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210,077 Research products, page 1 of 21,008

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fangong Kong; Shoujuan Wang; Weijue Gao; Pedram Fatehi;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Project: NSERC

    Kraft lignin (KL) produced in kraft pulping process has a low molecular weight and solubility, which limits its application in industry. For the first time, KL was polymerized with acrylic acid (AA) in an acidic aqueous suspension system to produce a water soluble lignin–AA polymer with a high molecular weight in this work. The polymerization reaction was carried out using K2S2O8 as an initiator, and the influence of reaction conditions on the carboxylate group content and molecular weight of resultant lignin polymers was systematically investigated. The mechanism of polymerization of KL and AA was discussed fundamentally. The resulting lignin–AA polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and elemental analyses. The results showed that the phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) content of KL promoted the polymerization under an acidic environment. Under the conditions of 1.5 wt% of initiator, 3.5 of pH, 10.0 of AA/lignin molar ratio, 0.15 mol L−1 of lignin concentration, 3 h and 80 °C, the carboxylate group content and the molecular weight of the polymer were 7.37 mmol g−1 and 7.4 × 105 g mol−1, respectively. The lignin–AA polymer was water soluble at a 10 g L−1 concentration and a pH higher than 4.5. Furthermore, the flocculation performance of lignin–AA polymer in an aluminium oxide suspension was evaluated. Compared with polyAA, the lignin–AA polymer was a more efficient flocculant for aluminium oxide suspension, which shows its potential to be used as a green flocculant in industry.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ian Bentley; Stephen Atkins; Christopher James Edmundson; John Metcalfe; Jonathan Kenneth Sinclair;
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Resisted sprint training is performed in a horizontal direction and involves similar muscles, velocities, and ranges of motion (ROM) to those of normal sprinting. Generally, sleds are attached to the athletes through a lead (3 m) and harness; the most common attachment points are the shoulder or waist. At present, it is not known how the different harness point's impact on the kinematics and kinetics associated with sled towing (ST). The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematics of shoulder and waist harness attachment points in relation to the acceleration phase of ST. Fourteen trained men completed normal and ST trials, loaded at 10% reduction of sprint velocity. Sagittal plane kinematics from the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were measured, together with stance phase kinetics (third footstrike). Kinetic and kinematic parameters were compared between harness attachments using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results indicated that various kinetic differences were present between the normal and ST conditions. Significantly greater net horizontal mean force, net horizontal impulses, propulsive mean force, and propulsive impulses were measured (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the waist harness also led to greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder attachment (p < 0.001). In kinematic terms, ST conditions significantly increased peak flexion in hip, knee, and ankle joints compared with the normal trials (p < 0.05). Results highlighted that the shoulder harness had a greater impact on trunk and knee joint kinematics when compared with the waist harness (p < 0.05). In summary, waist harnesses seem to be the most suitable attachment point for the acceleration phase of sprinting. Sled towing with these attachments resulted in fewer kinematic alterations and greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder harness. Future research is necessary in order to explore the long-term adaptations of these acute changes.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tingting Yu; Yishuai Xu; Yifan Liu; Puren Ouyang; M.M. Gupta; W.J. Zhang; W.J. Zhang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    This paper reports a work on developing a novel charge control circuit for control of the piezoelectric actuator to overcome its hysteresis nonlinearity when the actuator is driven at high voltage (as opposed to low voltage reported in literature). The charge control circuit also includes a balancing resistor. A test-bed for a piezoelectric actuator was established and an experiment was conducted. The result showed that the hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator was reduced by 82% under the proposed charge control circuit. This charge control circuit can be used for control of piezoelectric inertia-friction actuator, in which the piezoelectric actuator is part of the whole actuator system.

  • Authors: 
    Vikraman Baskaran; Aziz Guergachi; Bharat Shah; S. Sidani; Rajeev K. Bali; Raouf N. G. Naguib; Nilmini Wickramasinghe;
    Publisher: Inderscience Publishers

    Population-based screening has been accepted as the best tool for preventing breast cancer. Many women cohorts are left out from screening sessions on a regular basis. Increasing screening attendance through well-coordinated interventions has been accepted as a norm for such screening programme. The need for more resources for making such interventions within the primary care domain has held back many such initiatives. A case study on increasing screening attendance through prediction techniques to identify women likely to miss screening and initiate opportunistic intervention, is discussed in this paper. A new intervention research framework and a questionnaire-based survey are also presented.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    John Githaka Maringa; Anthony R. Vega; Michael W. Davidson; Khuloud Jaqaman; Nicolas Touret;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    CD36 is a multiligand scavenger receptor that ligates Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) at the surface of endothelial cells and induces their apoptosis. Recent evidences have shown that clustering of CD36 is necessary for signal transduction in macrophages and is regulated by the architecture of the cortical actin cytoskeleton apposed to the plasmalemma. Here, we investigated the role of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane nanodomains in the control of CD36 activation in endothelial cells. Stimulation with multivalent ligands (TSP-1 and anti-CD36 IgM) resulted in the downstream phosphorylation of the Src Family kinase, Fyn. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton or removal of cholesterol blocked this activation. To gain molecular details on the rearrangement of the receptors during TSP-1 binding, we conducted superresolution approaches (based on PhotoActivated Localization Microscopy or PALM) and quantitative spatial distribution analysis. Endothelial cell lines stably expressing CD36-PAmCherry were generated for that purpose. At steady state, CD36 receptors pre-exist in small clusters (average diameter of 100 nm), in which Fyn was also present. Upon TSP-1 binding, CD36 clusters increased in size (average diameter of 140 nm) and also became denser. The average distance between CD36 molecules in these clusters was in the range of 8 nm compare to 11 nm in the control condition. F-actin depolymerization or cholesterol depletion reduced the capacity of the ligand to induce formation of larger clusters resulting in a decreased recruitment and activation of Fyn. Our data demonstrate cooperation between cholesterol-dependent domains and the cortical actin cytoskeleton in the organization of CD36 receptors and Fyn before and during TSP-1 stimulation.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jihwan Oh; Yehao Zhou;
    Publisher: SciPost
    Country: United Kingdom

    We derive the simplest commutation relations of operator algebras associated to M2 branes and an M5 brane in the $\Omega$-deformed M-theory, which is a natural set-up for Twisted holography. Feynman diagram 1-loop computations in the twisted-holographic dual side reproduce the same algebraic relations. Comment: 50 pages; v2: a submitted version to SciPost

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Luc Rock; B.H. Ellert; Bernhard Mayer; Ann-Lise Norman;
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Agricultural soils are the dominant contributor to increases in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Few studies have investigated the natural N and O isotopic composition of soil N2O. We collected soil gas samples using horizontal sampling tubes installed at successive depths under five contrasting agricultural crops (e.g., unamended alfalfa, fertilized cereal), and tropospheric air samples. Mean d 15N and d 18O values of soil N2O ranged from -28.0 to +8.9‰, and from +29.0 to +53.6‰. The mean d 15N and d 18O values of tropospheric N2O were +4.6 ± 0.7‰ and +48.3 ± 0.2‰, respectively. In general, d values were lowest at depth, they were negatively correlated to soil [N2O], and d 15N was positively correlated to d 18O for every treatment on all sampling dates. N2O from the different agricultural treatments had distinct d 15N and d 18O values that varied among sampling dates. Fertilized treatments had soil N2O with low d values, but the unamended alfalfa yielded N2O with the lowest d values. Diffusion was not the predominant process controlling N2O concentration profiles. Based on isotopic and concentration data, it appears that soil N2O was consumed, as it moved from deeper to shallower soil layers. To better assess the main process(es) controlling N2O within a soil profile, we propose a conceptual model that integrates data on net N2O production or consumption and isotopic data. The direct local impact of agricultural N2O on the isotopic composition of tropospheric N2O was recorded by a shift toward lower d values of locally measured tropospheric N2O on a day with very high soil N2O emissions.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Verena J. Schuenemann; Pushpendra Singh; Tom A. Mendum; Ben Krause-Kyora; Günter Jäger; Kirsten I. Bos; Alexander Herbig; Christos Economou; Andrej Benjak; Philippe Busso; +17 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Countries: Denmark, Switzerland
    Project: EC | APGREID (310920), SSHRC

    Leprosy: Ancient and Modern In medieval Europe, leprosy was greatly feared: Sufferers had to wear bells and were shunned and kept isolated from society. Although leprosy largely disappeared from Europe in the 16th century, elsewhere in the world almost a quarter of a million cases are still reported annually, despite the availability of effective drugs. Schuenemann et al. (p. 179 , published online 13 June; see the 14 June News story by Gibbons , p. 1278 ) probed the origins of leprosy bacilli by using a genomic capture-based approach on DNA obtained from skeletal remains from the 10th to 14th centuries. Because the unique mycolic acids of this mycobacterium protect its DNA, for one Danish sample over 100-fold, coverage of the genome was possible. Sequencing suggests a link between the middle-eastern and medieval European strains, which falls in line with social historical expectations that the returning expeditionary forces of antiquity originally spread the pathogen. Subsequently, Europeans took the bacterium westward to the Americas. Overall, ancient and modern strains remain remarkably similar, with no apparent loss of virulence genes, indicating it was most probably improvements in social conditions that led to leprosy's demise in Europe.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; Hashim U. Ahmed; Jelle O. Barentsz; T.E. Bjerklund Johansen; Maurizio Brausi; Mark Emberton; Ferdinand Frauscher; D. Greene; Mukesh G. Harisinghani; Karin Haustermans; +12 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
    Country: Netherlands

    PURPOSE: To establish a consensus in relation to case selection, conduct of therapy, and outcomes that are associated with focal therapy for men with localized prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urologic surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and histopathologists from North America and Europe participated in a consensus workshop on focal therapy for prostate cancer. The consensus process was face to face within a structured meeting, in which pertinent clinical issues were raised, discussed, and agreement sought. Where no agreement was possible, this was acknowledged, and the nature of the disagreement noted. RESULTS: Candidates for focal treatment should have unilateral low- to intermediate-risk disease with clinical stage

  • Authors: 
    Jinli Zhang; Ning Nie; Yuanyuan Liu; Jiao Wang; Feng Yu; Junjie Gu; Wei Li;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    An evolutionary composite of LiFePO4 with nitrogen and boron codoped carbon layers was prepared by processing hydrothermal-synthesized LiFePO4. This novel codoping method is successfully applied to LiFePO4 for commercial use, and it achieved excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance can be improved through single nitrogen doping (LiFePO4/C-N) or boron doping (LiFePO4/C-B). When modifying the LiFePO4/C-B with nitrogen (to synthesis LiFePO4/C-B+N) the undesired nonconducting N-B configurations (190.1 and 397.9 eV) are generated. This decreases the electronic conductivity from 2.56×10(-2) to 1.30×10(-2) S cm(-1) resulting in weak electrochemical performance. Nevertheless, using the opposite order to decorate LiFePO4/C-N with boron (to obtain LiFePO4/C-N+B) not only eliminates the nonconducting N-B impurity, but also promotes the conductive C-N (398.3, 400.3, and 401.1 eV) and C-B (189.5 eV) configurations-this markedly improves the electronic conductivity to 1.36×10(-1) S cm(-1). Meanwhile the positive doping strategy leads to synergistic electrochemical activity distinctly compared with single N- or B-doped materials (even much better than their sum capacity at 20 C). Moreover, due to the electron and hole-type carriers donated by nitrogen and boron atoms, the N+B codoped carbon coating tremendously enhances the electrochemical property: at the rate of 20 C, the codoped sample can elevate the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 121.6 mAh g(-1), and the codoped product based on commercial LiFePO4/C shows a discharge capacity of 78.4 mAh g(-1) rather than 48.1 mAh g(-1). Nevertheless, the B+N codoped sample decreases the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 95.4 mAh g(-1), while the commercial LFP/C changes from 48.1 mAh g(-1) to 40.6 mAh g(-1).

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
210,077 Research products, page 1 of 21,008
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fangong Kong; Shoujuan Wang; Weijue Gao; Pedram Fatehi;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Project: NSERC

    Kraft lignin (KL) produced in kraft pulping process has a low molecular weight and solubility, which limits its application in industry. For the first time, KL was polymerized with acrylic acid (AA) in an acidic aqueous suspension system to produce a water soluble lignin–AA polymer with a high molecular weight in this work. The polymerization reaction was carried out using K2S2O8 as an initiator, and the influence of reaction conditions on the carboxylate group content and molecular weight of resultant lignin polymers was systematically investigated. The mechanism of polymerization of KL and AA was discussed fundamentally. The resulting lignin–AA polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and elemental analyses. The results showed that the phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) content of KL promoted the polymerization under an acidic environment. Under the conditions of 1.5 wt% of initiator, 3.5 of pH, 10.0 of AA/lignin molar ratio, 0.15 mol L−1 of lignin concentration, 3 h and 80 °C, the carboxylate group content and the molecular weight of the polymer were 7.37 mmol g−1 and 7.4 × 105 g mol−1, respectively. The lignin–AA polymer was water soluble at a 10 g L−1 concentration and a pH higher than 4.5. Furthermore, the flocculation performance of lignin–AA polymer in an aluminium oxide suspension was evaluated. Compared with polyAA, the lignin–AA polymer was a more efficient flocculant for aluminium oxide suspension, which shows its potential to be used as a green flocculant in industry.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ian Bentley; Stephen Atkins; Christopher James Edmundson; John Metcalfe; Jonathan Kenneth Sinclair;
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Resisted sprint training is performed in a horizontal direction and involves similar muscles, velocities, and ranges of motion (ROM) to those of normal sprinting. Generally, sleds are attached to the athletes through a lead (3 m) and harness; the most common attachment points are the shoulder or waist. At present, it is not known how the different harness point's impact on the kinematics and kinetics associated with sled towing (ST). The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematics of shoulder and waist harness attachment points in relation to the acceleration phase of ST. Fourteen trained men completed normal and ST trials, loaded at 10% reduction of sprint velocity. Sagittal plane kinematics from the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were measured, together with stance phase kinetics (third footstrike). Kinetic and kinematic parameters were compared between harness attachments using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results indicated that various kinetic differences were present between the normal and ST conditions. Significantly greater net horizontal mean force, net horizontal impulses, propulsive mean force, and propulsive impulses were measured (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the waist harness also led to greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder attachment (p < 0.001). In kinematic terms, ST conditions significantly increased peak flexion in hip, knee, and ankle joints compared with the normal trials (p < 0.05). Results highlighted that the shoulder harness had a greater impact on trunk and knee joint kinematics when compared with the waist harness (p < 0.05). In summary, waist harnesses seem to be the most suitable attachment point for the acceleration phase of sprinting. Sled towing with these attachments resulted in fewer kinematic alterations and greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder harness. Future research is necessary in order to explore the long-term adaptations of these acute changes.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tingting Yu; Yishuai Xu; Yifan Liu; Puren Ouyang; M.M. Gupta; W.J. Zhang; W.J. Zhang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    This paper reports a work on developing a novel charge control circuit for control of the piezoelectric actuator to overcome its hysteresis nonlinearity when the actuator is driven at high voltage (as opposed to low voltage reported in literature). The charge control circuit also includes a balancing resistor. A test-bed for a piezoelectric actuator was established and an experiment was conducted. The result showed that the hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator was reduced by 82% under the proposed charge control circuit. This charge control circuit can be used for control of piezoelectric inertia-friction actuator, in which the piezoelectric actuator is part of the whole actuator system.

  • Authors: 
    Vikraman Baskaran; Aziz Guergachi; Bharat Shah; S. Sidani; Rajeev K. Bali; Raouf N. G. Naguib; Nilmini Wickramasinghe;
    Publisher: Inderscience Publishers

    Population-based screening has been accepted as the best tool for preventing breast cancer. Many women cohorts are left out from screening sessions on a regular basis. Increasing screening attendance through well-coordinated interventions has been accepted as a norm for such screening programme. The need for more resources for making such interventions within the primary care domain has held back many such initiatives. A case study on increasing screening attendance through prediction techniques to identify women likely to miss screening and initiate opportunistic intervention, is discussed in this paper. A new intervention research framework and a questionnaire-based survey are also presented.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    John Githaka Maringa; Anthony R. Vega; Michael W. Davidson; Khuloud Jaqaman; Nicolas Touret;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    CD36 is a multiligand scavenger receptor that ligates Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) at the surface of endothelial cells and induces their apoptosis. Recent evidences have shown that clustering of CD36 is necessary for signal transduction in macrophages and is regulated by the architecture of the cortical actin cytoskeleton apposed to the plasmalemma. Here, we investigated the role of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane nanodomains in the control of CD36 activation in endothelial cells. Stimulation with multivalent ligands (TSP-1 and anti-CD36 IgM) resulted in the downstream phosphorylation of the Src Family kinase, Fyn. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton or removal of cholesterol blocked this activation. To gain molecular details on the rearrangement of the receptors during TSP-1 binding, we conducted superresolution approaches (based on PhotoActivated Localization Microscopy or PALM) and quantitative spatial distribution analysis. Endothelial cell lines stably expressing CD36-PAmCherry were generated for that purpose. At steady state, CD36 receptors pre-exist in small clusters (average diameter of 100 nm), in which Fyn was also present. Upon TSP-1 binding, CD36 clusters increased in size (average diameter of 140 nm) and also became denser. The average distance between CD36 molecules in these clusters was in the range of 8 nm compare to 11 nm in the control condition. F-actin depolymerization or cholesterol depletion reduced the capacity of the ligand to induce formation of larger clusters resulting in a decreased recruitment and activation of Fyn. Our data demonstrate cooperation between cholesterol-dependent domains and the cortical actin cytoskeleton in the organization of CD36 receptors and Fyn before and during TSP-1 stimulation.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jihwan Oh; Yehao Zhou;
    Publisher: SciPost
    Country: United Kingdom

    We derive the simplest commutation relations of operator algebras associated to M2 branes and an M5 brane in the $\Omega$-deformed M-theory, which is a natural set-up for Twisted holography. Feynman diagram 1-loop computations in the twisted-holographic dual side reproduce the same algebraic relations. Comment: 50 pages; v2: a submitted version to SciPost

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Luc Rock; B.H. Ellert; Bernhard Mayer; Ann-Lise Norman;
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Agricultural soils are the dominant contributor to increases in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Few studies have investigated the natural N and O isotopic composition of soil N2O. We collected soil gas samples using horizontal sampling tubes installed at successive depths under five contrasting agricultural crops (e.g., unamended alfalfa, fertilized cereal), and tropospheric air samples. Mean d 15N and d 18O values of soil N2O ranged from -28.0 to +8.9‰, and from +29.0 to +53.6‰. The mean d 15N and d 18O values of tropospheric N2O were +4.6 ± 0.7‰ and +48.3 ± 0.2‰, respectively. In general, d values were lowest at depth, they were negatively correlated to soil [N2O], and d 15N was positively correlated to d 18O for every treatment on all sampling dates. N2O from the different agricultural treatments had distinct d 15N and d 18O values that varied among sampling dates. Fertilized treatments had soil N2O with low d values, but the unamended alfalfa yielded N2O with the lowest d values. Diffusion was not the predominant process controlling N2O concentration profiles. Based on isotopic and concentration data, it appears that soil N2O was consumed, as it moved from deeper to shallower soil layers. To better assess the main process(es) controlling N2O within a soil profile, we propose a conceptual model that integrates data on net N2O production or consumption and isotopic data. The direct local impact of agricultural N2O on the isotopic composition of tropospheric N2O was recorded by a shift toward lower d values of locally measured tropospheric N2O on a day with very high soil N2O emissions.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Verena J. Schuenemann; Pushpendra Singh; Tom A. Mendum; Ben Krause-Kyora; Günter Jäger; Kirsten I. Bos; Alexander Herbig; Christos Economou; Andrej Benjak; Philippe Busso; +17 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Countries: Denmark, Switzerland
    Project: EC | APGREID (310920), SSHRC

    Leprosy: Ancient and Modern In medieval Europe, leprosy was greatly feared: Sufferers had to wear bells and were shunned and kept isolated from society. Although leprosy largely disappeared from Europe in the 16th century, elsewhere in the world almost a quarter of a million cases are still reported annually, despite the availability of effective drugs. Schuenemann et al. (p. 179 , published online 13 June; see the 14 June News story by Gibbons , p. 1278 ) probed the origins of leprosy bacilli by using a genomic capture-based approach on DNA obtained from skeletal remains from the 10th to 14th centuries. Because the unique mycolic acids of this mycobacterium protect its DNA, for one Danish sample over 100-fold, coverage of the genome was possible. Sequencing suggests a link between the middle-eastern and medieval European strains, which falls in line with social historical expectations that the returning expeditionary forces of antiquity originally spread the pathogen. Subsequently, Europeans took the bacterium westward to the Americas. Overall, ancient and modern strains remain remarkably similar, with no apparent loss of virulence genes, indicating it was most probably improvements in social conditions that led to leprosy's demise in Europe.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; Hashim U. Ahmed; Jelle O. Barentsz; T.E. Bjerklund Johansen; Maurizio Brausi; Mark Emberton; Ferdinand Frauscher; D. Greene; Mukesh G. Harisinghani; Karin Haustermans; +12 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
    Country: Netherlands

    PURPOSE: To establish a consensus in relation to case selection, conduct of therapy, and outcomes that are associated with focal therapy for men with localized prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urologic surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and histopathologists from North America and Europe participated in a consensus workshop on focal therapy for prostate cancer. The consensus process was face to face within a structured meeting, in which pertinent clinical issues were raised, discussed, and agreement sought. Where no agreement was possible, this was acknowledged, and the nature of the disagreement noted. RESULTS: Candidates for focal treatment should have unilateral low- to intermediate-risk disease with clinical stage

  • Authors: 
    Jinli Zhang; Ning Nie; Yuanyuan Liu; Jiao Wang; Feng Yu; Junjie Gu; Wei Li;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    An evolutionary composite of LiFePO4 with nitrogen and boron codoped carbon layers was prepared by processing hydrothermal-synthesized LiFePO4. This novel codoping method is successfully applied to LiFePO4 for commercial use, and it achieved excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance can be improved through single nitrogen doping (LiFePO4/C-N) or boron doping (LiFePO4/C-B). When modifying the LiFePO4/C-B with nitrogen (to synthesis LiFePO4/C-B+N) the undesired nonconducting N-B configurations (190.1 and 397.9 eV) are generated. This decreases the electronic conductivity from 2.56×10(-2) to 1.30×10(-2) S cm(-1) resulting in weak electrochemical performance. Nevertheless, using the opposite order to decorate LiFePO4/C-N with boron (to obtain LiFePO4/C-N+B) not only eliminates the nonconducting N-B impurity, but also promotes the conductive C-N (398.3, 400.3, and 401.1 eV) and C-B (189.5 eV) configurations-this markedly improves the electronic conductivity to 1.36×10(-1) S cm(-1). Meanwhile the positive doping strategy leads to synergistic electrochemical activity distinctly compared with single N- or B-doped materials (even much better than their sum capacity at 20 C). Moreover, due to the electron and hole-type carriers donated by nitrogen and boron atoms, the N+B codoped carbon coating tremendously enhances the electrochemical property: at the rate of 20 C, the codoped sample can elevate the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 121.6 mAh g(-1), and the codoped product based on commercial LiFePO4/C shows a discharge capacity of 78.4 mAh g(-1) rather than 48.1 mAh g(-1). Nevertheless, the B+N codoped sample decreases the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 95.4 mAh g(-1), while the commercial LFP/C changes from 48.1 mAh g(-1) to 40.6 mAh g(-1).