (e.g., ingroup support), hassles, and acculturation orientations in predicting adaptation of immigrants. Using structural equation modelling, specific hypotheses drawn from the MIDA model were tested. It was found that Syrian refugees with high psychological strength and cultural competence reported high levels of adjustment as indicated by low levels of distress. On the other hand, refugees with high levels of perceived hassles reported low levels of adjustment as indicated by high level of distress. The results highlight the importance of psychological strength, cultural competence, and hassles in refugees’ adaption. The study’s findings have the potential to inform host country policymakers regarding the positive integration of refugees into German society, and specific recommendations have been made.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Fan Xuan Chen; Xinyu Zhang; Lasse Laustsen; Joey T. Cheng;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Project: SSHRC

    Dominant leadership is, surprisingly, on the rise globally. Previous studies have found that intergroup conflict increases followers’ support for dominant leaders, but identifying the potential benefits that such leaders can supply is crucial to explaining their rise. We took a behavioral-economics approach in Study 1 ( N = 288 adults), finding that cooperation among followers increases under leaders with a dominant reputation. This pattern held regardless of whether dominant leaders were assigned to groups, elected through a bidding process, or leading under intergroup competition. Moreover, Studies 2a to 2e ( N = 1,022 adults) show that impressions of leader dominance evoked by personality profiles, authoritarian attitudes, or physical formidability similarly increase follower cooperation. We found a weaker but nonsignificant trend when dominance was cued by facial masculinity and no evidence when dominance was cued by aggressive disposition in a decision game. These findings highlight the unexpected benefits that dominant leaders can bestow on group cooperation through threat of punishment.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Supriya Chopra; Akshay Mangaj; Alisha Sharma; Li Tee Tan; Alina Sturdza; Ina M. Jürgenliemk-Schulz; Kathy Han; Fleur Huang; Maximilian Schmid; Lars Fokdal; +5 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Background: In the metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, systemic chemotherapy constitutes the main treatment. Though there is an increasing use of high dose external radiation and brachytherapy in the metastatic setting, no consensus exists. Methods: A 17-item survey was designed with additional case-based questions to explore present management of oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervix cancer within EMBRACE research group participating sites. The questions were designed to elicit prevailing practices in the management of de-novo oligo-metastasis and oligo-recurrent setting after completing the primary treatment of cervix cancer. The survey was sent electronically with two rounds of email reminders to respond over a 2-week survey period. The online survey was designed such that it was mandatory to complete all questions. The responses were recorded and results were summarized as proportions and summary statistics were generated. Results: Twenty-two centers responded to this survey. A majority (90%) of respondents reported a low incidence of de-novo oligo-metastatic cervical cancer in their practice (<5%), with a higher proportion of patients with oligo-recurrence after completing primary treatment (5–10%). All responding sites preferred to treat pelvic disease in the de-novo oligo-metastatic setting albeit with different fractionation regimens. While 68.2% of respondents recommended chemo-radiation and brachytherapy, 31.8% considered additional systemic therapy. Overall 77.3% centers recommended the use of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy to oligo-metastasis. For out-of-field nodal recurrences, 63.7% of respondents considered treating with curative intent, while 59% preferred treating in-field recurrence with palliative intent. A vast majority of the participating centers (90%) have stereotactic radiation therapy capacity and would consider a clinical trial addressing oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervical cancer. Conclusion: Although contemporary practice is variable, a substantial proportion of EMBRACE centers consider high dose radiation in de-novo metastatic and oligo-recurrence settings. However, there is clear need for a joint clinical protocol and prospective studies to address the role of high dose radiation within oligo-recurrent and oligo-metastatic scenarios.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Qin Zhu; Zhenchang Zhu; Reinier Nauta; Klaas R. Timmermans; Long Jiang; Yanpeng Cai; Zhifeng Yang; Theo Gerkema;
    Country: Netherlands

    The seaweed industry is growing worldwide to meet future resource needs in terms of food and fuel. In the meantime, the impact of expanding off-bottom seaweed cultivation on its environment is unclear. For example, it remains poorly understood how off-bottom seaweeds affect the local hydrodynamic environment, especially concerning turbulence that is more important for nutrient transport and availability than the mean flow velocity. Here, we carried out well-controlled flume experiments with mimic seaweed thalli, which are available, controllable, and stable, to investigate the impact of off-bottom seaweed canopies on whole-depth flow velocities in terms of both mean flow and turbulence velocity profiles. A careful comparison of behavior in the flow between natural and mimic seaweed thalli was made before these experiments. The results show that the floating seaweed thalli generate a surface boundary layer and have a profound impact on the velocity structure in the bottom boundary layer. More importantly, the generation, growth and dissipation of turbulence in the seaweed thalli area deeply affect the downstream distribution of near-bed turbulent strength and associated bed shear stress. Ignoring this turbulent variation would cause inaccurate predictions of morphological changes of the seabed. Our findings suggest that expanding the seaweed cultivation area may cause high risks of bed degradation and low diffusion in the downstream cultivation area. These findings provide novel insights into the environmental influence of off-bottom seaweed cultivation, with important implications for optimizing management strategies to promote seaweed productivity while minimizing seabed destabilization.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Yannick Molgat-Seon; Sabina A. Guler; Carli M. Peters; Dragoş M. Vasilescu; Joseph H. Puyat; Harvey O. Coxson; Christopher J. Ryerson; Jordan A. Guenette;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    RATIONALE The pathophysiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) impacts body composition, whereby ILD severity is linked to lower lean mass. OBJECTIVES To determine i) if pectoralis muscle area (PMA) is a surrogate for whole-body lean mass in ILD, ii) whether PMA is associated with ILD severity, and iii) if the longitudinal change in PMA is associated with pulmonary function and mortality in ILD. METHODS Patients with ILD (n = 164) were analyzed retrospectively. PMA was quantified from a chest computed tomography scan. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and pulmonary function were obtained as part of routine clinical care. Dyspnea and quality of life were assessed using the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS PMA was associated with whole-body lean mass (p  0.05). The annual negative PMA slope was associated with annual negative slopes in FVC, FEV1, and DLCO (all p < 0.05), but not FEV1/FVC (p = 0.46). Annual slope in PMA was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = -0.80, 95% CI:0.889-0.959; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In patients with ILD, PMA is a suitable surrogate for whole-body lean mass. A lower PMA is associated with indices of ILD severity, which supports the notion that ILD progression may involve sarcopenia.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Zehua Pan; Roy Brouwer;
    Country: Netherlands

    Green infrastructure for source water protection in the form of forest protection and afforestation is gaining interest worldwide. It is considered more sustainable in the long-term than traditional engineering-based approaches. This paper presents a theoretical model to support investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water. We first develop a static optimal control model accounting for the uncertainties surrounding green infrastructure. This model is then extended to factor in key characteristics surrounding investment decisions aimed at optimizing the stock of green and grey infrastructure. We first include dynamic forest growth, followed by the risk of wildfires and finally the potential offsetting effect of carbon sequestration on long-term climate change and the reduced risk of wildfires. We provide a numerical example to analyze the performance of the different model specifications, interpret their outcomes and draw conclusions to guide future investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Xue-Gang Chen; Ming-Zhen Yu; Zhongyan Qiu; Pei Sun Loh; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Dieter Garbe-Schönberg; Mark Schmidt; Xiaoyuan Wang; Ying Ye;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Germany

    Abstract The chemical and isotopic characteristics of calcium (Ca) in subduction zones are closely related to the budget of Ca and carbon cycles. Here we investigate the ultra-high Ca concentrations that characterize the hydrothermal fluids discharged from two types of vents, named the Zhudanqu brine vent (ZDQ) and the Huwaichi vapor spring (HWC), in the Lutao hydrothermal system at the north Luzon arc. The Ca concentrations of up to 159 mM and Ca/Cl ratio of up to 0.26 in the ZDQ vent fluids are possibly the highest ever reported for Ca enrichment in global seawater-circulated hydrothermal/geothermal systems. The differences in chemical compositions between the ZDQ and the HWC vent fluids are primary controlled by subcritical phase separation. The brine phase constitutes the ZDQ vent fluids, while the HWC vent fluids represent mixtures of the vapor phase and seawater. Both the vapor and the brine phases exhibit similar δ44/40Ca values (0.72 ± 0.05‰), suggesting no significant Ca isotope fractionation has occurred during phase separation. The hydrothermal endmember before phase separation (the “Lutao endmember”) presents depletions of 213 ± 15 mM of Na, 24.4 ± 0.4 mM of SO42−, and 10.2 mM of K, and enrichment of 130.2 ± 5.5 mM of Ca with respect to the percolated seawater. The total gained Ca is 154.6 ± 5.9 mM with a δ44/40Ca value of 0.67‰ – 0.77‰ (0.72 ± 0.05‰), considering anhydrite precipitation during hydrothermal circulation. The Holocene raised coral reef is unlikely to contribute substantial Ca into the Lutao system. Much of the gained Ca (111.6 ± 7.5 mM) is produced by high-degree albitization of the Lutao host rock, which is promoted by the low water/rock ratio (~ 2), slightly alkaline conditions, and relatively lower temperature of the Lutao system with respect to most mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Ca derived from this process inherits the Ca isotopes of plagioclase in the Lutao host rocks (δ44/40Ca = 0.82 ± 0.06‰). According to mass and isotopic balances, the recycled marine carbonate is proposed to contribute 43 ± 13.4 mM Ca with a δ44/40Ca value of 0.46−0.63+0.35‰ into the Lutao system. Such isotopically lighter Ca is derived from either pore fluids expulsed from underlying Philippine Sea sediments, or more probably, carbonate-bearing subduction fluids from the subducting South China Sea sediments and slab. The carbonate solubility in the subduction fluids could maintain at 600 mM near the reaction zone. The carbonate-rich fluids were subsequently migrated into the Lutao reaction zone and released an additional 43 ± 13.4 mM Ca via dolomitization. A small amount (~ 9%) addition of carbonate-rich fluids would not significantly change the budgets of Na, Mg, and Cl but could generate substantial Ca enrichment and Ca isotopic variations.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    V. Massel; Yuan Fang; Milena Corredig;
    Project: NSERC

    Pectin nanocapsules were obtained by gelling the inner droplets, in situ, in a multiple emulsion of the water in oil in water (W/O/W) type, using the enzyme Pectin methyl esterase. The inner phase was tested for its encapsulation efficiency by addition of brilliant blue or magnesium chloride. Rheological measurements and light scattering showed similarities for gelled and non gelled droplets containing high methoxy pectin. After one month of storage, the gelled nanocapsules showed a population of larger droplets, not appearing in the other W/O/W emulsions: the non gelled pectin droplets or control with no pectin. Confocal microscopy observations demonstrated the presence of the inner water droplets in all emulsions after one month of storage at 4 °C. Brilliant blue was retained in the inner droplets containing pectin, and the retention was not affected by the gelled inner phase. Magnesium ions were retained in all treatments, even in the case of control W/O/W emulsions, not containing pectin. With both systems studied, the presence of gelled nanocapsules did not cause significant differences in the encapsulation efficiency or stability of the W/O/W emulsions.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Sarah Callinan; Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe; Sarah C. M. Roberts; Won Kim Cook; Sandra Kuntsche; Ulrike Grittner; Kathryn Graham; Robin Room; Kim Bloomfield; Thomas K. Greenfield; +1 more
    Publisher: La Trobe

    BackgroundThe aim of this study was to examine how gender, age and education, regional prevalence of male and female risky drinking and country-level economic gender equality are associated with harms from other people’s drinking.Methods24,823 adults in 10 countries were surveyed about harms from drinking by people they know and strangers. Country-level economic gender equality and regional prevalence of risky drinking along with age and gender were entered as independent variables into three-level random intercept models predicting alcohol-related harm.FindingsAt the individual level, younger respondents were consistently more likely to report harms from others’ drinking, while, for women, higher education was associated with lower risk of harms from known drinkers but higher risk of harms from strangers. Regional rate of men’s risky drinking was associated with known and stranger harm, while regional-level women’s risky drinking was associated with harm from strangers. Gender equality was only associated with harms in models that did not include risky drinking.ConclusionsYouth and regional levels of men’s drinking were consistently associated with harm from others attributable to alcohol. Policies that decrease the risky drinking of men would be likely to reduce harms attributable to the drinking of others.