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  • Publication . Article
    Open Access English
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lu, Xuan; Cao, Yanbin; Chen, Zhenpeng; Liu, Xuanzhe;

    Emoji is becoming a ubiquitous language and gaining worldwide popularity in recent years including the field of software engineering (SE). As nonverbal cues, emojis are widely used in user understanding tasks such as sentiment analysis, but few work has been done to study emojis in SE scenarios. This paper presents a large scale empirical study on how GitHub users use emojis in development-related communications. We find that emojis are used by a considerable proportion of GitHub users. In comparison to Internet users, developers show interesting usage characteristics and have their own interpretation of the meanings of emojis. In addition, the usage of emojis reflects a positive and supportive culture of this community. Through a manual annotation task, we find that sentimental usage is a main intention of using emojis in issues, pull requests, and comments, while emojis are mainly used to emphasize important contents in README. These findings not only deepen our understanding about the culture of SE communities, but also provide implications on how to facilitate SE tasks with emojis such as sentiment analysis.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Mahesh Padaki; Nidal Hilal; Takeshi Matsuura; Woei Jye Lau;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper provides a review on the recent development of thin film composite (TFC) membrane, which has received increasing attention in the field of water desalination process. The development of new thin films and substrates, and the effect of additives are mostly focused in this review. In particular, nanotechnology has shown its impact on the development of TFC membranes by incorporating nanoparticles and nanofibers in the substrate as well as in the top thin film. The search for novel monomers and novel fabrication methods of thin film, modification of substrate, and optimization of operational conditions is also the topic of this review article. It still remains a challenge to produce high impact TFC membranes with antifouling and biofouling properties, chemical resistance, improved mechanical strength and thermal stability. For this purpose, further insights into the phase inversion and interfacial polymerization processes are necessary. Currently, it seems that there is no end in the near future for the further development of TFC membranes, which will be followed by the expansion of the scope of their applications in various chemical and biochemical industrial sectors.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael Davis; Michael A. Parniak; Seymour Kaufman; Ellis S. Kempner;
    Publisher: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    The activity of rat liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.16.1 ) is regulated by interaction with its substrate, phenylalanine, and its coenzyme, BH 4 [tetrahydrobiopterin (6 R -dihydroxypropyl- l -erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin)]. The structural changes accompanying these interactions have been studied by radiation target analysis. PAH purified from rat liver was incubated with 2 mM phenylalanine to achieve complete activation of the enzyme. Frozen samples were irradiated with various doses of high energy electrons; samples were subsequently thawed, and several surviving properties of the enzyme were determined. Each parameter decreased as a single exponential function of radiation dose. Radiation target analysis of enzymatic activity yielded a dimeric target size. Similar radiation effects on subunit monomers and on tetrameric structure were observed. Together with results from unactivated enzyme, these data show that phenylalanine increases the interactions between the subunits in a dimer and weakens the interactions between dimers in a tetramer. These alterations prevent the natural cofactor, a tetrahydrobiopterin, from exerting a negative effect on activity.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hans P. Heinig;
    Publisher: Institute of Mathematics, Czech Academy of Sciences
    Project: NSERC
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    S.M. Ramezani; A. Zarei-Hanzaki; A. Salandari-Rabori; Hamid Reza Abedi; Peter Minárik; Kristián Máthis; K. Horváth Fekete;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The effect of blocky to lamellar phase transformation on the microstructure and micro-texture of a Magnesium-Rare earth alloy containing long-period stacking order (LPSO) phases were examined comprehensively at the isothermal temperature of 400 °C via multiaxial forging. A very fine-grained microstructure with an average grain size of 1 μm was achieved after applying three multi-axial forging (MAF) passes. Particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) along with continuous dynamic recrystallizations (CDRX) due to the blocky LPSO phases were realized to be the main reasons for the achievement of such fine microstructure. The deformation-induced blocky to lamellar phase transformation began at 1/3 pass and expanded through the whole microstructure after the third pass. Such phase transformation was found to be initiated by the fragmentation of blocky phases. As a result of PSN and CDRX mechanisms, two new rare earth (RE) texture components of and || Transverse Direction (TD) were formed at the second MAF pass that led to a highly randomized deformation texture. Nevertheless, the continuous breakdown of blocky phases and their subsequent phase transformation to lamellar LPSO suppressed PSN at the third deformation pass. Hence, the formed RE texture components were disappeared which in turn increased the texture intensity at this deformation pass.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth Bancroft; Elizabeth Page; Elena Castro; Hans Lilja; Andrew J. Vickers; Daniel Sjöberg; Melissa Assel; Christopher S. Foster; Gillian Mitchell; Kate Drew; +105 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Denmark, United Kingdom, Netherlands
    Project: NIH | Improving prostate cancer... (5R01CA175491-04), NIH | Prospective validation of... (5R01CA160816-02), NIH | RATIONAL DESIGN OF PROSTA... (5P50CA092629-10)

    Background Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Objective To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study. Design, setting and participants We recruited men aged 40–69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. Results and limitations We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%—double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. Conclusions The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this screening yields a high proportion of aggressive disease. Patient summary In this report, we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment. Take Home Message This report demonstrates that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these higher-risk men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mares, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Jennings, B. K.;
    Project: NSERC

    Strong interaction level shifts and widths in $\Sigma^-$ atoms are analyzed by using a $\Sigma$ nucleus optical potential constructed within the relativistic mean field approach. The analysis leads to potentials with a repulsive real part in the nuclear interior. The data are sufficient to establish the size of the isovector meson--hyperon coupling. Implications to $\Sigma$ hypernuclei are discussed. Comment: 18 pages, RevTex, 4 uuencoded figures, subm. Nucl.Phys.A

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Petr Harmanec; Hrvoje Božić; Pavel Mayer; Philippe Eenens; Miroslav Brož; Marek Wolf; Shoufeng Yang; Miroslav Šlechta; Domagoj Ruždjak; Davor Sudar; +1 more
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Countries: Croatia, Turkey

    The A-type star HR 6412 = V2368 Oph was used by several investigators as a photometric comparison star for the known eclipsing binary U Oph but was found to be variable by three independent groups, including us. By analysing series of new spectral and photometric observations and a critical compilation of available radial velocities, we were able to find the correct period of light and radial-velocity variations and demonstrate that the object is an eclipsing and double-lined spectroscopic binary moving in a highly eccentric orbit. We derived a linear ephemeris T min.I = HJD (2454294.67 +/- 0.01) + (38.32712 +/- 0.00004)d x E and estimated preliminary basic physical properties of the binary. The dereddened UBV magnitudes and effective temperatures of the primary and secondary, based on our light- and velocity-curve solutions, led to distance estimates that agree with the Hipparcos distance within the errors. We find that the mass ratio must be close to one, but the limited number and wavelength range of our current spectra does not allow a truly precise determination of the binary masses. Nevertheless, our results show convincingly that both binary components are evolved away from the main sequence, which makes this system astrophysically very important. There are only a few similarly evolved A-type stars among known eclipsing binaries. Future systematic observations and careful analyses can provide very stringent tests for the stellar evolutionary theory. Comment: 10 pages, 7 figs, in press 2011 A&A

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Lerch; Laura Fernández; Max Ilyn; M. Gastaldo; Markos Paradinas; M.A. Valbuena; Aitor Mugarza; Ahmed B.M. Ibrahim; Jörg Sundermeyer; Ulrich Höfer; +1 more
    Country: Spain

    We have investigated the electronic structures of axially oxo functionalized titanylphthalocyanine (TiOPc) on Ag(111) by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, two-photon photoemission, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Furthermore, we use complementary data of TiOPc on graphite and planar copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on Ag(111) for a comparative analysis. Both molecules adsorb on Ag(111) in a parallel orientation to the surface, for TiOPc with an oxygen-up configuration. The interaction of nitrogen and carbon atoms with the substrate is similar for both molecules, while the bonding of the titanium atom to Ag(111) in the monolayer is found to be slightly more pronounced than in the CuPc case. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy reveals an occupation of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level in monolayer thick TiOPc on Ag(111) related to the interaction of the molecules and the silver substrate. This molecule-metal interaction also causes an upward shift of the Ag(111) Shockley state that is transformed into an unoccupied interface state with energies of 0.23 and 0.33 eV for the TiOPc monolayer and bilayer, respectively, at the Brillouin zone center. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB 1083 “Structure and Dynamics of Internal Interfaces”, the Spanish CSIC I-Link programm, the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, MINECO (under Contract No. MAT2016-78293-C6-2-R, and Severo Ochoa No. SEV-2013-0295.), and by the Secretariat for Universities and Research, Knowledge Department of the Generalitat de Catalunya (2014 SGR 715). M. Paradinas thanks the Spanish Government for financial support through PTA2014-09788-I fellowships. ICN2 is funded by the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya. Peer Reviewed

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
11,487 Research products, page 1 of 1,149
  • Publication . Article
    Open Access English
    Publisher: Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lu, Xuan; Cao, Yanbin; Chen, Zhenpeng; Liu, Xuanzhe;

    Emoji is becoming a ubiquitous language and gaining worldwide popularity in recent years including the field of software engineering (SE). As nonverbal cues, emojis are widely used in user understanding tasks such as sentiment analysis, but few work has been done to study emojis in SE scenarios. This paper presents a large scale empirical study on how GitHub users use emojis in development-related communications. We find that emojis are used by a considerable proportion of GitHub users. In comparison to Internet users, developers show interesting usage characteristics and have their own interpretation of the meanings of emojis. In addition, the usage of emojis reflects a positive and supportive culture of this community. Through a manual annotation task, we find that sentimental usage is a main intention of using emojis in issues, pull requests, and comments, while emojis are mainly used to emphasize important contents in README. These findings not only deepen our understanding about the culture of SE communities, but also provide implications on how to facilitate SE tasks with emojis such as sentiment analysis.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Mahesh Padaki; Nidal Hilal; Takeshi Matsuura; Woei Jye Lau;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper provides a review on the recent development of thin film composite (TFC) membrane, which has received increasing attention in the field of water desalination process. The development of new thin films and substrates, and the effect of additives are mostly focused in this review. In particular, nanotechnology has shown its impact on the development of TFC membranes by incorporating nanoparticles and nanofibers in the substrate as well as in the top thin film. The search for novel monomers and novel fabrication methods of thin film, modification of substrate, and optimization of operational conditions is also the topic of this review article. It still remains a challenge to produce high impact TFC membranes with antifouling and biofouling properties, chemical resistance, improved mechanical strength and thermal stability. For this purpose, further insights into the phase inversion and interfacial polymerization processes are necessary. Currently, it seems that there is no end in the near future for the further development of TFC membranes, which will be followed by the expansion of the scope of their applications in various chemical and biochemical industrial sectors.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael Davis; Michael A. Parniak; Seymour Kaufman; Ellis S. Kempner;
    Publisher: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    The activity of rat liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.16.1 ) is regulated by interaction with its substrate, phenylalanine, and its coenzyme, BH 4 [tetrahydrobiopterin (6 R -dihydroxypropyl- l -erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin)]. The structural changes accompanying these interactions have been studied by radiation target analysis. PAH purified from rat liver was incubated with 2 mM phenylalanine to achieve complete activation of the enzyme. Frozen samples were irradiated with various doses of high energy electrons; samples were subsequently thawed, and several surviving properties of the enzyme were determined. Each parameter decreased as a single exponential function of radiation dose. Radiation target analysis of enzymatic activity yielded a dimeric target size. Similar radiation effects on subunit monomers and on tetrameric structure were observed. Together with results from unactivated enzyme, these data show that phenylalanine increases the interactions between the subunits in a dimer and weakens the interactions between dimers in a tetramer. These alterations prevent the natural cofactor, a tetrahydrobiopterin, from exerting a negative effect on activity.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hans P. Heinig;
    Publisher: Institute of Mathematics, Czech Academy of Sciences
    Project: NSERC
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    S.M. Ramezani; A. Zarei-Hanzaki; A. Salandari-Rabori; Hamid Reza Abedi; Peter Minárik; Kristián Máthis; K. Horváth Fekete;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The effect of blocky to lamellar phase transformation on the microstructure and micro-texture of a Magnesium-Rare earth alloy containing long-period stacking order (LPSO) phases were examined comprehensively at the isothermal temperature of 400 °C via multiaxial forging. A very fine-grained microstructure with an average grain size of 1 μm was achieved after applying three multi-axial forging (MAF) passes. Particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) along with continuous dynamic recrystallizations (CDRX) due to the blocky LPSO phases were realized to be the main reasons for the achievement of such fine microstructure. The deformation-induced blocky to lamellar phase transformation began at 1/3 pass and expanded through the whole microstructure after the third pass. Such phase transformation was found to be initiated by the fragmentation of blocky phases. As a result of PSN and CDRX mechanisms, two new rare earth (RE) texture components of and || Transverse Direction (TD) were formed at the second MAF pass that led to a highly randomized deformation texture. Nevertheless, the continuous breakdown of blocky phases and their subsequent phase transformation to lamellar LPSO suppressed PSN at the third deformation pass. Hence, the formed RE texture components were disappeared which in turn increased the texture intensity at this deformation pass.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth Bancroft; Elizabeth Page; Elena Castro; Hans Lilja; Andrew J. Vickers; Daniel Sjöberg; Melissa Assel; Christopher S. Foster; Gillian Mitchell; Kate Drew; +105 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Denmark, United Kingdom, Netherlands
    Project: NIH | Improving prostate cancer... (5R01CA175491-04), NIH | Prospective validation of... (5R01CA160816-02), NIH | RATIONAL DESIGN OF PROSTA... (5P50CA092629-10)

    Background Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Objective To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study. Design, setting and participants We recruited men aged 40–69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. Results and limitations We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%—double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. Conclusions The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this screening yields a high proportion of aggressive disease. Patient summary In this report, we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment. Take Home Message This report demonstrates that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these higher-risk men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mares, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Jennings, B. K.;
    Project: NSERC

    Strong interaction level shifts and widths in $\Sigma^-$ atoms are analyzed by using a $\Sigma$ nucleus optical potential constructed within the relativistic mean field approach. The analysis leads to potentials with a repulsive real part in the nuclear interior. The data are sufficient to establish the size of the isovector meson--hyperon coupling. Implications to $\Sigma$ hypernuclei are discussed. Comment: 18 pages, RevTex, 4 uuencoded figures, subm. Nucl.Phys.A

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Petr Harmanec; Hrvoje Božić; Pavel Mayer; Philippe Eenens; Miroslav Brož; Marek Wolf; Shoufeng Yang; Miroslav Šlechta; Domagoj Ruždjak; Davor Sudar; +1 more
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Countries: Croatia, Turkey

    The A-type star HR 6412 = V2368 Oph was used by several investigators as a photometric comparison star for the known eclipsing binary U Oph but was found to be variable by three independent groups, including us. By analysing series of new spectral and photometric observations and a critical compilation of available radial velocities, we were able to find the correct period of light and radial-velocity variations and demonstrate that the object is an eclipsing and double-lined spectroscopic binary moving in a highly eccentric orbit. We derived a linear ephemeris T min.I = HJD (2454294.67 +/- 0.01) + (38.32712 +/- 0.00004)d x E and estimated preliminary basic physical properties of the binary. The dereddened UBV magnitudes and effective temperatures of the primary and secondary, based on our light- and velocity-curve solutions, led to distance estimates that agree with the Hipparcos distance within the errors. We find that the mass ratio must be close to one, but the limited number and wavelength range of our current spectra does not allow a truly precise determination of the binary masses. Nevertheless, our results show convincingly that both binary components are evolved away from the main sequence, which makes this system astrophysically very important. There are only a few similarly evolved A-type stars among known eclipsing binaries. Future systematic observations and careful analyses can provide very stringent tests for the stellar evolutionary theory. Comment: 10 pages, 7 figs, in press 2011 A&A

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Lerch; Laura Fernández; Max Ilyn; M. Gastaldo; Markos Paradinas; M.A. Valbuena; Aitor Mugarza; Ahmed B.M. Ibrahim; Jörg Sundermeyer; Ulrich Höfer; +1 more
    Country: Spain

    We have investigated the electronic structures of axially oxo functionalized titanylphthalocyanine (TiOPc) on Ag(111) by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, two-photon photoemission, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Furthermore, we use complementary data of TiOPc on graphite and planar copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on Ag(111) for a comparative analysis. Both molecules adsorb on Ag(111) in a parallel orientation to the surface, for TiOPc with an oxygen-up configuration. The interaction of nitrogen and carbon atoms with the substrate is similar for both molecules, while the bonding of the titanium atom to Ag(111) in the monolayer is found to be slightly more pronounced than in the CuPc case. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy reveals an occupation of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level in monolayer thick TiOPc on Ag(111) related to the interaction of the molecules and the silver substrate. This molecule-metal interaction also causes an upward shift of the Ag(111) Shockley state that is transformed into an unoccupied interface state with energies of 0.23 and 0.33 eV for the TiOPc monolayer and bilayer, respectively, at the Brillouin zone center. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB 1083 “Structure and Dynamics of Internal Interfaces”, the Spanish CSIC I-Link programm, the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, MINECO (under Contract No. MAT2016-78293-C6-2-R, and Severo Ochoa No. SEV-2013-0295.), and by the Secretariat for Universities and Research, Knowledge Department of the Generalitat de Catalunya (2014 SGR 715). M. Paradinas thanks the Spanish Government for financial support through PTA2014-09788-I fellowships. ICN2 is funded by the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya. Peer Reviewed