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4 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
  • Frontiers in Neurology
  • Neuroinformatics

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lauren E. Sergio; Lauren E. Sergio; Diana J. Gorbet; Diana J. Gorbet; Meaghan S. Adams; Meaghan S. Adams; Meaghan S. Adams; Danielle M. Dobney; Danielle M. Dobney;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    Adults exposed to blast and blunt impact often experience mild traumatic brain injury, affecting neural functions related to sensory, cognitive, and motor function. In this perspective article, we will review the effects of impact and blast exposure on functional performance that requires the integration of these sensory, cognitive, and motor control systems. We describe cognitive-motor integration and how it relates to successfully navigating skilled activities crucial for work, duty, sport, and even daily life. We review our research on the behavioral effects of traumatic impact and blast exposure on cognitive-motor integration in both younger and older adults, and the neural networks that are involved in these types of skills. Overall, we have observed impairments in rule-based skilled performance as a function of both physical impact and blast exposure. The extent of these impairments depended on the age at injury and the sex of the individual. It appears, however, that cognitive-motor integration deficits can be mitigated by the level of skill expertise of the affected individual, suggesting that such experience imparts resiliency in the brain networks that underly the control of complex visuomotor performance. Finally, we discuss the next steps needed to comprehensively understand the impact of trauma and blast exposure on functional movement control.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anwar S. Shatil; Anwar S. Shatil; Kant M. Matsuda; Kant M. Matsuda; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Project: NSERC

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air–tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data. In this report, we describe a relatively simple and cost-effective experimental setup for acquiring artifact-free ex vivo brain images using a clinical MRI system with standard hardware. In particular, we outline the necessary steps, from collecting an ex vivo human brain to the MRI scanner setup, and have also described changing the formalin (as might be necessary in longitudinal postmortem studies). Finally, we share some representative ex vivo MRI images that have been acquired using the proposed setup in order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. We hope that this protocol will provide both clinicians and researchers with a straight-forward and cost-effective solution for acquiring ex vivo MRI data from whole postmortem human brains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shatil, Anwar S.; Matsuda, Kant M.; Figley, Chase R.;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: NSERC

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air–tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data. In this report, we describe a relatively simple and cost-effective experimental setup for acquiring artifact-free ex vivo brain images using a clinical MRI system with standard hardware. In particular, we outline the necessary steps, from collecting an ex vivo human brain to the MRI scanner setup, and have also described changing the formalin (as might be necessary in longitudinal postmortem studies). Finally, we share some representative ex vivo MRI images that have been acquired using the proposed setup in order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. We hope that this protocol will provide both clinicians and researchers with a straight-forward and cost-effective solution for acquiring ex vivo MRI data from whole postmortem human brains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jos J Eggermont; Peter eTass; Peter eTass;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Country: Germany
    Project: NSERC

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound heard in the absence of physical sound sources external or internal to the body, reflected in aberrant neural synchrony of spontaneous or resting-state brain activity. Neural synchrony is generated by the nearly simultaneous firing of individual neurons, of the synchronization of membrane-potential changes in local neural groups as reflected in the local field potentials, resulting in the presence of oscillatory brain waves in the EEG. Noise-induced hearing loss, often resulting in tinnitus, causes a reorganization of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex and increased spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony. Spontaneous brain rhythms rely on neural synchrony. Abnormal neural synchrony in tinnitus appears to be confined to specific frequency bands of brain rhythms. Increases in delta-band activity are generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks resulting from hearing loss. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation was developed in order to specifically counteract such abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. The goal of acoustic CR neuromodulation is to desynchronize tinnitus-related abnormal delta-band oscillations. CR neuromodulation does not require permanent stimulus delivery in order to achieve long-lasting desynchronization or even a full-blown anti-kindling but may have cumulative effects, i.e., the effect of different CR epochs separated by pauses may accumulate. Unlike other approaches, acoustic CR neuromodulation does not intend to reduce tinnitus-related neuronal activity by employing lateral inhibition. The potential efficacy of acoustic CR modulation was shown in a clinical proof of concept trial, where effects achieved in 12 weeks of treatment delivered 4–6 h/day persisted through a preplanned 4-week therapy pause and showed sustained long-term effects after 10 months of therapy, leading to 75% responders.

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lauren E. Sergio; Lauren E. Sergio; Diana J. Gorbet; Diana J. Gorbet; Meaghan S. Adams; Meaghan S. Adams; Meaghan S. Adams; Danielle M. Dobney; Danielle M. Dobney;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    Adults exposed to blast and blunt impact often experience mild traumatic brain injury, affecting neural functions related to sensory, cognitive, and motor function. In this perspective article, we will review the effects of impact and blast exposure on functional performance that requires the integration of these sensory, cognitive, and motor control systems. We describe cognitive-motor integration and how it relates to successfully navigating skilled activities crucial for work, duty, sport, and even daily life. We review our research on the behavioral effects of traumatic impact and blast exposure on cognitive-motor integration in both younger and older adults, and the neural networks that are involved in these types of skills. Overall, we have observed impairments in rule-based skilled performance as a function of both physical impact and blast exposure. The extent of these impairments depended on the age at injury and the sex of the individual. It appears, however, that cognitive-motor integration deficits can be mitigated by the level of skill expertise of the affected individual, suggesting that such experience imparts resiliency in the brain networks that underly the control of complex visuomotor performance. Finally, we discuss the next steps needed to comprehensively understand the impact of trauma and blast exposure on functional movement control.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anwar S. Shatil; Anwar S. Shatil; Kant M. Matsuda; Kant M. Matsuda; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley; Chase R. Figley;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Project: NSERC

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air–tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data. In this report, we describe a relatively simple and cost-effective experimental setup for acquiring artifact-free ex vivo brain images using a clinical MRI system with standard hardware. In particular, we outline the necessary steps, from collecting an ex vivo human brain to the MRI scanner setup, and have also described changing the formalin (as might be necessary in longitudinal postmortem studies). Finally, we share some representative ex vivo MRI images that have been acquired using the proposed setup in order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. We hope that this protocol will provide both clinicians and researchers with a straight-forward and cost-effective solution for acquiring ex vivo MRI data from whole postmortem human brains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shatil, Anwar S.; Matsuda, Kant M.; Figley, Chase R.;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: NSERC

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air–tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data. In this report, we describe a relatively simple and cost-effective experimental setup for acquiring artifact-free ex vivo brain images using a clinical MRI system with standard hardware. In particular, we outline the necessary steps, from collecting an ex vivo human brain to the MRI scanner setup, and have also described changing the formalin (as might be necessary in longitudinal postmortem studies). Finally, we share some representative ex vivo MRI images that have been acquired using the proposed setup in order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. We hope that this protocol will provide both clinicians and researchers with a straight-forward and cost-effective solution for acquiring ex vivo MRI data from whole postmortem human brains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jos J Eggermont; Peter eTass; Peter eTass;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Country: Germany
    Project: NSERC

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound heard in the absence of physical sound sources external or internal to the body, reflected in aberrant neural synchrony of spontaneous or resting-state brain activity. Neural synchrony is generated by the nearly simultaneous firing of individual neurons, of the synchronization of membrane-potential changes in local neural groups as reflected in the local field potentials, resulting in the presence of oscillatory brain waves in the EEG. Noise-induced hearing loss, often resulting in tinnitus, causes a reorganization of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex and increased spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony. Spontaneous brain rhythms rely on neural synchrony. Abnormal neural synchrony in tinnitus appears to be confined to specific frequency bands of brain rhythms. Increases in delta-band activity are generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks resulting from hearing loss. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation was developed in order to specifically counteract such abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. The goal of acoustic CR neuromodulation is to desynchronize tinnitus-related abnormal delta-band oscillations. CR neuromodulation does not require permanent stimulus delivery in order to achieve long-lasting desynchronization or even a full-blown anti-kindling but may have cumulative effects, i.e., the effect of different CR epochs separated by pauses may accumulate. Unlike other approaches, acoustic CR neuromodulation does not intend to reduce tinnitus-related neuronal activity by employing lateral inhibition. The potential efficacy of acoustic CR modulation was shown in a clinical proof of concept trial, where effects achieved in 12 weeks of treatment delivered 4–6 h/day persisted through a preplanned 4-week therapy pause and showed sustained long-term effects after 10 months of therapy, leading to 75% responders.