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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
145 Projects, page 1 of 15

  • Canada
  • 2012-2021
  • 2022

10
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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V020471/1
    Funder Contribution: 12,390 GBP
    Partners: McGill University, University of London

    ESRC : Emily MacLeod : ES/P000592/1. This exchange provides me with the opportunity to develop my existing expertise within science identities research, and make links within the field of teacher education and teaching identities research. There is a critical shortage of teachers globally; an ongoing issue which has far-reaching and negative consequences for schools and their students. The teacher shortage in the UK, where I am conducting my PhD and where I myself was a teacher, is particularly acute. Government teacher recruitment targets in England have been missed for the last seven years. However, this shortage is not evenly spread, and raises significant social justice concerns. For example, it has been estimated that schools in England would need an additional 68,000 Black and minority ethnic teachers for the workforce to reflect the population it teaches. Science especially faces some of the worst teacher shortages. But incentives to attract more people into science teaching have so far failed to make a significant impact on this shortage, and have tended to be financial; based upon the assumption that science graduates can earn considerably more outside of the relatively low-paid role of teaching. Unlike the well-documented shortage of teachers in England, there is currently very little research into the scale of the teacher shortage in Canada, partly due to differences in governance and contexts across the different provinces. However, in contrast to the surplus of teachers seen in recent years, there are now signs of an increasing shortage of teachers. This summer in Québec, where I intend to complete this exchange, the government reported that there were over 250 empty teacher vacancies in the province, and there are concerns that Covid-19 is likely to make things worse. As in England, there is also a severe and growing underrepresentation of people of colour in Canada's teaching workforce. This is particularly worrying within the context of an increasingly diverse Canadian population. Also as in England, this shortage is not spread evenly. Science teachers are some of the most needed. However, unlike in England, teacher salaries across Canada are amongst the highest of the OECD community, and subject-specific incentives have yet to be used. The shortage of science teachers especially, seen in both England and Canada, is of particular concern given that there is a globally-recognised STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) skills shortage, likely to increase due to Covid-19. This growing demand for more young people studying and working in STEM will not be met without enough qualified science teachers. Yet in order to improve this situation, we need to better understand science teacher supply patterns. To date, research into teacher supply in science (and other disciplines) has been conducted by specialists in teacher education. From this we know that science teachers report becoming teachers not because they always wanted to, but after having had positive teaching-like experiences. We also know from existing science identities research from both the host and home supervisors that social and cultural influences work to influence whether and how people see different sciences roles as 'for me' or not. This exchange will help me to develop my research and communication skills whilst conducting comparative research to develop understandings of who does, and importantly who does not, want to become a science teacher in the UK and Canada, and why. I will build upon my existing expertise in science identity development amongst young people, and learn from the expertise of Dr Gonsalves and her colleagues in science teacher identities, and how teaching-like experiences can affect these identities. Combining these fields will help me to contribute to understandings of how people's identities shape how they feel about becoming science teachers.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/V043811/1
    Funder Contribution: 497,214 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, University of Liverpool

    Coronaviruses are transmitted from an infectious individual through large respiratory droplets generated by coughing, sneezing or speaking. These infectious droplets are then transmitted to the mucosal surfaces of a recipient through inhalation of the aerosol or by contact with contaminated fomites such as surfaces or other objects. In healthcare settings, personal protective equipment (PPE) plays a crucial role in interrupting the transmission of highly communicable diseases such as COVID19 from patients to healthcare workers (HCWs). However, research has shown that PPE can also act as a fomite during the donning and doffing process as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can survive on these surfaces for up to three days. This creates a need for more effective PPE materials that can provide antiviral protection. In this proposal we aim to develop a dual action antiviral/antifouling coating to lower the risk of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 to HCWs from COVID19 patients. This project will deliver antiviral/antifouling coatings that can be readily applied to PPE surfaces such as faceshields that are likely to encounter a high level of viral load and would be of great benefit to the health of clinical staff. Furthermore, this project has embedded into its planning a rapid pathway for optimisation, translation, and upscaling of manufacture to deliver a low-cost technology within a short timescale.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V010131/1
    Funder Contribution: 7,776 GBP
    Partners: University of Exeter, UoC

    NERC: Jennifer Watts: NE/S007504/1

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V019856/1
    Funder Contribution: 12,298 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, Cardiff University

    The human mouth contains many different types of microorganisms that are often found attached to oral surfaces in 'sticky' communities called biofilms. These microorganisms are held in close proximity and will therefore likely influence the behaviour of each other. The effects of this could result in increased microbial growth, the displacement of some microorganisms to other sites, the alteration of gene expression and potentially, the enabling of microorganisms to cause infection. A PhD research project being done by Ms Megan Williams at the School of Dentistry, Cardiff University has been exploring how a fungus called Candida albicans can interact both with acrylic surfaces (used to manufacture dentures) and also with bacterial species often found alongside Candida albicans. To date, the work has indicated that colonisation of acrylic coated with different fluids, including those generated from tobacco smoking, may change the way Candida albicans grows. Candida albicans can grow as round cells called yeast, or as filamentous forms called hyphae. It is the hyphal forms that are often considered more damaging to human tissue surfaces during infection. In addition, the research shows that when certain bacteria are grown on acrylic surfaces with Candida albicans, hyphal development is also triggered. This is important, as it may mean that occurrence of infection by Candida albicans is at least in part determined by the community composition of the bacteria present alongside Candida. To date, the methods used to study these effects have included fluorescent microscopy, where the Candida is stained to fluoresce a different colour to bacteria and the surface of attachment. Whilst this approach allows quantification of attachment and imaging of the different growth forms, it cannot determine strength of cell-cell-surface interactions. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a method that provides images through measuring forces acting between a moving probe and a surface. It is possible to attach different molecules and even whole bacteria to the AFM probe, and in doing so, we can measure interactions occurring between bacteria, and either Candida yeast or hyphae serving as the substrate. Dr Laurent Bozec and his team at the University of Toronto are experts in use of AFM, which is not available in the School of dentistry, Cardiff. The exchange therefore offers the PhD student the opportunity to learn a new experimental technique, generate important data for the PhD and benefit from unique networking experiences. The results generated from this proposal will greatly enhance the research output and complement existing findings of the PhD. Ultimately, this could help determine how bacteria physically interact with Candida albicans and trigger the development of hyphal filaments to facilitate infection.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 723770
    Overall Budget: 15,270,000 EURFunder Contribution: 5,039,100 EUR
    Partners: SFI, STW, BMBF, TÜBİTAK, ETAg, Ministry of Education, SAV, FRS FNRS, THE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF NORWAY, FCT...

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine and healthcare. The field takes advantage of the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials at the nanometer scale to be used for a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level, leading to new targets for earlier and more precise diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanomedicine, rated among the six most promising Key Enabling Technologies, is one of the most important emerging areas of health research expected to contribute to one of the strategic challenges that Europe has to face in the future: Provide effective and affordable health care and assure the wellbeing of an increasingly aged population. EuroNanoMed III (ENM III) builds on the foundations of ENM I & II, which launched 7 successful joint calls for proposals since 2009, funded 51 transnational research projects involving 269 partners from 25 countries/regions, and allocated € 45,5 million to research projects from ENM funding agencies. ENM III consortium, reinforced with 12 new partners from Europe, Canada and Taiwan, is committed to fostering the competiveness of European nanomedicine actors taking into account recent changes in the landscape and new stakeholders and challenges, as identified in the SRIA in nanomedicine. The first joint call for proposals will be co-funded by ENM III partners and the EC. After the co-funded call, three additional joint transnational calls will be organized and strategic activities will be accomplished in collaboration with key initiatives in the field. ENM III actions focus on translatability of project results to clinical and industry needs.

  • Funder: NSF Project Code: 1907243
    Funder Contribution: 138,000 USD
    Partners: Thurman, Timothy
  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 696295
    Overall Budget: 14,403,800 EURFunder Contribution: 4,753,240 EUR
    Partners: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND THE MARINE, SFI, DLR, STATE RESEARCH AGENCY OF SPAIN, MIUR, MCI, NCBR, SPW, ANR, Ministry of Education...

    ERA-HDHL is a proposal of ERA-NET Cofund in the field of nutrition and health to support the Joint Programme Initiative Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (JPI HDHL). Nowadays, there is a high burden of non-communicable diseases due to unhealthy diet and lifestyle patterns. The 24 members of the JPI HDHL are working together to develop means to (1) motivate people to adopt healthier lifestyles including dietary choices and physical activity, (2) develop and produce healthy, high-quality, safe and sustainable foods and (3) prevent diet-related diseases. Between 2012 and 2015, JPI HDHL had implemented 7 JFAs with 40 M€ funds from national funding. The JPI HDHL is now set for further enhancement in tight coordination with the EC through the ERA-NET Cofund instrument. ERA-HDHL will provide a robust platform for implementing joint funding actions (JFAs) that address the needs identified in the JPI HDHL strategic research agenda and strengthen the research funding activities of JPI HDHL. An EC cofunded call on the identification and validation of biomarkers in nutrition and health will be implemented. For this foreseen action, the member countries of the JPI HDHL have doubled their financial commitment comparing to previous JFA implemented on a similar topic. Moreover, ERA-HDHL will launch at least 3 additional JFAs in line to fulfil the JPI HDHL objectives.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/T014326/1
    Funder Contribution: 9,182 GBP
    Partners: UWO, University of Exeter

    BBSRC : Laura May Murray : BB/T508330/1 Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. However, bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics, meaning they are still able to grow in the presence of antibiotics. For this reason, infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria are becoming more difficult to treat. Infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria are also extremely costly, for example, due to increased length of stay in hospital. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is driving the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and it has been predicted that by 2050, someone will die every three seconds from an antibiotic resistant infection. However, there is also evidence that other antimicrobial compounds can result in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobials are chemicals or compounds that kill bacteria, but cannot be used for treatment of infections in humans or animals because they are too toxic. Furthermore, there is new research indicating that other chemicals, which are not used as antimicrobials (for example, human medicines) may also lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. How mixtures of antibiotics, antimicrobials and other chemicals may interact and drive the evolution of antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. Antibiotics are not just used to treat and prevent infections in humans and animals; they are also applied to agricultural soils as plant protection products (PPPs). PPPs are used globally to increase crop yields. There are many types of PPPs currently in use, such as herbicides (used to prevent growth of unwanted plants) or insecticides (used to kill pest insects). No research to date has investigated if non-antibiotic PPPs can drive evolution of antibiotic resistance. This research placement will complement work being undertaken in the BBSRC/AstraZeneca iCASE PhD studentship entitled "Investigating selection and co-selection for antimicrobial resistance by non-antibiotic drugs and plant protection products". Laboratory experiments and a variety of culture based and molecular microbiology methods will be used to determine if exposing soil bacterial communities to non-antibiotic PPPs results in increased levels of antibiotic resistance. This placement provides a unique opportunity to study exposure to PPPs in well-established experiment field plots, which are treated with PPPs annually. This will aid interpretation of laboratory experiments and provide an environmentally realistic aspect to the PhD research. The findings from this novel research may be useful for influencing regulation of PPPs, food safety policy and human health risk assessment of exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria from environmental sources.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/T014202/1
    Funder Contribution: 9,177 GBP
    Partners: UoC, Newcastle University

    Mountain glaciers are melting at an increased rate due to climate change; this is leading to decreasing water resources for the surrounding communities, which is becoming of increasing importance in western Canada as glacier volume is expected to reduce by 70% by 2100. As a glacier melts, a lake can be formed in front of the glacier. This lake is formed due to a depression (herein called 'overdeepenings') in the landscape which has been scraped out by glacial erosion, this then fills with the generated melt water once the glacier retreats out of it and can then become dammed by deposited moraines. As these lakes continue to develop and grow, while the glacier continues to shrink, they have the potential to become hazardous, if a sudden release of water occurs, while they can become opportunities for economic benefits - such as hydroelectric dams and tourism - when the glacier disappears. Research on the formation and development of these glacial lakes has been discussed at length within the literature and is well understood. The vast majority of the research at present has focused on these glacial lakes as hazards, focusing on negative impacts such as; decreasing water resources, and the effects on downstream communities. A question which has received very little attention in the literature - and that shall be answered by this study - is that of where these glacial lakes will develop in the future as global warming causes glaciers to disappear and what these locations will look like as these, now relic, lakes dominate the environment? A limited number of studies have been trying to answer this question in to where these glacial lakes will be in the future, with a primary focus on locations of relatively important consequence, for example the Himalaya-Karakoram region. Another study, taking a more global perspective, looked into the possibility of these lakes for hydroelectric dams, which would be important contributions to national energy supplies in many countries. Both studies used estimated glacial ice thicknesses to predict where these overdeepenings have been located. Although these studies provide an understanding on the formation of future lakes, and how they will evolve, no study has tried to describe or understand what these locations will look like once these glaciers disappear and the lakes are all that remain. This study shall be working in British Columbia and Alberta in western Canada, where we shall predict where these glacial overdeepenings are under the present-day glacial ice. This shall be done by using already created estimations on global glacial ice thicknesses, and digital elevation models. These shall be used to estimate the depth and volume of lakes which maybe created in the future. We shall then compare what these future landscapes shall look like using modern day locations which are either transitioning from a glaciated to deglaciated environment with glacial lakes dominating the landscape (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), and locations that are entirely deglaciated and that the once glacial lakes, now remain (e.g. The Lake District, UK). In these localities, mapping of the moraine dams will aid in providing an understanding of where future lakes may develop. The output of this research will aid in giving an understanding on the location of future lakes within western Canada, which will assist in future decision making of the local government into water availability in an unpredictable climate.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V02115X/1
    Funder Contribution: 6,953 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, University of Cambridge

    AHRC : Alexander Hutterer : AH/R012709/1 Society and technology today face several information processing challenges. Human lives and digital technology become ever closer intertwined. Hence, we need to become better at understanding our own information processing practices. And we need to become more effective at using technology to aid and supplement our information processing activities. Philosophy plays a key role in explicating the meaning of the most fundamental concepts. Specifically, the sub-discipline of epistemology aims to help us understand what we mean when we say that we "believe," "know," or "understand" something. This can help us both with better understanding our contemporary socio-technological challenges and with finding solutions for them. For instance, one major challenge in the development of artificial intelligence is making it "understandable" to humans. This requires a clear picture of what it means for humans to understand something in the first place. Another example is the spreading of "fake news" via social media. Current solutions for this problem, like fact-checking, are insufficient. Part of the problem with this particular solution is that the implied aim is too ambitious, namely to "prove facts," a goal that even science does not necessarily reach. By better understanding these epistemic aims and practices, philosophy can help with the development of new, more effective solutions to challenges like the "post-truth" problem or AI development. The values and practices of today's science-powered society are frequently thought to stem from the enlightenment period. The enlightenment took place in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and coincided with significant improvements of human life, including the ascent of science and the beginnings of the industrial revolution. It was in the later stages of this period that Immanuel Kant wrote his ground-breaking "Critique of Pure Reason." In anglophone secondary literature on this book, Kant is usually understood as providing a new theory of how and what sort of "a priori knowledge," i.e., knowledge before experience, is attainable for humans. However, several recent papers in Kant scholarship cast doubt on this dominant interpretation. Instead, it is argued, Kant was not talking about knowledge at all. Specifically, he was talking about the German term "Erkenntnis" rather than knowledge. There is no clear translation for the term "Erkenntnis." The goal of my PhD is partly to figure out what precisely Kant meant by "Erkenntnis." If "Erkenntnis" really differs radically from "knowledge," this would radically affect Kant scholarship. Moreover, the implications go beyond the narrow confines of Kant exegesis. To be precise, Kant and his contemporaries seem to have used an entirely different epistemic category, namely "Erkenntnis," in addition to the categories used in philosophy today. Moreover, since Kant deemed "Erkenntnis" to be philosophically more significant than "knowledge," which is at the centre of contemporary epistemology, he quite probably also had different conceptions of the aims of our epistemic practices. During the proposed placement, I aim to find out whether Kant's immediate intellectual successor - the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte - distinguished "Erkenntnis" from knowledge in an analogous way to Kant. Moreover, I intend to find out how Fichte's thoughts about the aims of epistemology differ from Kant's. Finally, I want to explore how Fichte's thoughts on this topic could be applied to both contemporary philosophy and some of society's current information processing challenges. The project will thereby contribute to a better understanding of why knowledge, truth and other epistemic practices are valuable and how we can promote these values. Moreover, it will contribute to filling a crucial gap in research on German Idealism.

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
145 Projects, page 1 of 15
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V020471/1
    Funder Contribution: 12,390 GBP
    Partners: McGill University, University of London

    ESRC : Emily MacLeod : ES/P000592/1. This exchange provides me with the opportunity to develop my existing expertise within science identities research, and make links within the field of teacher education and teaching identities research. There is a critical shortage of teachers globally; an ongoing issue which has far-reaching and negative consequences for schools and their students. The teacher shortage in the UK, where I am conducting my PhD and where I myself was a teacher, is particularly acute. Government teacher recruitment targets in England have been missed for the last seven years. However, this shortage is not evenly spread, and raises significant social justice concerns. For example, it has been estimated that schools in England would need an additional 68,000 Black and minority ethnic teachers for the workforce to reflect the population it teaches. Science especially faces some of the worst teacher shortages. But incentives to attract more people into science teaching have so far failed to make a significant impact on this shortage, and have tended to be financial; based upon the assumption that science graduates can earn considerably more outside of the relatively low-paid role of teaching. Unlike the well-documented shortage of teachers in England, there is currently very little research into the scale of the teacher shortage in Canada, partly due to differences in governance and contexts across the different provinces. However, in contrast to the surplus of teachers seen in recent years, there are now signs of an increasing shortage of teachers. This summer in Québec, where I intend to complete this exchange, the government reported that there were over 250 empty teacher vacancies in the province, and there are concerns that Covid-19 is likely to make things worse. As in England, there is also a severe and growing underrepresentation of people of colour in Canada's teaching workforce. This is particularly worrying within the context of an increasingly diverse Canadian population. Also as in England, this shortage is not spread evenly. Science teachers are some of the most needed. However, unlike in England, teacher salaries across Canada are amongst the highest of the OECD community, and subject-specific incentives have yet to be used. The shortage of science teachers especially, seen in both England and Canada, is of particular concern given that there is a globally-recognised STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) skills shortage, likely to increase due to Covid-19. This growing demand for more young people studying and working in STEM will not be met without enough qualified science teachers. Yet in order to improve this situation, we need to better understand science teacher supply patterns. To date, research into teacher supply in science (and other disciplines) has been conducted by specialists in teacher education. From this we know that science teachers report becoming teachers not because they always wanted to, but after having had positive teaching-like experiences. We also know from existing science identities research from both the host and home supervisors that social and cultural influences work to influence whether and how people see different sciences roles as 'for me' or not. This exchange will help me to develop my research and communication skills whilst conducting comparative research to develop understandings of who does, and importantly who does not, want to become a science teacher in the UK and Canada, and why. I will build upon my existing expertise in science identity development amongst young people, and learn from the expertise of Dr Gonsalves and her colleagues in science teacher identities, and how teaching-like experiences can affect these identities. Combining these fields will help me to contribute to understandings of how people's identities shape how they feel about becoming science teachers.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/V043811/1
    Funder Contribution: 497,214 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, University of Liverpool

    Coronaviruses are transmitted from an infectious individual through large respiratory droplets generated by coughing, sneezing or speaking. These infectious droplets are then transmitted to the mucosal surfaces of a recipient through inhalation of the aerosol or by contact with contaminated fomites such as surfaces or other objects. In healthcare settings, personal protective equipment (PPE) plays a crucial role in interrupting the transmission of highly communicable diseases such as COVID19 from patients to healthcare workers (HCWs). However, research has shown that PPE can also act as a fomite during the donning and doffing process as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can survive on these surfaces for up to three days. This creates a need for more effective PPE materials that can provide antiviral protection. In this proposal we aim to develop a dual action antiviral/antifouling coating to lower the risk of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 to HCWs from COVID19 patients. This project will deliver antiviral/antifouling coatings that can be readily applied to PPE surfaces such as faceshields that are likely to encounter a high level of viral load and would be of great benefit to the health of clinical staff. Furthermore, this project has embedded into its planning a rapid pathway for optimisation, translation, and upscaling of manufacture to deliver a low-cost technology within a short timescale.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V010131/1
    Funder Contribution: 7,776 GBP
    Partners: University of Exeter, UoC

    NERC: Jennifer Watts: NE/S007504/1

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V019856/1
    Funder Contribution: 12,298 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, Cardiff University

    The human mouth contains many different types of microorganisms that are often found attached to oral surfaces in 'sticky' communities called biofilms. These microorganisms are held in close proximity and will therefore likely influence the behaviour of each other. The effects of this could result in increased microbial growth, the displacement of some microorganisms to other sites, the alteration of gene expression and potentially, the enabling of microorganisms to cause infection. A PhD research project being done by Ms Megan Williams at the School of Dentistry, Cardiff University has been exploring how a fungus called Candida albicans can interact both with acrylic surfaces (used to manufacture dentures) and also with bacterial species often found alongside Candida albicans. To date, the work has indicated that colonisation of acrylic coated with different fluids, including those generated from tobacco smoking, may change the way Candida albicans grows. Candida albicans can grow as round cells called yeast, or as filamentous forms called hyphae. It is the hyphal forms that are often considered more damaging to human tissue surfaces during infection. In addition, the research shows that when certain bacteria are grown on acrylic surfaces with Candida albicans, hyphal development is also triggered. This is important, as it may mean that occurrence of infection by Candida albicans is at least in part determined by the community composition of the bacteria present alongside Candida. To date, the methods used to study these effects have included fluorescent microscopy, where the Candida is stained to fluoresce a different colour to bacteria and the surface of attachment. Whilst this approach allows quantification of attachment and imaging of the different growth forms, it cannot determine strength of cell-cell-surface interactions. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a method that provides images through measuring forces acting between a moving probe and a surface. It is possible to attach different molecules and even whole bacteria to the AFM probe, and in doing so, we can measure interactions occurring between bacteria, and either Candida yeast or hyphae serving as the substrate. Dr Laurent Bozec and his team at the University of Toronto are experts in use of AFM, which is not available in the School of dentistry, Cardiff. The exchange therefore offers the PhD student the opportunity to learn a new experimental technique, generate important data for the PhD and benefit from unique networking experiences. The results generated from this proposal will greatly enhance the research output and complement existing findings of the PhD. Ultimately, this could help determine how bacteria physically interact with Candida albicans and trigger the development of hyphal filaments to facilitate infection.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 723770
    Overall Budget: 15,270,000 EURFunder Contribution: 5,039,100 EUR
    Partners: SFI, STW, BMBF, TÜBİTAK, ETAg, Ministry of Education, SAV, FRS FNRS, THE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF NORWAY, FCT...

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine and healthcare. The field takes advantage of the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials at the nanometer scale to be used for a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level, leading to new targets for earlier and more precise diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanomedicine, rated among the six most promising Key Enabling Technologies, is one of the most important emerging areas of health research expected to contribute to one of the strategic challenges that Europe has to face in the future: Provide effective and affordable health care and assure the wellbeing of an increasingly aged population. EuroNanoMed III (ENM III) builds on the foundations of ENM I & II, which launched 7 successful joint calls for proposals since 2009, funded 51 transnational research projects involving 269 partners from 25 countries/regions, and allocated € 45,5 million to research projects from ENM funding agencies. ENM III consortium, reinforced with 12 new partners from Europe, Canada and Taiwan, is committed to fostering the competiveness of European nanomedicine actors taking into account recent changes in the landscape and new stakeholders and challenges, as identified in the SRIA in nanomedicine. The first joint call for proposals will be co-funded by ENM III partners and the EC. After the co-funded call, three additional joint transnational calls will be organized and strategic activities will be accomplished in collaboration with key initiatives in the field. ENM III actions focus on translatability of project results to clinical and industry needs.

  • Funder: NSF Project Code: 1907243
    Funder Contribution: 138,000 USD
    Partners: Thurman, Timothy
  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 696295
    Overall Budget: 14,403,800 EURFunder Contribution: 4,753,240 EUR
    Partners: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND THE MARINE, SFI, DLR, STATE RESEARCH AGENCY OF SPAIN, MIUR, MCI, NCBR, SPW, ANR, Ministry of Education...

    ERA-HDHL is a proposal of ERA-NET Cofund in the field of nutrition and health to support the Joint Programme Initiative Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (JPI HDHL). Nowadays, there is a high burden of non-communicable diseases due to unhealthy diet and lifestyle patterns. The 24 members of the JPI HDHL are working together to develop means to (1) motivate people to adopt healthier lifestyles including dietary choices and physical activity, (2) develop and produce healthy, high-quality, safe and sustainable foods and (3) prevent diet-related diseases. Between 2012 and 2015, JPI HDHL had implemented 7 JFAs with 40 M€ funds from national funding. The JPI HDHL is now set for further enhancement in tight coordination with the EC through the ERA-NET Cofund instrument. ERA-HDHL will provide a robust platform for implementing joint funding actions (JFAs) that address the needs identified in the JPI HDHL strategic research agenda and strengthen the research funding activities of JPI HDHL. An EC cofunded call on the identification and validation of biomarkers in nutrition and health will be implemented. For this foreseen action, the member countries of the JPI HDHL have doubled their financial commitment comparing to previous JFA implemented on a similar topic. Moreover, ERA-HDHL will launch at least 3 additional JFAs in line to fulfil the JPI HDHL objectives.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/T014326/1
    Funder Contribution: 9,182 GBP
    Partners: UWO, University of Exeter

    BBSRC : Laura May Murray : BB/T508330/1 Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. However, bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics, meaning they are still able to grow in the presence of antibiotics. For this reason, infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria are becoming more difficult to treat. Infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria are also extremely costly, for example, due to increased length of stay in hospital. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is driving the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and it has been predicted that by 2050, someone will die every three seconds from an antibiotic resistant infection. However, there is also evidence that other antimicrobial compounds can result in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobials are chemicals or compounds that kill bacteria, but cannot be used for treatment of infections in humans or animals because they are too toxic. Furthermore, there is new research indicating that other chemicals, which are not used as antimicrobials (for example, human medicines) may also lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. How mixtures of antibiotics, antimicrobials and other chemicals may interact and drive the evolution of antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. Antibiotics are not just used to treat and prevent infections in humans and animals; they are also applied to agricultural soils as plant protection products (PPPs). PPPs are used globally to increase crop yields. There are many types of PPPs currently in use, such as herbicides (used to prevent growth of unwanted plants) or insecticides (used to kill pest insects). No research to date has investigated if non-antibiotic PPPs can drive evolution of antibiotic resistance. This research placement will complement work being undertaken in the BBSRC/AstraZeneca iCASE PhD studentship entitled "Investigating selection and co-selection for antimicrobial resistance by non-antibiotic drugs and plant protection products". Laboratory experiments and a variety of culture based and molecular microbiology methods will be used to determine if exposing soil bacterial communities to non-antibiotic PPPs results in increased levels of antibiotic resistance. This placement provides a unique opportunity to study exposure to PPPs in well-established experiment field plots, which are treated with PPPs annually. This will aid interpretation of laboratory experiments and provide an environmentally realistic aspect to the PhD research. The findings from this novel research may be useful for influencing regulation of PPPs, food safety policy and human health risk assessment of exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria from environmental sources.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/T014202/1
    Funder Contribution: 9,177 GBP
    Partners: UoC, Newcastle University

    Mountain glaciers are melting at an increased rate due to climate change; this is leading to decreasing water resources for the surrounding communities, which is becoming of increasing importance in western Canada as glacier volume is expected to reduce by 70% by 2100. As a glacier melts, a lake can be formed in front of the glacier. This lake is formed due to a depression (herein called 'overdeepenings') in the landscape which has been scraped out by glacial erosion, this then fills with the generated melt water once the glacier retreats out of it and can then become dammed by deposited moraines. As these lakes continue to develop and grow, while the glacier continues to shrink, they have the potential to become hazardous, if a sudden release of water occurs, while they can become opportunities for economic benefits - such as hydroelectric dams and tourism - when the glacier disappears. Research on the formation and development of these glacial lakes has been discussed at length within the literature and is well understood. The vast majority of the research at present has focused on these glacial lakes as hazards, focusing on negative impacts such as; decreasing water resources, and the effects on downstream communities. A question which has received very little attention in the literature - and that shall be answered by this study - is that of where these glacial lakes will develop in the future as global warming causes glaciers to disappear and what these locations will look like as these, now relic, lakes dominate the environment? A limited number of studies have been trying to answer this question in to where these glacial lakes will be in the future, with a primary focus on locations of relatively important consequence, for example the Himalaya-Karakoram region. Another study, taking a more global perspective, looked into the possibility of these lakes for hydroelectric dams, which would be important contributions to national energy supplies in many countries. Both studies used estimated glacial ice thicknesses to predict where these overdeepenings have been located. Although these studies provide an understanding on the formation of future lakes, and how they will evolve, no study has tried to describe or understand what these locations will look like once these glaciers disappear and the lakes are all that remain. This study shall be working in British Columbia and Alberta in western Canada, where we shall predict where these glacial overdeepenings are under the present-day glacial ice. This shall be done by using already created estimations on global glacial ice thicknesses, and digital elevation models. These shall be used to estimate the depth and volume of lakes which maybe created in the future. We shall then compare what these future landscapes shall look like using modern day locations which are either transitioning from a glaciated to deglaciated environment with glacial lakes dominating the landscape (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), and locations that are entirely deglaciated and that the once glacial lakes, now remain (e.g. The Lake District, UK). In these localities, mapping of the moraine dams will aid in providing an understanding of where future lakes may develop. The output of this research will aid in giving an understanding on the location of future lakes within western Canada, which will assist in future decision making of the local government into water availability in an unpredictable climate.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V02115X/1
    Funder Contribution: 6,953 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, University of Cambridge

    AHRC : Alexander Hutterer : AH/R012709/1 Society and technology today face several information processing challenges. Human lives and digital technology become ever closer intertwined. Hence, we need to become better at understanding our own information processing practices. And we need to become more effective at using technology to aid and supplement our information processing activities. Philosophy plays a key role in explicating the meaning of the most fundamental concepts. Specifically, the sub-discipline of epistemology aims to help us understand what we mean when we say that we "believe," "know," or "understand" something. This can help us both with better understanding our contemporary socio-technological challenges and with finding solutions for them. For instance, one major challenge in the development of artificial intelligence is making it "understandable" to humans. This requires a clear picture of what it means for humans to understand something in the first place. Another example is the spreading of "fake news" via social media. Current solutions for this problem, like fact-checking, are insufficient. Part of the problem with this particular solution is that the implied aim is too ambitious, namely to "prove facts," a goal that even science does not necessarily reach. By better understanding these epistemic aims and practices, philosophy can help with the development of new, more effective solutions to challenges like the "post-truth" problem or AI development. The values and practices of today's science-powered society are frequently thought to stem from the enlightenment period. The enlightenment took place in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and coincided with significant improvements of human life, including the ascent of science and the beginnings of the industrial revolution. It was in the later stages of this period that Immanuel Kant wrote his ground-breaking "Critique of Pure Reason." In anglophone secondary literature on this book, Kant is usually understood as providing a new theory of how and what sort of "a priori knowledge," i.e., knowledge before experience, is attainable for humans. However, several recent papers in Kant scholarship cast doubt on this dominant interpretation. Instead, it is argued, Kant was not talking about knowledge at all. Specifically, he was talking about the German term "Erkenntnis" rather than knowledge. There is no clear translation for the term "Erkenntnis." The goal of my PhD is partly to figure out what precisely Kant meant by "Erkenntnis." If "Erkenntnis" really differs radically from "knowledge," this would radically affect Kant scholarship. Moreover, the implications go beyond the narrow confines of Kant exegesis. To be precise, Kant and his contemporaries seem to have used an entirely different epistemic category, namely "Erkenntnis," in addition to the categories used in philosophy today. Moreover, since Kant deemed "Erkenntnis" to be philosophically more significant than "knowledge," which is at the centre of contemporary epistemology, he quite probably also had different conceptions of the aims of our epistemic practices. During the proposed placement, I aim to find out whether Kant's immediate intellectual successor - the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte - distinguished "Erkenntnis" from knowledge in an analogous way to Kant. Moreover, I intend to find out how Fichte's thoughts about the aims of epistemology differ from Kant's. Finally, I want to explore how Fichte's thoughts on this topic could be applied to both contemporary philosophy and some of society's current information processing challenges. The project will thereby contribute to a better understanding of why knowledge, truth and other epistemic practices are valuable and how we can promote these values. Moreover, it will contribute to filling a crucial gap in research on German Idealism.