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  • Authors: Joel D. Grice; Roy Kristiansen; Henrik Friis; Ralph Rowe; +4 Authors

    Abstract Hydroxylgugiaite, ideally (Ca 3 □ 1 ) Σ4 (Si 3.5 Be 2.5 ) Σ6 O 11 (OH) 3 , is a new mineral species from two localities in the Larvik plutonic complex in Porsgrunn, Telemark, Norway, and one locality in Ilimaussaq, Greenland. Hydroxylgugiaite crystals occur as squat dipyramids {111} (30 × 50 μm) or as elongate tetragonal prisms. The crystals are translucent, white to pale grey in color, with a white streak and vitreous luster. It is brittle, with no apparent cleavage. Hydroxylgugiaite is uniaxial positive with ω = 1.622 ± 0.002 and ϵ = 1.632 ± 0.002. There is no pleochroism and birefringence is low. The average of eight analyses of a single grain of type material (oxide wt.%) gave Na 2 O 2.04, CaO 32.90, FeO 0.22, MnO 0.74, BeO 13.47 (LA-ICP-MS), Al 2 O 3 0.74, SiO 2 44.06, F 1.74, H 2 O (assuming 3 OH + F) 4.93, Total (–0.73 O = F) 100.10. Potassium, strontium, and magnesium were measured but not detected. The calculated density is 2.79 g cm –3 . The empirical formula on the basis of 14 anions including 3 OH – + F – is: (Ca 2.76 Na 0.31 Mn 0.05 Fe 0.01 ) Σ3.13 (Si 3.45 Be 2.53 Al 0.07 ) Σ6.05 O 11 [(OH) 2.57 F 0.43 ] Σ3 . The formula from crystal-structure analysis of the Saga specimen is: (Ca 3.02 □ 0.98 ) Σ4 (Si 1.79 Be 0.21 ) Σ2 (Be 2.29 Si 1.71 ) Σ4 O 11 (OH) 3 . Combined structural and chemical data gives the following formula for the Nakkaalaaq specimen: (Ca 2.88 □ 0.98 Na 0.12 Mn 0.02 ) Σ4 (Si 1.80 Be 0.17 Al 0.03 ) Σ2 (Be 2.32 Si 1.68 ) Σ4 O 11 [(OH) 2.70 F 0.30 ] Σ3 ; with simplified formula (Ca,□) 4 (Si,Be) 2 (Be,Si) 4 O 11 (OH) 3 . The crystal structure of hydroxylgugiaite is tetragonal in acentric space group P 2 1 / m , with a 7.4151(2), b 7.4151, c 4.9652(1) A, V 272.9(1) A 3 , and Z = 1. It has been refined to an R index of 0.028 on the basis of 342 observed reflections and a correction for the {110} twin law. It is an H-bearing member of the melilite group. The structure has two distinct layers. The one crystallographically distinct Ca site with eight-fold coordination is a square antiprism polyhedron. The Ca polyhedra are in a layer with the H atoms. A second layer consists of corner-sharing Si/Be atoms in tetrahedral coordination with O. One H atom is bonded to an apical O atom that is not shared by two tetrahedra. This H atom is present only when there is a Ca -site vacancy. The other H atom is loosely bonded to the same O atom but at a different site. The IR spectrum supports this H-bonding scheme. Additional hydroxylgugiaite data is given for the other localities.

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    Authors: Michael, Gaies; Sarah, Tabbutt; Steven M, Schwartz; Geoffrey L, Bird; +11 Authors

    OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical epidemiology of extubation failure in a multicenter cohort of patients treated in pediatric cardiac ICUs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical registry data. SETTING Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry. PATIENTS All patients admitted to the CICU at Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium hospitals. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Analysis of all mechanical ventilation episodes in the registry from October 1, 2013, to July 31, 2014. The primary outcome of extubation failure was reintubation less than 48 hours after planned extubation. Repeated-measures analysis using generalized estimating equations to account for within patient and center correlation was performed to identify risk factors for extubation failure. Adjusted extubation failure rates for each hospital were calculated using logistic regression controlling for patient factors. Of 1,734 mechanical ventilation episodes (1,478 patients at eight hospitals) ending in a planned extubation, there were 100 extubation failures (5.8%). In multivariable analysis, only longer duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly associated with extubation failure (p = 0.01); the failure rate was 4% when ventilated less than 24 hours, 9% after 24 hours, and 13% after 7 days. For 503 patients intubated and extubated in the cardiac operating room, 15 patients (3%) failed extubation within 48 hours (12 within 24 hr). Case-mix-adjusted extubation failure rates ranged from 1.1% to 9.8% across hospitals. Patients failing extubation had greater median cardiac ICU length of stay (15 vs 3 d; p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (7.9 vs 1.2%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Though extubation failure is uncommon overall, there may be opportunities to improve extubation readiness assessment in patients ventilated more than 24 hours. These data suggest that extubation in the operating room after cardiac surgery can be done with a low failure rate. We observed variation in extubation failure rates across hospitals, and future investigation must elucidate the optimal strategies of high-performing centers to reduce ventilation time while limiting extubation failures.

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    Other literature type . 2015
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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2015
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      Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Elaine C. Marqueze; Cibele A. Crispim; Claudia R. C. Moreno; Claudia R. C. Moreno;
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    Frontiers in Public Health
    Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Nicolo Girometti; Dimie Ogoina; Darrell H. S. Tan; Anton Pozniak; +1 Authors
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    Journal of the International AIDS Society
    Article . 2022
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      Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    Authors: Zhujun J. Gu; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Jilu Feng; Sen Cao;

    This study analyzed the predictability of leaf area index (LAI) to the variation of vegetation type, observation angle, and vegetation index (VI). The analysis was conducted by using the R 2 of the LAI-VI models between in situ measured LAIs and VIs derived from CHRIS/PROBA data. The results show that the discrepancy of vegetation type mostly influences the LAI-VI models. The predictability of LAI to the variation of both vegetation type and index demonstrates the differences of oblique/vertical and backward/forward observa- tions, and backward series are greater than the forward. The predictabilities of LAI to the varia- tion of observation angle are greatest for the soil-adjusted VIs and least for the traditional ratio-based indices. Multivariable linear modeling with all VIs from all five angles yields accept- able accuracy except for the sparse shrub. The backward less-oblique observation (�36 deg )i s the only angle chosen in the modeling for grass, shrub, and broad leafforest, while the nadir view performs best for forests with coniferous trees. These results provide a reference to multiangular LAI estimation for different vegetation communities. VIs accounting for angular soil effects require further investigation in the future. © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. (DOI: 10.1117/1.JRS.9.096085)

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    Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
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    Authors: Reid, Matthew J.; Beltran-Lobo, Paula; Johnson, Louisa; Perez-Nievas, Beatriz Gomez; +1 Authors

    Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive accumulation across the brain of hyperphosphorylated aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau that vary in isoform composition, structural conformation and localization. Tau aggregates are most commonly deposited within neurons but can show differential association with astrocytes, depending on the disease. Astrocytes, the most abundant neural cells in the brain, play a major role in synapse and neuronal function, and are a key component of the glymphatic system and blood brain barrier. However, their contribution to tauopathy progression is not fully understood. Here we present a brief overview of the association of tau with astrocytes in tauopathies. We discuss findings that support a role for astrocytes in the uptake and spread of pathological tau, and we describe how alterations to astrocyte phenotype in tauopathies may cause functional alterations that impedes their ability to support neurons and/or cause neurotoxicity. The research reviewed here further highlights the importance of considering non-neuronal cells in neurodegeneration and suggests that astrocyte-directed targets that may have utility for therapeutic intervention in tauopathies.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lei Xiang; Shane D. Schoepfer; Shu-zhong Shen; Changqun Cao; +1 Authors

    Abstract The “Cambrian explosion” is one of the most fascinating episodes of diversification in the history of life; however, its relationship to the oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere around the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition is not fully understood. Marine inventories of redox-sensitive trace elements reflect the relative balance of oxidative weathering on land and deposition in anoxic water masses, and can be used to explore the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric redox conditions. For this study, we conducted a series of geochemical analyses on the upper Lantian, Piyuancun, and Hetang formations in the Chunye-1 well, part of the lower Yangtze Block in western Zhejiang. Iron speciation results indicate that the entire studied interval was deposited under anoxic conditions, with three intervals of persistent euxinia occurring in the uppermost Lantian Fm., the lower Hetang Formation (Fm.), and the upper Hetang Fm. Molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) contents and Mo/TOC and U/TOC ratios from the anoxic/euxinic intervals of the Chunye-1 well, combined with published data from the sections in the middle and upper Yangtze Block, suggest that the oceanic Mo reservoir declined consistently from the Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3, while the size of the oceanic U reservoir remained relatively constant. Both metals were depleted in the ocean in lower Cambrian Stage 4, before increasing markedly at the end of Stage 4. The lack of an apparent increase in the size of the marine Mo and U reservoir from the upper Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3 suggests that oxic water masses did not expand until Cambrian Stage 4. The increase in marine Mo and U availability in the upper Hetang Fm. may have been due to the expansion of oxic water masses in the oceans, associated with oxygenation of the atmosphere during Cambrian Stage 4. This expansion of oxic waters in the global ocean postdates the main phase of Cambrian diversification, suggesting that pervasive oxygenation of the ocean on a large scale was not the primary control on animal diversity following the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition.

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    Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    Article . 2017
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      Earth and Planetary Science Letters
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Wanzhi Li; Jinman Wang; Yafu Zhang; Min Zhang;

    Abstract Soil and vegetation, as the basic structural unit of artificial ecosystems, play an important role in ecological restoration in opencast coal mining areas, and both exhibit a complex interaction. However, the traditional method cannot well characterize the inter action between the soil and vegetation. In order to reveal the interaction between soil and vegetation in the reclaimed area of opencast coalmine, and explore the interaction mechanism between soil and vegetation, the soil and vegetation data from 70 reclaimed points in Antaibao and Anjialing opencast coal mines in Shanxi province of China were selected to conduct an investigation study. Ten soil and three vegetation indicators were determined, and the joint multifractal method was innovatively introduced to characterize the relationships of soil and vegetation on multiple scales using joint multifractal spectra and grayscale images. The interaction between soil and vegetation can be clearly obtained using the joint multifractal method. The canopy density was negatively correlated with soil bulk density, silt content, and pH; whereas, it was positively correlated with rock content, sand content, total nitrogen, soil organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium content. The average diameter at breast height was negatively correlated with soil bulk density, clay content, and pH; however, it was positively correlated with silt content, sand content, total nitrogen, soil organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium content. The herb coverage was negatively correlated with rock content, silt content, clay content, pH, soil organic matter, available phosphorus and available potassium content. Soil bulk density and clay content showed negative correlation with herb coverage. Compared to the traditional method, the novel joint multifractal method can more accurately charecterize the correlations from multiple scales. This novel method can be used to study the interaction between soil and vegetation.

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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2021
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      Ecological Indicators
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Roger Kneebone;
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    The Lancet
    Article . 2014
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    Article . 2014
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      The Lancet
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Cuthbertson, Brian H; Elders, Andrew; Hall, Sally; Taylor, Jane; +3 Authors

    Introduction: Severe sepsis is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, placing a high burden on healthcare resources. We aimed to study outcomes in the five years after severe sepsis. Methods: This was a cohort study using data from a prospective audit in 26 adult ICUs in Scotland. Mortality was measured using clinical databases and quality of life using Short Form 36 (SF-36) at 3.5 and 5 years after severe sepsis. Results: A total of 439 patients were recruited with a 58% mortality at 3.5 years and 61% mortality at 5 years. A total of 85 and 67 patients responded at 3.5 and 5 years follow-up, respectively. SF-36 physical component score (PCS) was low compared to population controls at 3.5 years (mean 41.8 (SD 11.8)) and at 5 years (mean 44.8 (SD 12.7)). SF-36 mental component score (MCS) was slightly lower than population controls at 3.5 years (mean 47.7 (SD 14.6)) and at 5 years after severe sepsis (mean 48.8 (SD 12.6)). The majority of patients were satisfied with their current quality of life (QOL) (80%) and all patients would be willing to be treated in an ICU again if they become critically ill despite many having unpleasant memories (19%) and recall (29%) of ICU events. Conclusions: Patients with severe sepsis have a high ongoing mortality after severe sepsis. They also have a significantly lower physical QOL compared to population norms but mental QOL scores were only slightly below population norms up to five years after severe sepsis. All survivors would be willing to be treated in an ICU again if critically ill. Mortality and QOL outcomes were broadly similar to other critically ill cohorts throughout the five years of follow-up.

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    Critical Care
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  • Authors: Joel D. Grice; Roy Kristiansen; Henrik Friis; Ralph Rowe; +4 Authors

    Abstract Hydroxylgugiaite, ideally (Ca 3 □ 1 ) Σ4 (Si 3.5 Be 2.5 ) Σ6 O 11 (OH) 3 , is a new mineral species from two localities in the Larvik plutonic complex in Porsgrunn, Telemark, Norway, and one locality in Ilimaussaq, Greenland. Hydroxylgugiaite crystals occur as squat dipyramids {111} (30 × 50 μm) or as elongate tetragonal prisms. The crystals are translucent, white to pale grey in color, with a white streak and vitreous luster. It is brittle, with no apparent cleavage. Hydroxylgugiaite is uniaxial positive with ω = 1.622 ± 0.002 and ϵ = 1.632 ± 0.002. There is no pleochroism and birefringence is low. The average of eight analyses of a single grain of type material (oxide wt.%) gave Na 2 O 2.04, CaO 32.90, FeO 0.22, MnO 0.74, BeO 13.47 (LA-ICP-MS), Al 2 O 3 0.74, SiO 2 44.06, F 1.74, H 2 O (assuming 3 OH + F) 4.93, Total (–0.73 O = F) 100.10. Potassium, strontium, and magnesium were measured but not detected. The calculated density is 2.79 g cm –3 . The empirical formula on the basis of 14 anions including 3 OH – + F – is: (Ca 2.76 Na 0.31 Mn 0.05 Fe 0.01 ) Σ3.13 (Si 3.45 Be 2.53 Al 0.07 ) Σ6.05 O 11 [(OH) 2.57 F 0.43 ] Σ3 . The formula from crystal-structure analysis of the Saga specimen is: (Ca 3.02 □ 0.98 ) Σ4 (Si 1.79 Be 0.21 ) Σ2 (Be 2.29 Si 1.71 ) Σ4 O 11 (OH) 3 . Combined structural and chemical data gives the following formula for the Nakkaalaaq specimen: (Ca 2.88 □ 0.98 Na 0.12 Mn 0.02 ) Σ4 (Si 1.80 Be 0.17 Al 0.03 ) Σ2 (Be 2.32 Si 1.68 ) Σ4 O 11 [(OH) 2.70 F 0.30 ] Σ3 ; with simplified formula (Ca,□) 4 (Si,Be) 2 (Be,Si) 4 O 11 (OH) 3 . The crystal structure of hydroxylgugiaite is tetragonal in acentric space group P 2 1 / m , with a 7.4151(2), b 7.4151, c 4.9652(1) A, V 272.9(1) A 3 , and Z = 1. It has been refined to an R index of 0.028 on the basis of 342 observed reflections and a correction for the {110} twin law. It is an H-bearing member of the melilite group. The structure has two distinct layers. The one crystallographically distinct Ca site with eight-fold coordination is a square antiprism polyhedron. The Ca polyhedra are in a layer with the H atoms. A second layer consists of corner-sharing Si/Be atoms in tetrahedral coordination with O. One H atom is bonded to an apical O atom that is not shared by two tetrahedra. This H atom is present only when there is a Ca -site vacancy. The other H atom is loosely bonded to the same O atom but at a different site. The IR spectrum supports this H-bonding scheme. Additional hydroxylgugiaite data is given for the other localities.

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    Authors: Michael, Gaies; Sarah, Tabbutt; Steven M, Schwartz; Geoffrey L, Bird; +11 Authors

    OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical epidemiology of extubation failure in a multicenter cohort of patients treated in pediatric cardiac ICUs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical registry data. SETTING Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry. PATIENTS All patients admitted to the CICU at Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium hospitals. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Analysis of all mechanical ventilation episodes in the registry from October 1, 2013, to July 31, 2014. The primary outcome of extubation failure was reintubation less than 48 hours after planned extubation. Repeated-measures analysis using generalized estimating equations to account for within patient and center correlation was performed to identify risk factors for extubation failure. Adjusted extubation failure rates for each hospital were calculated using logistic regression controlling for patient factors. Of 1,734 mechanical ventilation episodes (1,478 patients at eight hospitals) ending in a planned extubation, there were 100 extubation failures (5.8%). In multivariable analysis, only longer duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly associated with extubation failure (p = 0.01); the failure rate was 4% when ventilated less than 24 hours, 9% after 24 hours, and 13% after 7 days. For 503 patients intubated and extubated in the cardiac operating room, 15 patients (3%) failed extubation within 48 hours (12 within 24 hr). Case-mix-adjusted extubation failure rates ranged from 1.1% to 9.8% across hospitals. Patients failing extubation had greater median cardiac ICU length of stay (15 vs 3 d; p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (7.9 vs 1.2%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Though extubation failure is uncommon overall, there may be opportunities to improve extubation readiness assessment in patients ventilated more than 24 hours. These data suggest that extubation in the operating room after cardiac surgery can be done with a low failure rate. We observed variation in extubation failure rates across hospitals, and future investigation must elucidate the optimal strategies of high-performing centers to reduce ventilation time while limiting extubation failures.

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    Other literature type . 2015
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    Other literature type . 2015
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      Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Elaine C. Marqueze; Cibele A. Crispim; Claudia R. C. Moreno; Claudia R. C. Moreno;
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    Frontiers in Public Health
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    Authors: Nicolo Girometti; Dimie Ogoina; Darrell H. S. Tan; Anton Pozniak; +1 Authors
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    Journal of the International AIDS Society
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