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  • Authors: Micah Adler; Wolfgang Dittrich; Ben Juurlink; Mirosław Kutyłowski; +1 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: L R, Hellevik; P, Segers; N, Stergiopulos; F, Irgens; +5 Authors

    The pulmonary venous systolic flow wave has been attributed both to left heart phenomena, such as left atrial relaxation and descent of the mitral annulus, and to propagation of the pulmonary artery pressure pulse through the pulmonary bed from the right ventricle. In this study we hypothesized that all waves in the pulmonary veins originate in the left heart, and that the gross wave features observed in measurements can be explained simply by wave propagation and reflection. A mathematical model of the pulmonary vein was developed; the pulmonary vein was modeled as a lossless transmission line and the pulmonary bed by a three-element lumped parameter model accounting for viscous losses, compliance, and inertia. We assumed that all pulsations originate in the left atrium (LA), the pressure in the pulmonary bed being constant. The model was validated using pulmonary vein pressure and flow recorded 1 cm proximal to the junction of the vein with the left atrium during aortocoronary bypass surgery. For a pressure drop of 6 mmHg across the pulmonary bed, we found a transit time from the left atrium to the pulmonary bed of tau approximately 150ms, a compliance of the pulmonary bed of C approximately 0.4 ml/mmHg, and an inertance of the pulmonary bed of 1.1 mmHgs2/ml. The pulse wave velocity of the pulmonary vein was estimated to be c approximately 1m/s. Waves, however, travel both towards the left atrium and towards the pulmonary bed. Waves traveling towards the left atrium are attributed to the reflections caused by the mismatch of impedance of line (pulmonary vein) and load (pulmonary bed). Wave intensity analysis was used to identify a period in systole of net wave propagation towards the left atrium for both measurements and model. The linear separation technique was used to split the pressure into one component traveling from the left atrium to the pulmonary bed and a reflected component propagating from the pulmonary bed to the left atrium. The peak of the reflected pressure wave corresponded well with the positive peak in wave intensity in systole. We conclude that the gross features of the pressure and flow waves in the pulmonary vein can be explained in the following manner: the waves originate in the LA and travel towards the pulmonary bed, where reflections give rise to waves traveling back to the LA. Although the gross features of the measured pressure were captured well by the model predicted pressure, there was still some discrepancy between the two. Thus, other factors initiating or influencing waves traveling towards the LA cannot be excluded.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Heart and Vesselsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Heart and Vessels
    Article . 1999
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Heart and Vesselsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Heart and Vessels
      Article . 1999
      License: Springer TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cossette, Hélène; Larrivée-Hardy, Etienne; Marceau, Etienne; Trufin, Julien;

    Over the last decade, there have been a significant amount of research works on compoundrenewal risk models with dependence. These risk models assume a dependence relation betweeninterclaim times and claim amounts. In this paper, we pursue their investigation.Weapply change of measure techniques within the compound renewal risk models with dependenceto obtain exact expressions for the Gerber–Shiu discounted penalty function. Wepropose a more general approach than the usual one based on the random walk associatedto the risk process as it is presented in the literature. More refined, our method keeps theembedded information in the sequence of claim amounts and interclaim times and enablesus to derive an exact expression for the Gerber–Shiu discounted penalty function. Simulationis one of the advantages of change of measure techniques since we can find a new probabilitymeasure under which ruin occurs almost surely. In this paper, we investigate theimportance sampling method based on change of measure techniques to compute severalruin measures. Numerical illustrations are carried out for specific bivariate distributions ofthe interclaim time and the claim amount to approximate interesting ruin measures. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Computati...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics
    Article . 2015
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DI-fusion
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Computati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics
      Article . 2015
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DI-fusion
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jae-Hoon Kim; Youngsoo Kim; Seog Park;

    Recently, for more efficient filtering of XML data, YFilter system has been suggested to exploit the prefix commonalities that exist among path expressions. Sharing the prefix commonality gives the benefit of improving filtering performance through the tremendous reduction in filtering machine size. However, exploiting the postfix commonality can also be useful for an XML filtering situation. For example, when a stream of XML messages does not have any defined schema, or users cannot remember the defined schema exactly, users often use the partial matching path queries which begins with the descendant axis (“//”), e.g., '//science/article/title', '//entertainment/article/title', and '//title'. If so, the registered XPath queries are most likely to have the postfix commonality, e.g., the sample queries share the partial path expressions 'article/title' and 'title'. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a bottom-up filtering approach exploiting the postfix commonality against the top-down approach of YFilter exploiting the prefix commonality. Some experimental results show that our method has better filtering performance when registered XPath queries mainly consist of the partial matching path queries with the postfix commonality.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IEICE Transactions o...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IEICE Transactions o...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cantelli, Fabrizio;

    La catégorie d’empowerment devient omniprésente quand il s’agit de participation. Pourtant, peu de travaux en ont exploré sociologiquement les contours, les propriétés et la portée. Il s’agit de prendre distance avec une approche unidimensionnelle de la catégorie, qui l’appréhende comme une solution démocratique ou une régression liée à un usage managérial. Notre démarche comparative élargie considère plusieurs espaces-temps, ce qui permet de rendre compte de deux manières très différentes de penser le pouvoir et d’agir sur des capacités. Cet article interroge deux conceptions de l’empowerment, soit deux philosophies du pouvoir sous-jacentes : une gestionnaire et une civique. Pour saisir les conceptions gestionnaires de l’empowerment, notre article s’appuie sur un spectre allant du cas spécifique de la Banque mondiale (Empowerment Team) à plusieurs acteurs de la santé en relation avec les institutions européennes. Concernant les conceptions civiques de l’empowerment, l’enquête repose sur le mouvement des droits civiques aux États-Unis et le Blackpower dans les années 1960, tout en s’interrogeant sur l’héritage contemporain. The notion of empowerment has become widespread, and is frequently used when participation is considered. However, little research has explored the properties, scope, and borders of empowerment in sociological terms. This paper goes beyond a one-dimensional approach of empowerment, which treats it as a democratic solution or as regression due to its managerial use. By adopting a broadly comparative approach, we consider several space-times, that which enables us to account for two different ways of thinking about the power and the power to act on capacities. This article examines two concepts of empowerment using two philosophies of power: one managerial and the other civic. In analyzing managerial concepts of empowerment, our paper looks at cases ranging from the World Bank (Empowerment Team) to various players in health care politics in relation to European institutions. Concerning the civic concepts of empowerment, the Civil Rights Movement in the United States and the Black power in the sixties are tested, while the contemporary legacy is questioned.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Politique et Société...arrow_drop_down
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    Politique et Sociétés
    Article . 2013
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Politique et Société...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andersson, Nils; Baker, John; Belczynski, Kris; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; +43 Authors

    Interferometric detectors will very soon give us an unprecedented view of the gravitational-wave sky, and in particular of the explosive and transient Universe. Now is the time to challenge our theoretical understanding of short-duration gravitational-wave signatures from cataclysmic events, their connection to more traditional electromagnetic and particle astrophysics, and the data analysis techniques that will make the observations a reality. This paper summarizes the state of the art, future science opportunities, and current challenges in understanding gravitational-wave transients. 33 pages, 2 figures

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    Article . 2013
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2013
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Classical and Quantum Gravity
    Other literature type . Article . 2013
    License: IOP Copyright Policies
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2013
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      Article . 2013
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2013
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Classical and Quantum Gravity
      Other literature type . Article . 2013
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      Article . 2013
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    Authors: Yanguang Yu; Jiangtao Xi; Enbang Li; Joe F. Chicharo;

    Semiconductor lasers are very different from other lasers because refraction variation can't be avoided when the gain is changed. Refraction variation can be introduced the theory of semiconductor laser by a dimensional parameter. This parameter is called linewidth enhancement factor (LEF). The value of LEF is very important for many aspects of laser behavior. The LEF characterizes the linewidth broadening and chirp due to fluctuation in the carrier density. A simple method to measure the linewidth enhancement factor of laser diodes is presented in this paper. The method uses the self-mixing effect at a weak feedback level. An optical beam is reflected and injected into the laser diode cavity by an external target, and is then mixed with the light inside the cavity, causing variations of the optical output power. The waveform of the optical power is determined by the feedback factor C and the LEF. A theoretical formula to compute LEF is proposed for the case when the feedback level C is smaller than 1. The experimental results show this method is feasible and simple when a laser diode operates at single longitudinal mode.

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    https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/view...
    Conference object
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    https://doi.org/10.1117/12.574...
    Conference object . 2005
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  • Authors: Sebastian Remmler; Julien Christophe; Jerome Anthoine; Stéphane Moreau;

    DOI: 10.2514/1.J050206 A method is proposed to calculate the trailing-edge broadband noise emitted from an airfoil, based on a steady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solution of the flowfield. For this purpose, the pressure spectrum on the airfoil surfacenearthetrailingedgeiscalculatedusingastatisticalmodelfromtheReynolds-averagedNavier–Stokesmean velocity and turbulence data in the airfoil boundary layer. The obtained wall-pressure spectrum is used to compute the radiated sound by means of an aeroacoustic analogy, namely, Amiet’s theory of airfoil sound. The statistical model for wall-pressure fluctuations is validated with two test cases from the literature, a boundary layer with an adverse pressure gradient, and a flat plate boundary layer without a pressure gradient. The influence of specific model assumptions is studied, such as the convection velocity of pressure-producing structures and the scale anisotropy of boundary-layer turbulence. Furthermore, the influence of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulation on the calculated spectra is investigated using three different turbulence models. The method is finally applied to the case of a Valeo controlled-diffusion airfoil placed in a jet wind tunnel in the anechoic facility of Ecole Centrale de Lyon. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solutions for this test case are computed with different turbulencemodels,thewall-pressurespectrumnearthetrailingedgeiscalculatedusingthestatisticalmodel,andthe radiated noise is computed with Amiet’s theory. All intermediate results of the method are compared with experimental data.

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    Authors: H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; S. Nowicki; +49 Authors

    Abstract. The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest contributors to global meansea-level rise today and is expected to continue to lose mass as the Arcticcontinues to warm. The two predominant mass loss mechanisms are increasedsurface meltwater run-off and mass loss associated with the retreat ofmarine-terminating outlet glaciers. In this paper we use a large ensemble ofGreenland ice sheet models forced by output from a representative subset ofthe Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) global climate models to project ice sheet changes and sea-level risecontributions over the 21st century. The simulations are part of theIce Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6). We estimate thesea-level contribution together with uncertainties due to future climateforcing, ice sheet model formulations and ocean forcing for the twogreenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. The resultsindicate that the Greenland ice sheet will continue to lose mass in bothscenarios until 2100, with contributions of 90±50 and 32±17 mm to sea-level rise for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. The largestmass loss is expected from the south-west of Greenland, which is governed bysurface mass balance changes, continuing what is already observed today.Because the contributions are calculated against an unforced controlexperiment, these numbers do not include any committed mass loss, i.e. massloss that would occur over the coming century if the climate forcingremained constant. Under RCP8.5 forcing, ice sheet model uncertaintyexplains an ensemble spread of 40 mm, while climate model uncertainty andocean forcing uncertainty account for a spread of 36 and 19 mm,respectively. Apart from those formally derived uncertainty ranges, thelargest gap in our knowledge is about the physical understanding andimplementation of the calving process, i.e. the interaction of the ice sheetwith the ocean. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Other literature type . Article . 2020
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    The Cryosphere
    Article . 2020
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2020
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
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    The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
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      The Cryosphere
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      DI-fusion
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
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      The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
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      Hal-Diderot
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
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    Authors: Tweats, David; Eastmond, David A; Lynch, Anthony M; Elhajouji, Azeddine; +6 Authors

    Aneuploidy is regarded as a hallmark of cancer, however, its role is complex with both pro- and anti-carcinogenic effects evident. In this IWGT review, we consider the role of aneuploidy in cancer biology; cancer risk associated with constitutive aneuploidy; rodent carcinogenesis with known chemical aneugens; and chemotherapy-related malignant neoplasms. Aneuploidy is seen at various stages in carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between induced aneuploidy occurring after exposure and clonal aneuploidy present in tumours is not clear. Recent evidence indicates that the induction of chromosomal instability (CIN), may be more important than aneuploidy per se, in the carcinogenic process. Down Syndrome, trisomy 21, is associated with altered hematopoiesis in utero which, in combination with subsequent mutations, results in an increased risk for acute megakaryoblastic and lymphoblastic leukemias. In contrast, there is reduced cancer risk for most solid tumours in Down Syndrome. Mouse models with high levels of aneuploidy are also associated with increased cancer risk for particular tumours with long latencies, but paradoxically other types of tumour often show decreased incidence. The aneugens reviewed that induce cancer in humans and animals all possess other carcinogenic properties, such as mutagenicity, clastogenicity, cytotoxicity, organ toxicities, hormonal and epigenetic changes which likely account for, or interact with aneuploidy, to cause carcinogenesis. Although the role that aneuploidy plays in carcinogenesis has not been fully established, in many cases, it may not play a primary causative role. Tubulin-disrupting aneugens that do not possess other properties linked to carcinogenesis, were not carcinogenic in rodents. Similarly, in humans, for the tubulin-disrupting aneugens colchicine and albendazole, there is no reported association with increased cancer risk. There is a need for further mechanistic studies on agents that induce aneuploidy, particularly by mechanisms other than tubulin disruption and to determine the role of aneuploidy in pre-neoplastic events and in early and late stage neoplasia.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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  • Authors: Micah Adler; Wolfgang Dittrich; Ben Juurlink; Mirosław Kutyłowski; +1 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: L R, Hellevik; P, Segers; N, Stergiopulos; F, Irgens; +5 Authors

    The pulmonary venous systolic flow wave has been attributed both to left heart phenomena, such as left atrial relaxation and descent of the mitral annulus, and to propagation of the pulmonary artery pressure pulse through the pulmonary bed from the right ventricle. In this study we hypothesized that all waves in the pulmonary veins originate in the left heart, and that the gross wave features observed in measurements can be explained simply by wave propagation and reflection. A mathematical model of the pulmonary vein was developed; the pulmonary vein was modeled as a lossless transmission line and the pulmonary bed by a three-element lumped parameter model accounting for viscous losses, compliance, and inertia. We assumed that all pulsations originate in the left atrium (LA), the pressure in the pulmonary bed being constant. The model was validated using pulmonary vein pressure and flow recorded 1 cm proximal to the junction of the vein with the left atrium during aortocoronary bypass surgery. For a pressure drop of 6 mmHg across the pulmonary bed, we found a transit time from the left atrium to the pulmonary bed of tau approximately 150ms, a compliance of the pulmonary bed of C approximately 0.4 ml/mmHg, and an inertance of the pulmonary bed of 1.1 mmHgs2/ml. The pulse wave velocity of the pulmonary vein was estimated to be c approximately 1m/s. Waves, however, travel both towards the left atrium and towards the pulmonary bed. Waves traveling towards the left atrium are attributed to the reflections caused by the mismatch of impedance of line (pulmonary vein) and load (pulmonary bed). Wave intensity analysis was used to identify a period in systole of net wave propagation towards the left atrium for both measurements and model. The linear separation technique was used to split the pressure into one component traveling from the left atrium to the pulmonary bed and a reflected component propagating from the pulmonary bed to the left atrium. The peak of the reflected pressure wave corresponded well with the positive peak in wave intensity in systole. We conclude that the gross features of the pressure and flow waves in the pulmonary vein can be explained in the following manner: the waves originate in the LA and travel towards the pulmonary bed, where reflections give rise to waves traveling back to the LA. Although the gross features of the measured pressure were captured well by the model predicted pressure, there was still some discrepancy between the two. Thus, other factors initiating or influencing waves traveling towards the LA cannot be excluded.

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    Heart and Vessels
    Article . 1999
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Heart and Vesselsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Heart and Vessels
      Article . 1999
      License: Springer TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Cossette, Hélène; Larrivée-Hardy, Etienne; Marceau, Etienne; Trufin, Julien;

    Over the last decade, there have been a significant amount of research works on compoundrenewal risk models with dependence. These risk models assume a dependence relation betweeninterclaim times and claim amounts. In this paper, we pursue their investigation.Weapply change of measure techniques within the compound renewal risk models with dependenceto obtain exact expressions for the Gerber–Shiu discounted penalty function. Wepropose a more general approach than the usual one based on the random walk associatedto the risk process as it is presented in the literature. More refined, our method keeps theembedded information in the sequence of claim amounts and interclaim times and enablesus to derive an exact expression for the Gerber–Shiu discounted penalty function. Simulationis one of the advantages of change of measure techniques since we can find a new probabilitymeasure under which ruin occurs almost surely. In this paper, we investigate theimportance sampling method based on change of measure techniques to compute severalruin measures. Numerical illustrations are carried out for specific bivariate distributions ofthe interclaim time and the claim amount to approximate interesting ruin measures. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j

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    Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics
    Article . 2015
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DI-fusion
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