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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2 Projects, page 1 of 1

  • Canada
  • 2012-2021
  • UK Research and Innovation
  • 2016
  • 2022

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: MR/N005759/1
    Funder Contribution: 3,039,500 GBP
    Partners: McMaster University

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally estimated to be responsible for approximately 17 million deaths annually. Heart disease and stroke account for nearly one third of all deaths and are a major cause of hospitalization. Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are at particularly high risk. Clinical trials demonstrate that nearly one third of patients with CHF will experience a myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or hospitalization for CHF. Observational studies have established an association between influenza infection and major adverse vascular events . It follows that vaccinating such a high risk group as patients with CHF against influenza may prevent adverse vascular events. However, these studies are subject to bias and a well designed clinical trial is needed to test the effect of influenza vaccination on preventing adverse vascular events. The goal of this study is to assess whether inactivated influenza vaccine can reduce adverse vascular events in high risk participants. We will address the question by randomizing patients at high risk for adverse vascular events to either annual inactivated influenza vaccine or to placebo over three influenza seasons. The primary outcome is a composite of cardiovascular (CV) death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non- fatal stroke, and hospitalization for CHF. We will enroll 3,500 participants from centres in seven countries: Philippines (the lead centre), Mozambique, Sudan, Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, China. This proposed randomized trial has important implications for the management of patients at high risk for major adverse vascular events. Although the influenza vaccine is recommended annually for groups with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in many counties, uptake of these recommendations is relatively low. Cardiologists in most jurisdictions do not routinely recommend annual influenza vaccine for their patients as a strategy to reduce future adverse vascular events such as acute coronary syndrome or stroke. Uptake of influenza vaccine in patients with heart disease varies by country but in INTER-CHF sites (where are trial will be conducted) is 11% on average. Rigorous demonstration of influenza vaccine leading to a reduction in major adverse vascular events would represent a landmark study. We anticipate that such a trial would influence management decisions by physicians for patients at high risk for major vascular events. The effect size we propose testing is comparable to secondary prevention strategies available and given the fact that a vaccine is given once annually it is simple and inexpensive. Given the large burden of disease, the possibility to reduce cardiovascular and stroke related death is a compelling argument for this trial. If influenza vaccine is shown to reduce adverse vascular events, it will represent an important change in how prevention of adverse vascular events is thought about. The fact that our primary outcome is a composite, including various forms of vascular disease will increase generalizability. The study would be a milestone in contributing to evidence-based clinical as well public health policy.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/N017188/1
    Funder Contribution: 5,296,040 GBP
    Partners: University of Cambridge, University of Waterloo (Canada), Private Address, CDT, Amadeus Capital Partners Limited, University of Oxford, UQ, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (United Kingdom), IBM Research GmbH, Oxford Instruments plc...

    Put your hand under a working laptop computer and you'll find that it's warm, due to the heat produced by the transistors in it. This isn't just a problem for your own computer: nearly 5% of the world's electricity is used by computers and the internet, a figure expected to double over the next decade. Much of this is wasted in generating heat that, according to thermodynamic theory, is not needed for information processing; and over half is for cooling systems to remove the unwanted heat. The resulting carbon emissions are comparable to the total global aviation industry. If we can reduce the energy consumption of logic operations in information technologies, or scavenge just a fraction of the waste heat, the effect on energy use and carbon emissions could be vast. Recent research breakthroughs have opened up new possibilities for making tiny electronic components and circuits, based on individual molecules, which have the potential to do just that (since their behaviour is not constrained by the laws of classical physics). To make this a reality, we must first learn to understand and control quantum effects in electronic nanodevices. We can use a new material, graphene, to make mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and connect them to electrically-active molecules. New methods allow us to make a very small gap in graphene which is just the right size for a molecule or a single strand of DNA (for fast and cheap DNA sequencing). Chemical units have been developed that attach to molecules and adhere like sticky notes to the graphene contacts on each side of the gap.. With graphene electrodes we can also make magnetic connections to single molecules to create molecular memory devices. A phenomenon called quantum interference can dramatically affect the flow of electric current in molecules. Harnessing these quantum effects will enable us to make tiny switches that would consume very little energy, and to generate electricity from small differences in temperature. The time is ripe for a focused research effort, drawing together these advances to transform our understanding and to pave the way for practical applications. Our programme is one of discovery science with a view to practical benefit. QuEEN will first establish the basic platform technology for experiments on single-molecule devices, including selection of the best molecules and control of their quantum interference by a local electric field. It will conclude by seeking to transfer results from rather ideal (cryogenic) laboratory conditions to a real-world environment, at room temperature. In between those two challenges, we shall explore three particularly promising areas for scientific discovery and application: controlling the magnetic property of an electron, known as spin, for quantum interference for potential use in universal computer memories; seeing how much electricity a molecule can generate if its ends are held at different temperatures, offering the potential for energy harvesting; and finding the performance limits of a single-molecule transistor, for potential uses in low-power computing and timer-controllers for the Internet of Things. The research requires four core skill sets, which form a virtuous circle: chemistry, to design and synthesise the molecules at the heart of our devices and stick them reliably to electrodes; nanofabrication, to make molecule-sized gaps in graphene ribbons; measurement techniques and advanced instrumentation to control the environment and characterise the quantum effects; and theory, to predict the effects, screen potential molecules, and interpret the results. QuEEN brings together a research team with exactly the right mix of expertise; an Advisory Board with wide experience of successful technological entrepreneurship; and a group of industrial partners who will not only shape and assist with the research but also provide a pathway to technological innovation and real-world applications.

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2 Projects, page 1 of 1
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: MR/N005759/1
    Funder Contribution: 3,039,500 GBP
    Partners: McMaster University

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally estimated to be responsible for approximately 17 million deaths annually. Heart disease and stroke account for nearly one third of all deaths and are a major cause of hospitalization. Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are at particularly high risk. Clinical trials demonstrate that nearly one third of patients with CHF will experience a myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or hospitalization for CHF. Observational studies have established an association between influenza infection and major adverse vascular events . It follows that vaccinating such a high risk group as patients with CHF against influenza may prevent adverse vascular events. However, these studies are subject to bias and a well designed clinical trial is needed to test the effect of influenza vaccination on preventing adverse vascular events. The goal of this study is to assess whether inactivated influenza vaccine can reduce adverse vascular events in high risk participants. We will address the question by randomizing patients at high risk for adverse vascular events to either annual inactivated influenza vaccine or to placebo over three influenza seasons. The primary outcome is a composite of cardiovascular (CV) death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non- fatal stroke, and hospitalization for CHF. We will enroll 3,500 participants from centres in seven countries: Philippines (the lead centre), Mozambique, Sudan, Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, China. This proposed randomized trial has important implications for the management of patients at high risk for major adverse vascular events. Although the influenza vaccine is recommended annually for groups with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in many counties, uptake of these recommendations is relatively low. Cardiologists in most jurisdictions do not routinely recommend annual influenza vaccine for their patients as a strategy to reduce future adverse vascular events such as acute coronary syndrome or stroke. Uptake of influenza vaccine in patients with heart disease varies by country but in INTER-CHF sites (where are trial will be conducted) is 11% on average. Rigorous demonstration of influenza vaccine leading to a reduction in major adverse vascular events would represent a landmark study. We anticipate that such a trial would influence management decisions by physicians for patients at high risk for major vascular events. The effect size we propose testing is comparable to secondary prevention strategies available and given the fact that a vaccine is given once annually it is simple and inexpensive. Given the large burden of disease, the possibility to reduce cardiovascular and stroke related death is a compelling argument for this trial. If influenza vaccine is shown to reduce adverse vascular events, it will represent an important change in how prevention of adverse vascular events is thought about. The fact that our primary outcome is a composite, including various forms of vascular disease will increase generalizability. The study would be a milestone in contributing to evidence-based clinical as well public health policy.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/N017188/1
    Funder Contribution: 5,296,040 GBP
    Partners: University of Cambridge, University of Waterloo (Canada), Private Address, CDT, Amadeus Capital Partners Limited, University of Oxford, UQ, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (United Kingdom), IBM Research GmbH, Oxford Instruments plc...

    Put your hand under a working laptop computer and you'll find that it's warm, due to the heat produced by the transistors in it. This isn't just a problem for your own computer: nearly 5% of the world's electricity is used by computers and the internet, a figure expected to double over the next decade. Much of this is wasted in generating heat that, according to thermodynamic theory, is not needed for information processing; and over half is for cooling systems to remove the unwanted heat. The resulting carbon emissions are comparable to the total global aviation industry. If we can reduce the energy consumption of logic operations in information technologies, or scavenge just a fraction of the waste heat, the effect on energy use and carbon emissions could be vast. Recent research breakthroughs have opened up new possibilities for making tiny electronic components and circuits, based on individual molecules, which have the potential to do just that (since their behaviour is not constrained by the laws of classical physics). To make this a reality, we must first learn to understand and control quantum effects in electronic nanodevices. We can use a new material, graphene, to make mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and connect them to electrically-active molecules. New methods allow us to make a very small gap in graphene which is just the right size for a molecule or a single strand of DNA (for fast and cheap DNA sequencing). Chemical units have been developed that attach to molecules and adhere like sticky notes to the graphene contacts on each side of the gap.. With graphene electrodes we can also make magnetic connections to single molecules to create molecular memory devices. A phenomenon called quantum interference can dramatically affect the flow of electric current in molecules. Harnessing these quantum effects will enable us to make tiny switches that would consume very little energy, and to generate electricity from small differences in temperature. The time is ripe for a focused research effort, drawing together these advances to transform our understanding and to pave the way for practical applications. Our programme is one of discovery science with a view to practical benefit. QuEEN will first establish the basic platform technology for experiments on single-molecule devices, including selection of the best molecules and control of their quantum interference by a local electric field. It will conclude by seeking to transfer results from rather ideal (cryogenic) laboratory conditions to a real-world environment, at room temperature. In between those two challenges, we shall explore three particularly promising areas for scientific discovery and application: controlling the magnetic property of an electron, known as spin, for quantum interference for potential use in universal computer memories; seeing how much electricity a molecule can generate if its ends are held at different temperatures, offering the potential for energy harvesting; and finding the performance limits of a single-molecule transistor, for potential uses in low-power computing and timer-controllers for the Internet of Things. The research requires four core skill sets, which form a virtuous circle: chemistry, to design and synthesise the molecules at the heart of our devices and stick them reliably to electrodes; nanofabrication, to make molecule-sized gaps in graphene ribbons; measurement techniques and advanced instrumentation to control the environment and characterise the quantum effects; and theory, to predict the effects, screen potential molecules, and interpret the results. QuEEN brings together a research team with exactly the right mix of expertise; an Advisory Board with wide experience of successful technological entrepreneurship; and a group of industrial partners who will not only shape and assist with the research but also provide a pathway to technological innovation and real-world applications.