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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David J. Ramnaraign; Charles Godbout; Kalter Hali; Christian Hegner; +5 Authors

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) therapy has been successfully used in orthopaedic preclinical models to heal bone defects. However, no previous studies have investigated the dose-response relationship between EPC therapy and bone healing. This study aimed to assess the effect of different EPC doses on bone healing in a rat model to define an optimal dose. Five-millimeter segmental defects were created in the right femora of Fischer 344 rats, followed by stabilization with a miniplate and screws. Rats were assigned to one of six groups (control, 0.1 M, 0.5 M, 1.0 M, 2.0 M, and 4.0 M; n = 6), receiving 0, 1 × 105, 5 × 105, 1 × 106, 2 × 106, and 4 × 106 EPCs, respectively, delivered into the defect on a gelatin scaffold. Radiographs were taken every two weeks until the animals were euthanized 10 weeks after surgery. The operated femora were then evaluated using micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing. Overall, the groups that received higher doses of EPCs (0.5 M, 1.0 M, 2.0 M, and 4.0 M) reached better outcomes. At 10 weeks, full radiographic union was observed in 67% of animals in the 0.5 M group, 83% of animals in the 1.0 M group, and 100% of the animals in the 2.0 M and 4.0 M groups, but none in the control and 0.1 M groups. The 2.0 M group also displayed the strongest biomechanical properties, which significantly improved relative to the control and 0.1 M groups. In summary, this study defined a dose-response relationship between EPC therapy and bone healing, with 2 × 106 EPCs being the optimal dose in this model. Our findings emphasize the importance of dosing considerations in the application of cell therapies aimed at tissue regeneration and will help guide future investigations and clinical translation of EPC therapy.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Tissue En...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Tissue En...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Acharya, Sandesh R.; Sivakumaran, K. S.;

    The behavior of connections associated with the thin-walled steel members is distinctly different from that of hot-rolled steel connections, primarily because of the flexibility of the plates. A typical cold-formed steel structural construction may entail such numerous connections. The incorporation of large number of such connections in an analysis and design, using sophisticated finite element models, is very tedious and time consuming and may present computational difficulties. The objective of this investigation is to create simplified, yet reasonably accurate, finite element models for the analysis of screw connections and bolted connections associated with thin-walled sheet steel construction. The primary plates were modeled using quadrilateral shell elements, and nonlinear stress-strain relationship was established based on experiments. The fasteners were modeled as an elastic medium. The plate-to-plate interactions and the plate-to-screw interactions were incorporated using contact elements. The study considered two finite element models of different complexity. The performance of these models was established through comparisons with the corresponding experimental results. The finite element analysis results exhibit reasonably good agreement with the test results in terms of connection stiffness, screw tilting, end curling, and average longitudinal strain. The recommended simplified connection model is capable of reproducing the behavior of sheet steel screw and bolt connections.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gorczynski, Reginald M.;

    The type 1 membrane glycoprotein CD200, widely expressed on multiple cells/tissues, uses a structurally similar receptor (CD200R1), whose expression is more restricted to cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, to transmit signals affecting responses in multiple physiological systems. Thus CD200 expression is reported to exert effects on cancer growth, autoimmune and allergic disorders, infection, transplantation, bone development and homeostasis, and reproductive biology. It was initially thought, based on the idea that CD200R1 was mostly expressed on cells of myeloid origin, that CD200:CD200R1 interactions were primarily dedicated to controlling myeloid cell function. However additional members of the CD200R family have now also been identified, although their function(s) remain unclear, and CD200R1 itself is now known to be expressed by subsets of T cells and other cells. Together these observations add layers of complexity to our understanding of CD200-related regulation. In common with a number of physiological systems, the mechanism(s) of CD200-induced signaling seem to fit within a similar framework of opposing actions of kinases and phosphatases. This paper highlights the advances in our knowledge of immunoregulation achieved following CD200:CD200R interaction and the potential clinical applicability of that information.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vaidya, Bijay; Negro, Roberto; Poppe, Kris; Rovet, Joanne;

    In the last two decades, there have been major advances in our understanding of the thyroid physiology during pregnancy, the role of thyroid hormones in fetal development, and the effects of thyroid dysfunction on pregnancy outcomes. The main objective of this special issue was to highlight how these advances have enhanced our knowledge and influenced the clinical practice in the field. The emerging evidence for an association between thyroid autoimmunity and spontaneous miscarriages is one of such advances. As A. Stagnaro-Green reviews in this special issue, since the publication of the first report describing the association in 1990 [1], many subsequent studies have lent further evidence to support this association. However, despite the robust evidence for the association, the pathogenesis of miscarriages in pregnant women with thyroid autoimmunity remains uncertain, and whether levothyroxine treatment prevents the adverse outcome in these women is yet to be confirmed. For many decades, it has been recognised that overt maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with impaired neurological development of the offspring; however, several studies in the recent years have suggested that even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency (subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia) during pregnancy can affect the offspring's neuropsychological development [2, 3]. However, this association has not been consistent in all studies [4], and J. Chevrier and colleagues in this special issue report a prospective study showing lack of association between maternal thyroid hormone levels at 27-week gestation and neuropsychological development of the offspring. Indeed, as M. Moleti and colleagues highlight in their review, there is also a great deal of controversy surrounding the diagnosis, adverse effects, and management of isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy, and more studies are needed to resolve these controversies. The last two decades have also witnessed significant advances in the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy. The importance of trimester-specific reference ranges for thyroid function tests in pregnancy has been established [5, 6]; it has become clear that the upper reference limit of serum thyrotropin (TSH) in pregnancy is much lower than that in the general population. It has also been convincingly shown that most hypothyroid women need an increased dose of levothyroxine during pregnancy. However, there remains uncertainty at what level of TSH should the levothyroxine replacement be considered and whether women with isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia or isolated positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies should be treated with levothyroxine. Furthermore, there is no consensus on whether all pregnant women should be screened for hypothyroidism. J. Klubo-Gwiezdzinska and colleagues review the issues surrounding indications, efficacy, and monitoring of levothyroxine replacement in pregnancy, and J. H. Lazarus appraises evidences for and against screening all pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction. The current guidelines from the Endocrine Society and the American Thyroid Association do not endorse universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction but recommend case-finding approach in high-risk pregnant women [5, 6]. However, V. Nambiar and colleagues show, in the Asian-Indian population, that the case-finding approach misses a significant proportion of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction, in line with findings of several studies from the western countries. Their study also provides further evidence to support that both maternal thyroid autoimmunity and maternal mild hypothyroidism are associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriages. And, although not as fiercely debated as screening pregnant women for hypothyroidism, there is also lack of consensus on screening for postpartum thyroiditis. M. A. Adlan and L. D. Premawardhana review the issues surrounding screening for postpartum thyroiditis and the utility of thyroid peroxidase antibodies testing as a screening tool for this condition. In pregnancy, Graves' disease is the commonest cause of hyperthyroidism, and thionamide antithyroid drugs are the mainstay of treatment for this condition. However, in the recent years, reports of rare association of carbimazole (and its active metabolite, methimazole) use in early pregnancy with multiple congenital malformations in the foetus and association of propylthiouracil with severe liver injury have led to the controversy surrounding the choice of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy. For example, which antithyroid drug should be prescribed for a woman with Graves' disease planning pregnancy? If a pregnant woman is on propylthiouracil, should the drug be switched to carbimazole (or methimazole) after the first trimester? In this special issue, P. Bowman and B. Vaidya, by analysing all birth defects related to maternal treatment of carbimazole and propylthiouracil reported to the UK Pharmacovigilance authority over a 47-year period, provide further evidence to support an embryopathy associated with carbimazole exposure in utero. However, their study also raises a question whether the currently apparent lack of association of similar embryopathy with propylthiouracil is related to historically lower use of the drug as compared to carbimazole or methimazole. Furthermore, transient gestational hyperthyroidism—another common cause of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy—is often confused with Graves' disease, sometimes leading to inappropriate treatment. A. M. Goldman and J. H. Mestman review the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of this intriguing condition. The association between severe iodine deficiency and cretinism has been known for more than a century [7]. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that mild iodine deficiency is also associated with impaired cognitive and behaviour outcomes in the children, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Despite these observations and all national and international efforts to optimise dietary iodine intake in the population, iodine deficiency during pregnancy continues to be a major preventable cause of mental retardation in many countries. In fact, recent studies suggest that iodine deficiency is on the rise in Europe, Australia, and the USA [8–10]. C. Yarrington and E. N. Pearce review the adverse effects of dietary iodine deficiency on maternal thyroid function and fetal neurological outcomes and discuss the recommendations for optimum dietary iodine intake during pregnancy. As a byproduct of a modern life, humans are increasingly being exposed to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals, with potential harmful health consequences. Recent studies suggest that some of these chemicals could interfere with normal thyroid hormone function. Therefore, there is a growing concern that an exposure to these chemicals during pregnancy may adversely affect maternal and fetal thyroid function impacting on the fetal development, as M.-L. Hartoft-Nielsen and colleagues discuss in their review. Finally, although fortunately rare, thyroid cancer presents special challenges in the management during pregnancy. S. A. Imran and M. Rajaraman discuss various issues surrounding management of differentiated thyroid cancer in pregnancy and underline the importance of multidisciplinary approach in the management. However, much of the clinical decisions in the management of thyroid cancer in pregnancy are hampered by the lack of good quality evidence, as G. V. Alves and colleagues highlight in their systemic review. We believe that the papers in this special issue illustrate the highlights of advances made in the diverse areas of thyroid and pregnancy over the last two decades. At the same time, they also underline many yet unanswered questions and areas for further studies. However, with the volume and the quality of ongoing research activities in the field, we are optimistic that we will not need to wait for a further two decades to have the answers for many of these questions. Bijay Vaidya Roberto Negro Kris Poppe Joanne Rovet

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2011
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    Journal of Thyroid Research
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    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2011
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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      Article . 2011
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      Journal of Thyroid Research
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
      Other literature type . 2011
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    Authors: Edgar Voltmer; Erica Frank; Claudia Spahn;

    We examined physicians' personal health behaviors and the influence on their patient counseling practices in a representative sample (N=414) of physicians in private practice in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Physicians reported significantly better physical but poorer mental health compared to the general population (GP; P>0.01). The majority presented with normal weight (47.9% male, 73.1% female physicians versus 24.5/41.0% GP) or overweight (47.5% male, 20.0% female versus 52.9/35.6% GP). Frequency of exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption was higher than in the GP. About 70% drank coffee or tea more than once a day, but only 13.2% of female and 21.8% of male physicians were current smokers (GP 20.1/30.5%). More than half (56.1%) usually or always counseled a typical patient on exercise versus nutrition (47.0%), weight (45.8%), smoking (39.9%), and alcohol (30.0%). Doctors with better personal exercise, nutrition, smoking, and alcohol behaviors counseled their patients significantly more often on related topics. Despite better physical health and health behaviors in these German doctors compared to the GP, there is room for improvement (smoking, overweight), which could be expected to positively influence the counseling practice and impact of doctors' role modeling on patients.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ISRN Epidemiologyarrow_drop_down
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    ISRN Epidemiology
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    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      ISRN Epidemiology
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    Authors: Esme Fuller-Thomson; Rukshan Mehta; Joanne Sulman;

    Objective. The association between long-term parental unemployment in childhood and chronic fatigue syndrome was examined in a population-based sample of women. Methods. A secondary analysis of data from a regionally representative sample of women (n=7,288) from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2005) was conducted using logistic regression. Age and race as well as the following clusters of factors were controlled for: (1) other childhood adversities, (2) adult health behaviors and hypertension, (3) adult stressors and socioeconomic status, and (4) adult mental health. Results. When adjusting for age and race only, the odds ratio of chronic fatigue syndrome among those reporting parental unemployment was 4.12 (95% CI: 2.60, 6.52) compared to those not reporting parental unemployment. When controlling for age and race plus all four clusters of factors the odds ratio for chronic fatigue syndrome dropped slightly to 3.05 (95% CI: 1.81, 5.14), but remained statistically significant. Conclusions. This study provides evidence for a significant association between long-term parental unemployment in childhood and chronic fatigue syndrome even after controlling for a wide range of potential risk factors.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    ISRN Family Medicine
    Article
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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      ISRN Family Medicine
      Article
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    Authors: Reddy, B. Sidda; Kumar, J. Suresh; Reddy, C. Eswara; Reddy, K. Vijaya Kumar;

    The prime aim of the present study is to present analytical formulations and solutions for the buckling analysis of simply supported functionally graded plates (FGPs) using higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) without enforcing zero transverse shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. It does not require shear correction factors and transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness. Material properties of the plate are assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived using the principle of virtual work. Solutions are obtained for FGPs in closed-form using Navier’s technique. Comparison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present results from which it can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling behavior of functionally graded plates. The effect of side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, modulus ratio, the volume fraction exponent, and the loading conditions on the critical buckling load of FGPs is also investigated and discussed.

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    Journal of Composites
    Article
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      Journal of Composites
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shamseddine, Khodr; Sierens, Todd;

    We study the properties of locally uniformly differentiable functions on N, a non-Archimedean field extension of the real numbers that is real closed and Cauchy complete in the topology induced by the order. In particular, we show that locally uniformly differentiable functions are C1, they include all polynomial functions, and they are closed under addition, multiplication, and composition. Then we formulate and prove a version of the inverse function theorem as well as a local intermediate value theorem for these functions.

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    ISRN Mathematical Analysis
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      ISRN Mathematical Analysis
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cristina, Catallo; Susan M, Jack; Donna, Ciliska; Harriet L, Macmillan;

    Background. The transtheoretical model of change (TTM) was used as a framework to examine the steps that women took to disclose intimate partner violence (IPV) in urban emergency departments. Methods. Mapping methods portrayed the evolving nature of decisions that facilitated or inhibited disclosure. This paper is a secondary analysis of qualitative data from a mixed methods study that explored abused women’s decision making process about IPV disclosure. Findings. Change maps were created for 19 participants with movement from the precontemplation to the maintenance stages of the model. Disclosure often occurred after a significant “turning point event” combined with a series of smaller events over a period of time. The significant life event often involved a weighing of options where participants considered the perceived risks against the potential benefits of disclosure. Conclusions. Abused women experienced intrusion from the chaotic nature of the emergency department. IPV disclosure was perceived as a positive experience when participants trusted the health care provider and felt control over their decisions to disclose IPV. Practice Implications. Nurses can use these findings to gauge the readiness of women to disclose IPV in the emergency department setting.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
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    ISRN Nursing
    Article
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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      ISRN Nursing
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    Authors: Zhongxian Men; Eugene Yee; Fue-Sang Lien; Zhiling Yang; +1 Authors

    Short-term wind speed and wind power forecasts (for a 72 h period) are obtained using a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural network (ANN) methodology which incorporates either numerical weather prediction or high-resolution computational fluid dynamics wind field information as an exogenous input. An ensemble approach is used to combine the predictions from many candidate ANNs in order to provide improved forecasts for wind speed and power, along with the associated uncertainties in these forecasts. More specifically, the ensemble ANN is used to quantify the uncertainties arising from the network weight initialization and from the unknown structure of the ANN. All members forming the ensemble of neural networks were trained using an efficient particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results of the proposed methodology are validated using wind speed and wind power data obtained from an operational wind farm located in Northern China. The assessment demonstrates that this methodology for wind speed and power forecasting generally provides an improvement in predictive skills when compared to the practice of using an “optimal” weight vector from a single ANN while providing additional information in the form of prediction uncertainty bounds.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    International Scholarly Research Notices
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      Article . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David J. Ramnaraign; Charles Godbout; Kalter Hali; Christian Hegner; +5 Authors

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) therapy has been successfully used in orthopaedic preclinical models to heal bone defects. However, no previous studies have investigated the dose-response relationship between EPC therapy and bone healing. This study aimed to assess the effect of different EPC doses on bone healing in a rat model to define an optimal dose. Five-millimeter segmental defects were created in the right femora of Fischer 344 rats, followed by stabilization with a miniplate and screws. Rats were assigned to one of six groups (control, 0.1 M, 0.5 M, 1.0 M, 2.0 M, and 4.0 M; n = 6), receiving 0, 1 × 105, 5 × 105, 1 × 106, 2 × 106, and 4 × 106 EPCs, respectively, delivered into the defect on a gelatin scaffold. Radiographs were taken every two weeks until the animals were euthanized 10 weeks after surgery. The operated femora were then evaluated using micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing. Overall, the groups that received higher doses of EPCs (0.5 M, 1.0 M, 2.0 M, and 4.0 M) reached better outcomes. At 10 weeks, full radiographic union was observed in 67% of animals in the 0.5 M group, 83% of animals in the 1.0 M group, and 100% of the animals in the 2.0 M and 4.0 M groups, but none in the control and 0.1 M groups. The 2.0 M group also displayed the strongest biomechanical properties, which significantly improved relative to the control and 0.1 M groups. In summary, this study defined a dose-response relationship between EPC therapy and bone healing, with 2 × 106 EPCs being the optimal dose in this model. Our findings emphasize the importance of dosing considerations in the application of cell therapies aimed at tissue regeneration and will help guide future investigations and clinical translation of EPC therapy.

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    Authors: Acharya, Sandesh R.; Sivakumaran, K. S.;

    The behavior of connections associated with the thin-walled steel members is distinctly different from that of hot-rolled steel connections, primarily because of the flexibility of the plates. A typical cold-formed steel structural construction may entail such numerous connections. The incorporation of large number of such connections in an analysis and design, using sophisticated finite element models, is very tedious and time consuming and may present computational difficulties. The objective of this investigation is to create simplified, yet reasonably accurate, finite element models for the analysis of screw connections and bolted connections associated with thin-walled sheet steel construction. The primary plates were modeled using quadrilateral shell elements, and nonlinear stress-strain relationship was established based on experiments. The fasteners were modeled as an elastic medium. The plate-to-plate interactions and the plate-to-screw interactions were incorporated using contact elements. The study considered two finite element models of different complexity. The performance of these models was established through comparisons with the corresponding experimental results. The finite element analysis results exhibit reasonably good agreement with the test results in terms of connection stiffness, screw tilting, end curling, and average longitudinal strain. The recommended simplified connection model is capable of reproducing the behavior of sheet steel screw and bolt connections.

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    Authors: Gorczynski, Reginald M.;

    The type 1 membrane glycoprotein CD200, widely expressed on multiple cells/tissues, uses a structurally similar receptor (CD200R1), whose expression is more restricted to cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, to transmit signals affecting responses in multiple physiological systems. Thus CD200 expression is reported to exert effects on cancer growth, autoimmune and allergic disorders, infection, transplantation, bone development and homeostasis, and reproductive biology. It was initially thought, based on the idea that CD200R1 was mostly expressed on cells of myeloid origin, that CD200:CD200R1 interactions were primarily dedicated to controlling myeloid cell function. However additional members of the CD200R family have now also been identified, although their function(s) remain unclear, and CD200R1 itself is now known to be expressed by subsets of T cells and other cells. Together these observations add layers of complexity to our understanding of CD200-related regulation. In common with a number of physiological systems, the mechanism(s) of CD200-induced signaling seem to fit within a similar framework of opposing actions of kinases and phosphatases. This paper highlights the advances in our knowledge of immunoregulation achieved following CD200:CD200R interaction and the potential clinical applicability of that information.

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    Authors: Vaidya, Bijay; Negro, Roberto; Poppe, Kris; Rovet, Joanne;

    In the last two decades, there have been major advances in our understanding of the thyroid physiology during pregnancy, the role of thyroid hormones in fetal development, and the effects of thyroid dysfunction on pregnancy outcomes. The main objective of this special issue was to highlight how these advances have enhanced our knowledge and influenced the clinical practice in the field. The emerging evidence for an association between thyroid autoimmunity and spontaneous miscarriages is one of such advances. As A. Stagnaro-Green reviews in this special issue, since the publication of the first report describing the association in 1990 [1], many subsequent studies have lent further evidence to support this association. However, despite the robust evidence for the association, the pathogenesis of miscarriages in pregnant women with thyroid autoimmunity remains uncertain, and whether levothyroxine treatment prevents the adverse outcome in these women is yet to be confirmed. For many decades, it has been recognised that overt maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with impaired neurological development of the offspring; however, several studies in the recent years have suggested that even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency (subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia) during pregnancy can affect the offspring's neuropsychological development [2, 3]. However, this association has not been consistent in all studies [4], and J. Chevrier and colleagues in this special issue report a prospective study showing lack of association between maternal thyroid hormone levels at 27-week gestation and neuropsychological development of the offspring. Indeed, as M. Moleti and colleagues highlight in their review, there is also a great deal of controversy surrounding the diagnosis, adverse effects, and management of isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy, and more studies are needed to resolve these controversies. The last two decades have also witnessed significant advances in the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy. The importance of trimester-specific reference ranges for thyroid function tests in pregnancy has been established [5, 6]; it has become clear that the upper reference limit of serum thyrotropin (TSH) in pregnancy is much lower than that in the general population. It has also been convincingly shown that most hypothyroid women need an increased dose of levothyroxine during pregnancy. However, there remains uncertainty at what level of TSH should the levothyroxine replacement be considered and whether women with isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia or isolated positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies should be treated with levothyroxine. Furthermore, there is no consensus on whether all pregnant women should be screened for hypothyroidism. J. Klubo-Gwiezdzinska and colleagues review the issues surrounding indications, efficacy, and monitoring of levothyroxine replacement in pregnancy, and J. H. Lazarus appraises evidences for and against screening all pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction. The current guidelines from the Endocrine Society and the American Thyroid Association do not endorse universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction but recommend case-finding approach in high-risk pregnant women [5, 6]. However, V. Nambiar and colleagues show, in the Asian-Indian population, that the case-finding approach misses a significant proportion of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction, in line with findings of several studies from the western countries. Their study also provides further evidence to support that both maternal thyroid autoimmunity and maternal mild hypothyroidism are associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriages. And, although not as fiercely debated as screening pregnant women for hypothyroidism, there is also lack of consensus on screening for postpartum thyroiditis. M. A. Adlan and L. D. Premawardhana review the issues surrounding screening for postpartum thyroiditis and the utility of thyroid peroxidase antibodies testing as a screening tool for this condition. In pregnancy, Graves' disease is the commonest cause of hyperthyroidism, and thionamide antithyroid drugs are the mainstay of treatment for this condition. However, in the recent years, reports of rare association of carbimazole (and its active metabolite, methimazole) use in early pregnancy with multiple congenital malformations in the foetus and association of propylthiouracil with severe liver injury have led to the controversy surrounding the choice of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy. For example, which antithyroid drug should be prescribed for a woman with Graves' disease planning pregnancy? If a pregnant woman is on propylthiouracil, should the drug be switched to carbimazole (or methimazole) after the first trimester? In this special issue, P. Bowman and B. Vaidya, by analysing all birth defects related to maternal treatment of carbimazole and propylthiouracil reported to the UK Pharmacovigilance authority over a 47-year period, provide further evidence to support an embryopathy associated with carbimazole exposure in utero. However, their study also raises a question whether the currently apparent lack of association of similar embryopathy with propylthiouracil is related to historically lower use of the drug as compared to carbimazole or methimazole. Furthermore, transient gestational hyperthyroidism—another common cause of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy—is often confused with Graves' disease, sometimes leading to inappropriate treatment. A. M. Goldman and J. H. Mestman review the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of this intriguing condition. The association between severe iodine deficiency and cretinism has been known for more than a century [7]. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that mild iodine deficiency is also associated with impaired cognitive and behaviour outcomes in the children, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Despite these observations and all national and international efforts to optimise dietary iodine intake in the population, iodine deficiency during pregnancy continues to be a major preventable cause of mental retardation in many countries. In fact, recent studies suggest that iodine deficiency is on the rise in Europe, Australia, and the USA [8–10]. C. Yarrington and E. N. Pearce review the adverse effects of dietary iodine deficiency on maternal thyroid function and fetal neurological outcomes and discuss the recommendations for optimum dietary iodine intake during pregnancy. As a byproduct of a modern life, humans are increasingly being exposed to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals, with potential harmful health consequences. Recent studies suggest that some of these chemicals could interfere with normal thyroid hormone function. Therefore, there is a growing concern that an exposure to these chemicals during pregnancy may adversely affect maternal and fetal thyroid function impacting on the fetal development, as M.-L. Hartoft-Nielsen and colleagues discuss in their review. Finally, although fortunately rare, thyroid cancer presents special challenges in the management during pregnancy. S. A. Imran and M. Rajaraman discuss various issues surrounding management of differentiated thyroid cancer in pregnancy and underline the importance of multidisciplinary approach in the management. However, much of the clinical decisions in the management of thyroid cancer in pregnancy are hampered by the lack of good quality evidence, as G. V. Alves and colleagues highlight in their systemic review. We believe that the papers in this special issue illustrate the highlights of advances made in the diverse areas of thyroid and pregnancy over the last two decades. At the same time, they also underline many yet unanswered questions and areas for further studies. However, with the volume and the quality of ongoing research activities in the field, we are optimistic that we will not need to wait for a further two decades to have the answers for many of these questions. Bijay Vaidya Roberto Negro Kris Poppe Joanne Rovet

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    Journal of Thyroid Research
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