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  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jean Sánchez-Sánchez; Janis Alarcón-Loayza; Luz Villa-Castillo; Mikashmi Kohli; Catharina Boehme; Sergio Carmona; Patricia J. Garcia; Madhukar Pai; Cesar Ugarte-Gil;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Peru

    Even though the WHO Essential Medicines List has been published and updated for the last 40 years, diagnostics only got their due recognition in the last two years. WHO published the first Essential Diagnostics List (EDL) in 2018 and subsequently updated in 2019...

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Saba Safdar; Elcin Ray-Yol; Julia A. M. Reif; Rita Berger;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract European countries have been the key destination for many Syrians since the beginning of the civil war in 2011. In this new context, refugees have faced various challenges, including negative public attitudes and pressure of assimilation that might negatively influence psychophysical adaptation. This indicates the necessity of exploring the factors associated with the adaptation of refugees in their new society. Using a multidimensional individual difference acculturation (MIDA) model as a theoretical framework, the present study investigated the psychophysical adaptation of Syrian refugees (N = 265, Mage = 33.03 years) in Germany. The MIDA model is a theoretical model on immigrants’ adaptation that takes into account the role of psychosocial resources (e.g., psychological strength), co-national connectedness (e.g., ingroup support), hassles, and acculturation orientations in predicting adaptation of immigrants. Using structural equation modelling, specific hypotheses drawn from the MIDA model were tested. It was found that Syrian refugees with high psychological strength and cultural competence reported high levels of adjustment as indicated by low levels of distress. On the other hand, refugees with high levels of perceived hassles reported low levels of adjustment as indicated by high level of distress. The results highlight the importance of psychological strength, cultural competence, and hassles in refugees’ adaption. The study’s findings have the potential to inform host country policymakers regarding the positive integration of refugees into German society, and specific recommendations have been made.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Fan Xuan Chen; Xinyu Zhang; Lasse Laustsen; Joey T. Cheng;
    Project: SSHRC

    Dominant leadership is, surprisingly, on the rise globally. Previous studies have found that intergroup conflict increases followers’ support for dominant leaders, but identifying the potential benefits that such leaders can supply is crucial to explaining their rise. We took a behavioral-economics approach in Study 1 ( N = 288 adults), finding that cooperation among followers increases under leaders with a dominant reputation. This pattern held regardless of whether dominant leaders were assigned to groups, elected through a bidding process, or leading under intergroup competition. Moreover, Studies 2a to 2e ( N = 1,022 adults) show that impressions of leader dominance evoked by personality profiles, authoritarian attitudes, or physical formidability similarly increase follower cooperation. We found a weaker but nonsignificant trend when dominance was cued by facial masculinity and no evidence when dominance was cued by aggressive disposition in a decision game. These findings highlight the unexpected benefits that dominant leaders can bestow on group cooperation through threat of punishment.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Qin Zhu; Zhenchang Zhu; Reinier Nauta; Klaas R. Timmermans; Long Jiang; Yanpeng Cai; Zhifeng Yang; Theo Gerkema;
    Country: Netherlands

    The seaweed industry is growing worldwide to meet future resource needs in terms of food and fuel. In the meantime, the impact of expanding off-bottom seaweed cultivation on its environment is unclear. For example, it remains poorly understood how off-bottom seaweeds affect the local hydrodynamic environment, especially concerning turbulence that is more important for nutrient transport and availability than the mean flow velocity. Here, we carried out well-controlled flume experiments with mimic seaweed thalli, which are available, controllable, and stable, to investigate the impact of off-bottom seaweed canopies on whole-depth flow velocities in terms of both mean flow and turbulence velocity profiles. A careful comparison of behavior in the flow between natural and mimic seaweed thalli was made before these experiments. The results show that the floating seaweed thalli generate a surface boundary layer and have a profound impact on the velocity structure in the bottom boundary layer. More importantly, the generation, growth and dissipation of turbulence in the seaweed thalli area deeply affect the downstream distribution of near-bed turbulent strength and associated bed shear stress. Ignoring this turbulent variation would cause inaccurate predictions of morphological changes of the seabed. Our findings suggest that expanding the seaweed cultivation area may cause high risks of bed degradation and low diffusion in the downstream cultivation area. These findings provide novel insights into the environmental influence of off-bottom seaweed cultivation, with important implications for optimizing management strategies to promote seaweed productivity while minimizing seabed destabilization.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Zehua Pan; Roy Brouwer;
    Country: Netherlands

    Green infrastructure for source water protection in the form of forest protection and afforestation is gaining interest worldwide. It is considered more sustainable in the long-term than traditional engineering-based approaches. This paper presents a theoretical model to support investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water. We first develop a static optimal control model accounting for the uncertainties surrounding green infrastructure. This model is then extended to factor in key characteristics surrounding investment decisions aimed at optimizing the stock of green and grey infrastructure. We first include dynamic forest growth, followed by the risk of wildfires and finally the potential offsetting effect of carbon sequestration on long-term climate change and the reduced risk of wildfires. We provide a numerical example to analyze the performance of the different model specifications, interpret their outcomes and draw conclusions to guide future investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Supriya Chopra; Akshay Mangaj; Alisha Sharma; Li Tee Tan; Alina Sturdza; Ina M. Jürgenliemk-Schulz; Kathy Han; Fleur Huang; Maximilian Schmid; Lars Fokdal; +5 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Background: In the metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, systemic chemotherapy constitutes the main treatment. Though there is an increasing use of high dose external radiation and brachytherapy in the metastatic setting, no consensus exists. Methods: A 17-item survey was designed with additional case-based questions to explore present management of oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervix cancer within EMBRACE research group participating sites. The questions were designed to elicit prevailing practices in the management of de-novo oligo-metastasis and oligo-recurrent setting after completing the primary treatment of cervix cancer. The survey was sent electronically with two rounds of email reminders to respond over a 2-week survey period. The online survey was designed such that it was mandatory to complete all questions. The responses were recorded and results were summarized as proportions and summary statistics were generated. Results: Twenty-two centers responded to this survey. A majority (90%) of respondents reported a low incidence of de-novo oligo-metastatic cervical cancer in their practice (<5%), with a higher proportion of patients with oligo-recurrence after completing primary treatment (5–10%). All responding sites preferred to treat pelvic disease in the de-novo oligo-metastatic setting albeit with different fractionation regimens. While 68.2% of respondents recommended chemo-radiation and brachytherapy, 31.8% considered additional systemic therapy. Overall 77.3% centers recommended the use of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy to oligo-metastasis. For out-of-field nodal recurrences, 63.7% of respondents considered treating with curative intent, while 59% preferred treating in-field recurrence with palliative intent. A vast majority of the participating centers (90%) have stereotactic radiation therapy capacity and would consider a clinical trial addressing oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervical cancer. Conclusion: Although contemporary practice is variable, a substantial proportion of EMBRACE centers consider high dose radiation in de-novo metastatic and oligo-recurrence settings. However, there is clear need for a joint clinical protocol and prospective studies to address the role of high dose radiation within oligo-recurrent and oligo-metastatic scenarios.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    A.S. Vittrup; Kari Tanderup; Søren M. Bentzen; Nina Boje Kibsgaard Jensen; Sofia Spampinato; Lars Fokdal; Jacob Christian Lindegaard; Alina Sturdza; Maximilian Schmid; Barbara Segedin; +18 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Purpose: This report describes the persistence of late substantial treatment-related patient-reported symptoms (LAPERS) in the multi-institutional EMBRACE study on magnetic resonance image guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC).Methods and Materials: Patient-reported symptoms (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC]-C30/CX24) and physician-assessed morbidity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE], version 3.0) were assessed at baseline and regular timepoints during follow-up. Patients with sufficient EORTC follow-up (baseline and >= 3 late follow-up visits) were analyzed. LAPERS events were defined as the presence of substantial EORTC symptoms (quite a bit/very much) for at least half of the assessments (persistence) and progression beyond baseline condition (treatment-related). For each EORTC symptom, the ratio between LAPERS rates and crude incidence rates of substantial symptoms was calculated to represent the proportion of symptomatic patients with persisting symptoms. For 9 symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, the overlap of LAPERS and severe morbidity events (grades 3-5) was evaluated.Results: Of 1047 patients with EORTC available, 741 had sufficient follow-up for the LAPERS analyses. The median follow-up was 59 months (interquartile range, 42-70 months). Across all symptoms, the proportion of patients with LAPERS events (LAPERS rates) was in median 4.6% (range, 0.0% vaginal bleeding to 20.4% tiredness). Urinary frequency, neuropathy, fatigue, insomnia, and menopausal symptoms revealed LAPERS rates of >10%. Vomiting, blood in stool, urinary pain/burning, and abnormal vaginal bleeding displayed LAPERS rates of <1%. A median of 19% of symptomatic patients (interquartile range, 8.0%-28.5%) showed persistent long-term symptoms (LAPERS events). In symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, 12% of LAPERS events were accompanied by a severe CTCAE event.Conclusions: Within this large cohort of survivors of LACC, a subgroup of patients with persistent symptoms (LAPERS events) was identified. For symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, the vast majority of LAPERS events occurred in patients without corresponding severe physician-assessed morbidity. These findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between transient and persisting symptoms in the aftercare of LACC survivors. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Yannick Molgat-Seon; Sabina A. Guler; Carli M. Peters; Dragoş M. Vasilescu; Joseph H. Puyat; Harvey O. Coxson; Christopher J. Ryerson; Jordan A. Guenette;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    RATIONALE The pathophysiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) impacts body composition, whereby ILD severity is linked to lower lean mass. OBJECTIVES To determine i) if pectoralis muscle area (PMA) is a surrogate for whole-body lean mass in ILD, ii) whether PMA is associated with ILD severity, and iii) if the longitudinal change in PMA is associated with pulmonary function and mortality in ILD. METHODS Patients with ILD (n = 164) were analyzed retrospectively. PMA was quantified from a chest computed tomography scan. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and pulmonary function were obtained as part of routine clinical care. Dyspnea and quality of life were assessed using the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS PMA was associated with whole-body lean mass (p  0.05). The annual negative PMA slope was associated with annual negative slopes in FVC, FEV1, and DLCO (all p < 0.05), but not FEV1/FVC (p = 0.46). Annual slope in PMA was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = -0.80, 95% CI:0.889-0.959; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In patients with ILD, PMA is a suitable surrogate for whole-body lean mass. A lower PMA is associated with indices of ILD severity, which supports the notion that ILD progression may involve sarcopenia.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Anne-Katrin Müller; Nele Markert; Katharina Leser; David Kämpfer; Sabrina Schiwy; Carolin Riegraf; Sebastian Buchinger; Lin Gan; Ali T. Abdallah; Bernd Denecke; +4 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Numerous environmental pollutants have the potential to accumulate in sediments, and among them are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). It is well documented that water-borne exposure concentrations of some potent EDCs, more specifically estrogenic- active compounds (ECs), can impair the reproduction of fish. In contrast, little is known about the bioavailability and effects of sediment-associated ECs on fish. Particularly, when sediments are disturbed, e.g., during flood events, chemicals may be released from the sediment and become bioavailable. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate a) whether ECs from the sediment become bioavailable to fish when the sediment is suspended, and b) whether such exposure leads to endocrine responses in fish. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed over 21 days to constantly suspended sediments in the following treatments: i) a contaminated sediment from the Luppe River, representing a "hotspot" for EC accumulation, ii) a reference sediment (exhibiting only background contamination), iii) three dilutions, 2-, 4- and 8-fold of Luppe sediment diluted with the reference sediment, and iv) a water-only control. Measured estrogenic activity using in vitro bioassays as well as target analysis of nonylphenol and estrone via LC-MS/MS in sediment, water, fish plasma, as well as bile samples, confirmed that ECs became bioavailable from the sediment during suspension. ECs were dissolved in the water phase, as indicated by passive samplers, and were readily taken up by the exposed trout. An estrogenic response of fish to Luppe sediment was indicated by increased abundance of transcripts of typical estrogen responsive genes, i.e. vitelline envelope protein α in the liver and vitellogenin induction in the skin mucus. Altered gene expression profiles of trout in response to suspended sediment from the Luppe River suggest that in addition to ECs a number of other contaminants such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals were remobilized during suspension. The results of the present study demonstrated that sediments not only function as a sink for ECs but can turn into a significant source of pollution when sediments are resuspended as during flood-events. This highlights the need for sediment quality criteria considering bioavailability sediment-bound contaminants in context of flood events.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    V. Massel; Yuan Fang; Milena Corredig;
    Project: NSERC

    Pectin nanocapsules were obtained by gelling the inner droplets, in situ, in a multiple emulsion of the water in oil in water (W/O/W) type, using the enzyme Pectin methyl esterase. The inner phase was tested for its encapsulation efficiency by addition of brilliant blue or magnesium chloride. Rheological measurements and light scattering showed similarities for gelled and non gelled droplets containing high methoxy pectin. After one month of storage, the gelled nanocapsules showed a population of larger droplets, not appearing in the other W/O/W emulsions: the non gelled pectin droplets or control with no pectin. Confocal microscopy observations demonstrated the presence of the inner water droplets in all emulsions after one month of storage at 4 °C. Brilliant blue was retained in the inner droplets containing pectin, and the retention was not affected by the gelled inner phase. Magnesium ions were retained in all treatments, even in the case of control W/O/W emulsions, not containing pectin. With both systems studied, the presence of gelled nanocapsules did not cause significant differences in the encapsulation efficiency or stability of the W/O/W emulsions.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
248 Research products, page 1 of 25
  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jean Sánchez-Sánchez; Janis Alarcón-Loayza; Luz Villa-Castillo; Mikashmi Kohli; Catharina Boehme; Sergio Carmona; Patricia J. Garcia; Madhukar Pai; Cesar Ugarte-Gil;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Peru

    Even though the WHO Essential Medicines List has been published and updated for the last 40 years, diagnostics only got their due recognition in the last two years. WHO published the first Essential Diagnostics List (EDL) in 2018 and subsequently updated in 2019...

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Saba Safdar; Elcin Ray-Yol; Julia A. M. Reif; Rita Berger;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract European countries have been the key destination for many Syrians since the beginning of the civil war in 2011. In this new context, refugees have faced various challenges, including negative public attitudes and pressure of assimilation that might negatively influence psychophysical adaptation. This indicates the necessity of exploring the factors associated with the adaptation of refugees in their new society. Using a multidimensional individual difference acculturation (MIDA) model as a theoretical framework, the present study investigated the psychophysical adaptation of Syrian refugees (N = 265, Mage = 33.03 years) in Germany. The MIDA model is a theoretical model on immigrants’ adaptation that takes into account the role of psychosocial resources (e.g., psychological strength), co-national connectedness (e.g., ingroup support), hassles, and acculturation orientations in predicting adaptation of immigrants. Using structural equation modelling, specific hypotheses drawn from the MIDA model were tested. It was found that Syrian refugees with high psychological strength and cultural competence reported high levels of adjustment as indicated by low levels of distress. On the other hand, refugees with high levels of perceived hassles reported low levels of adjustment as indicated by high level of distress. The results highlight the importance of psychological strength, cultural competence, and hassles in refugees’ adaption. The study’s findings have the potential to inform host country policymakers regarding the positive integration of refugees into German society, and specific recommendations have been made.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Fan Xuan Chen; Xinyu Zhang; Lasse Laustsen; Joey T. Cheng;
    Project: SSHRC

    Dominant leadership is, surprisingly, on the rise globally. Previous studies have found that intergroup conflict increases followers’ support for dominant leaders, but identifying the potential benefits that such leaders can supply is crucial to explaining their rise. We took a behavioral-economics approach in Study 1 ( N = 288 adults), finding that cooperation among followers increases under leaders with a dominant reputation. This pattern held regardless of whether dominant leaders were assigned to groups, elected through a bidding process, or leading under intergroup competition. Moreover, Studies 2a to 2e ( N = 1,022 adults) show that impressions of leader dominance evoked by personality profiles, authoritarian attitudes, or physical formidability similarly increase follower cooperation. We found a weaker but nonsignificant trend when dominance was cued by facial masculinity and no evidence when dominance was cued by aggressive disposition in a decision game. These findings highlight the unexpected benefits that dominant leaders can bestow on group cooperation through threat of punishment.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Qin Zhu; Zhenchang Zhu; Reinier Nauta; Klaas R. Timmermans; Long Jiang; Yanpeng Cai; Zhifeng Yang; Theo Gerkema;
    Country: Netherlands

    The seaweed industry is growing worldwide to meet future resource needs in terms of food and fuel. In the meantime, the impact of expanding off-bottom seaweed cultivation on its environment is unclear. For example, it remains poorly understood how off-bottom seaweeds affect the local hydrodynamic environment, especially concerning turbulence that is more important for nutrient transport and availability than the mean flow velocity. Here, we carried out well-controlled flume experiments with mimic seaweed thalli, which are available, controllable, and stable, to investigate the impact of off-bottom seaweed canopies on whole-depth flow velocities in terms of both mean flow and turbulence velocity profiles. A careful comparison of behavior in the flow between natural and mimic seaweed thalli was made before these experiments. The results show that the floating seaweed thalli generate a surface boundary layer and have a profound impact on the velocity structure in the bottom boundary layer. More importantly, the generation, growth and dissipation of turbulence in the seaweed thalli area deeply affect the downstream distribution of near-bed turbulent strength and associated bed shear stress. Ignoring this turbulent variation would cause inaccurate predictions of morphological changes of the seabed. Our findings suggest that expanding the seaweed cultivation area may cause high risks of bed degradation and low diffusion in the downstream cultivation area. These findings provide novel insights into the environmental influence of off-bottom seaweed cultivation, with important implications for optimizing management strategies to promote seaweed productivity while minimizing seabed destabilization.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Zehua Pan; Roy Brouwer;
    Country: Netherlands

    Green infrastructure for source water protection in the form of forest protection and afforestation is gaining interest worldwide. It is considered more sustainable in the long-term than traditional engineering-based approaches. This paper presents a theoretical model to support investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water. We first develop a static optimal control model accounting for the uncertainties surrounding green infrastructure. This model is then extended to factor in key characteristics surrounding investment decisions aimed at optimizing the stock of green and grey infrastructure. We first include dynamic forest growth, followed by the risk of wildfires and finally the potential offsetting effect of carbon sequestration on long-term climate change and the reduced risk of wildfires. We provide a numerical example to analyze the performance of the different model specifications, interpret their outcomes and draw conclusions to guide future investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Supriya Chopra; Akshay Mangaj; Alisha Sharma; Li Tee Tan; Alina Sturdza; Ina M. Jürgenliemk-Schulz; Kathy Han; Fleur Huang; Maximilian Schmid; Lars Fokdal; +5 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Background: In the metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, systemic chemotherapy constitutes the main treatment. Though there is an increasing use of high dose external radiation and brachytherapy in the metastatic setting, no consensus exists. Methods: A 17-item survey was designed with additional case-based questions to explore present management of oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervix cancer within EMBRACE research group participating sites. The questions were designed to elicit prevailing practices in the management of de-novo oligo-metastasis and oligo-recurrent setting after completing the primary treatment of cervix cancer. The survey was sent electronically with two rounds of email reminders to respond over a 2-week survey period. The online survey was designed such that it was mandatory to complete all questions. The responses were recorded and results were summarized as proportions and summary statistics were generated. Results: Twenty-two centers responded to this survey. A majority (90%) of respondents reported a low incidence of de-novo oligo-metastatic cervical cancer in their practice (<5%), with a higher proportion of patients with oligo-recurrence after completing primary treatment (5–10%). All responding sites preferred to treat pelvic disease in the de-novo oligo-metastatic setting albeit with different fractionation regimens. While 68.2% of respondents recommended chemo-radiation and brachytherapy, 31.8% considered additional systemic therapy. Overall 77.3% centers recommended the use of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy to oligo-metastasis. For out-of-field nodal recurrences, 63.7% of respondents considered treating with curative intent, while 59% preferred treating in-field recurrence with palliative intent. A vast majority of the participating centers (90%) have stereotactic radiation therapy capacity and would consider a clinical trial addressing oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervical cancer. Conclusion: Although contemporary practice is variable, a substantial proportion of EMBRACE centers consider high dose radiation in de-novo metastatic and oligo-recurrence settings. However, there is clear need for a joint clinical protocol and prospective studies to address the role of high dose radiation within oligo-recurrent and oligo-metastatic scenarios.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    A.S. Vittrup; Kari Tanderup; Søren M. Bentzen; Nina Boje Kibsgaard Jensen; Sofia Spampinato; Lars Fokdal; Jacob Christian Lindegaard; Alina Sturdza; Maximilian Schmid; Barbara Segedin; +18 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Purpose: This report describes the persistence of late substantial treatment-related patient-reported symptoms (LAPERS) in the multi-institutional EMBRACE study on magnetic resonance image guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC).Methods and Materials: Patient-reported symptoms (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC]-C30/CX24) and physician-assessed morbidity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE], version 3.0) were assessed at baseline and regular timepoints during follow-up. Patients with sufficient EORTC follow-up (baseline and >= 3 late follow-up visits) were analyzed. LAPERS events were defined as the presence of substantial EORTC symptoms (quite a bit/very much) for at least half of the assessments (persistence) and progression beyond baseline condition (treatment-related). For each EORTC symptom, the ratio between LAPERS rates and crude incidence rates of substantial symptoms was calculated to represent the proportion of symptomatic patients with persisting symptoms. For 9 symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, the overlap of LAPERS and severe morbidity events (grades 3-5) was evaluated.Results: Of 1047 patients with EORTC available, 741 had sufficient follow-up for the LAPERS analyses. The median follow-up was 59 months (interquartile range, 42-70 months). Across all symptoms, the proportion of patients with LAPERS events (LAPERS rates) was in median 4.6% (range, 0.0% vaginal bleeding to 20.4% tiredness). Urinary frequency, neuropathy, fatigue, insomnia, and menopausal symptoms revealed LAPERS rates of >10%. Vomiting, blood in stool, urinary pain/burning, and abnormal vaginal bleeding displayed LAPERS rates of <1%. A median of 19% of symptomatic patients (interquartile range, 8.0%-28.5%) showed persistent long-term symptoms (LAPERS events). In symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, 12% of LAPERS events were accompanied by a severe CTCAE event.Conclusions: Within this large cohort of survivors of LACC, a subgroup of patients with persistent symptoms (LAPERS events) was identified. For symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, the vast majority of LAPERS events occurred in patients without corresponding severe physician-assessed morbidity. These findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between transient and persisting symptoms in the aftercare of LACC survivors. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Yannick Molgat-Seon; Sabina A. Guler; Carli M. Peters; Dragoş M. Vasilescu; Joseph H. Puyat; Harvey O. Coxson; Christopher J. Ryerson; Jordan A. Guenette;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    RATIONALE The pathophysiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) impacts body composition, whereby ILD severity is linked to lower lean mass. OBJECTIVES To determine i) if pectoralis muscle area (PMA) is a surrogate for whole-body lean mass in ILD, ii) whether PMA is associated with ILD severity, and iii) if the longitudinal change in PMA is associated with pulmonary function and mortality in ILD. METHODS Patients with ILD (n = 164) were analyzed retrospectively. PMA was quantified from a chest computed tomography scan. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and pulmonary function were obtained as part of routine clinical care. Dyspnea and quality of life were assessed using the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS PMA was associated with whole-body lean mass (p  0.05). The annual negative PMA slope was associated with annual negative slopes in FVC, FEV1, and DLCO (all p < 0.05), but not FEV1/FVC (p = 0.46). Annual slope in PMA was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = -0.80, 95% CI:0.889-0.959; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In patients with ILD, PMA is a suitable surrogate for whole-body lean mass. A lower PMA is associated with indices of ILD severity, which supports the notion that ILD progression may involve sarcopenia.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Anne-Katrin Müller; Nele Markert; Katharina Leser; David Kämpfer; Sabrina Schiwy; Carolin Riegraf; Sebastian Buchinger; Lin Gan; Ali T. Abdallah; Bernd Denecke; +4 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Numerous environmental pollutants have the potential to accumulate in sediments, and among them are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). It is well documented that water-borne exposure concentrations of some potent EDCs, more specifically estrogenic- active compounds (ECs), can impair the reproduction of fish. In contrast, little is known about the bioavailability and effects of sediment-associated ECs on fish. Particularly, when sediments are disturbed, e.g., during flood events, chemicals may be released from the sediment and become bioavailable. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate a) whether ECs from the sediment become bioavailable to fish when the sediment is suspended, and b) whether such exposure leads to endocrine responses in fish. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed over 21 days to constantly suspended sediments in the following treatments: i) a contaminated sediment from the Luppe River, representing a "hotspot" for EC accumulation, ii) a reference sediment (exhibiting only background contamination), iii) three dilutions, 2-, 4- and 8-fold of Luppe sediment diluted with the reference sediment, and iv) a water-only control. Measured estrogenic activity using in vitro bioassays as well as target analysis of nonylphenol and estrone via LC-MS/MS in sediment, water, fish plasma, as well as bile samples, confirmed that ECs became bioavailable from the sediment during suspension. ECs were dissolved in the water phase, as indicated by passive samplers, and were readily taken up by the exposed trout. An estrogenic response of fish to Luppe sediment was indicated by increased abundance of transcripts of typical estrogen responsive genes, i.e. vitelline envelope protein α in the liver and vitellogenin induction in the skin mucus. Altered gene expression profiles of trout in response to suspended sediment from the Luppe River suggest that in addition to ECs a number of other contaminants such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals were remobilized during suspension. The results of the present study demonstrated that sediments not only function as a sink for ECs but can turn into a significant source of pollution when sediments are resuspended as during flood-events. This highlights the need for sediment quality criteria considering bioavailability sediment-bound contaminants in context of flood events.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    V. Massel; Yuan Fang; Milena Corredig;
    Project: NSERC

    Pectin nanocapsules were obtained by gelling the inner droplets, in situ, in a multiple emulsion of the water in oil in water (W/O/W) type, using the enzyme Pectin methyl esterase. The inner phase was tested for its encapsulation efficiency by addition of brilliant blue or magnesium chloride. Rheological measurements and light scattering showed similarities for gelled and non gelled droplets containing high methoxy pectin. After one month of storage, the gelled nanocapsules showed a population of larger droplets, not appearing in the other W/O/W emulsions: the non gelled pectin droplets or control with no pectin. Confocal microscopy observations demonstrated the presence of the inner water droplets in all emulsions after one month of storage at 4 °C. Brilliant blue was retained in the inner droplets containing pectin, and the retention was not affected by the gelled inner phase. Magnesium ions were retained in all treatments, even in the case of control W/O/W emulsions, not containing pectin. With both systems studied, the presence of gelled nanocapsules did not cause significant differences in the encapsulation efficiency or stability of the W/O/W emulsions.