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48 Projects

  • Canada
  • French National Research Agency (ANR)

10
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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-19-FQSM-0004
    Funder Contribution: 308,238 EUR

    Estuarine and coastal ecosystems are essential for human activities, as they provide a wide variety of ecosystem services (ES). However, they are subject to increasing anthropogenic pressures incurred by coastal development, marine traffic, overexploitation of aquatic resources and diversification of tourism and recreational use. Accounting for these human-ecosystems interactions in land planning projects, in a comprehensive, holistic and integrated way, is still a challenge in decision-making. The “Cost to coast” research project aims at filling in the existing gaps in this integration and providing the missing elements that prevent the sustainable development of coastal/estuary territories, by using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and tools. “Cost to coast” project is divided into four inter-related research activities that will allow reaching four objectives. First, it aims at proposing a harmonized conceptual framework for the consistent assessment of ES at a territorial scale throughout a life cycle perspective. Second, it will develop a methodology to identify the “basket” of ES relevant to estuarine and coastal areas, which are shared by different stakeholders at a territorial scale (e.g. maritime freight and port activities, fishing, recreational-tourism, high value conservation area), by applying the conceptual framework initially developed. Third, it will create a new set of indicators to be applied in quantitative life cycle impact assessment methods (e.g. readily available to LCA practitioners for use within IMPACT World+), in order to quantify the potential loss/gain of aquatic ES (i.e. from coastal and sea use), in compliance with the conceptual framework developed. Finally, this project aims at applying the developed methodologies and set of indicators to characterize the human impacts on ES. The operationalization will be conducted on two case studies, i.e. the Thau lagoon, on the Mediterranean Sea coast, in France; and the St. Lawrence estuary, in Quebec (Canada) with a specific focus on the Lac Saint-Pierre. These two territories have different sets of ES, though the direct provision of resources with the presence of aquaculture, fishing and shellfish farming activities; as well as indirectly, through cultural services, such as those linked with recreation and cultural activities. The project is scheduled for 3 years and it combines the expertise of six different research teams from Québec and France, as an evidence of its multi- and inter-disciplinary character. The researchers and graduate students are involved in various fields of research and development, such as LCA (system analysis, impact assessment methodology development, LCA operationalization), ES quantification and valuation, marine ecology and biology, geography and economics. The project will deliver high qualification staff (4 PhD, 1 Postdoc and 3 MSc students), scientific papers and communications. Lastly, the “Cost to coast” project pays attention to serving and better informing the decision-making process. For that, tools, documentation, and other project deliverables will be made available to territorial stakeholders and to the lay public, in simple wording and, at the same time, to the LCA community (i.e., practitioners and researchers) in order to ease and sustain its use.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-13-PRGE-0011
    Funder Contribution: 605,563 EUR

    This project addresses the point 4.2 of the call for proposal, dedicated to electrochemical capacitors (ECs) so called supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. This point mentions that : « A major effort of research must focus on improving the energy density, including implementation of new organic electrolytes to increase the electrochemical window and security. Asymmetric or hybrid systems are other avenues to explore.”.Our goal is to double the energy density of nowadays symmetrical carbon ECs, i.e from 5 to 10 Wh/kg or 7 to 15 Wh/L. Unlike most of todays research efforts which aim at replacing carbon by other materials (oxides, nitrides, etc...), thus leading to drastic changes in fabrication process, we propose to keep the carbon electrode and simply add electroactive molecules that will be anchored at the surface of carbon, thus adding a faradic component to the double layer capacitance of carbon. This concept is not new since it has been developed for more than 5 years by the partners of this consortium as well as by other teams. However, most of the work has been done in aqueous based electrolytes. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is at stage 2 (Invention begins, practical applications can be invented, applications are speculative). Our goal is to apply the current knowledge to the development of devices in organic based electrolytes, and to push TRL level to stage 4 (Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together), being able at the end of the project to give prototype cells to companies for initiating stage 5 of TRL (Component validation in relevant environment). Subsequently the present project is dedicated to technological developments. We want to improve the energy density of carbon-based devices in organic electrolyte by two fold. This will be achieved by keeping the same cell voltage (or slightly increasing it), almost the same double layer capacitance (EDLC) of carbon electrodes but providing an extra Faradaic capacity (and not capacitance since it is purely Faradaic) to both carbon electrodes by functionalizing the surface of carbon with judiciously chosen electroactive molecules. This concept has been successfully applied to aqueous based electrolyte using quinone based functionalized carbons. The choice of the electroactive molecules (multi-electron processes are preferred to single electron process, low molecular weight is needed, adequate active electrochemical window…), the choice of the carbon (large surface area, adequate porosity not too much affected by molecular grafting on the surface, etc…), the interaction between the molecules and carbon powder (high grafting yield, etc..) and finally the behavior of modified carbon electrodes in different organic (or ionic liquid) based electrolytes are the key points that control the final performance of the modified carbon electrodes. These requirements correspond to the 5 tasks of the project. Doubling the energy density must be achieved while keeping high power capability and long term cycling efficiency which are the bottlenecks of the proposed technology. For this purpose, a consortium gathering 4 academic laboratories (including a Canadian partner) has been set up. The 4 labs have been working together for more than 12 years with more than 30 common papers and communications and already 5 common PhD and post-docs. The consortium will take benefit from the belonging of the French labs to the French Network on Energy Storage (RS2E - http://www.energie-rs2e.com/fr) to get access to prototyping facilities to lead the concept to 1000F cells.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-NEUR-0002
    Funder Contribution: 199,800 EUR
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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-11-FRQU-0001
    Funder Contribution: 149,510 EUR

    The aim of the (New)AGE project is to compare the various forms of governance of education based on policies of accountability that have been implemented in France and Quebec for the last fifteen years. The global purpose is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the processes and conditions that influence the institutionalization and enactment of these new forms of governance and to propose a theoretical model to account for their expected or unexpected effects. In order to do this we will analyse the dynamics of policies of accountability in each educational system and the various national and local translations of international doctrines such as Accountability and New Public Management. The research has three main objectives. 1.Understanding and comparing the trajectory of policies of accountability in each society and the forms of governance implemented in each educational system beyond the diffusion of the transnational models that inspired them. 2.Analysing and comparing at various levels (national, regional, local) the role of actors and organisations in the reception, the recontextualisation and the appropriation of these policies. This objective is related to our hypothesis concerning the fact that the legitimacy and concrete configurations of accountability policies are strongly dependant on these processes of mediation. 3.Analysing and comparing the effects of the various policy tools and instruments (indicators, plans, contracts) used for implementation and of the ways in which they are used on the effectiveness and the legitimacy of these new policies. These objectives require a specific and pluralist theoretical framework -that of a sociology of public action in education- which borrows theories and concepts from sociology (sociology of education, of regulation, of organisations, of professions and of knowledge), policy analysis in political science (research on policy tools, governance theories, State theory) and education (testing, evaluation and measurement in education, teachers' professional identities). The research is based on qualitative methods of analysis: semi-directive interviews with about 200 actors of the educational systems of the two countries, analysis of official documents and professional literature, exploitation of the dispatches from a press agency that specialises in the education sector (for France) and analysis of internal documents from various organisations. Some common tools will be defined to conduct the research such as common grids for interviews. The research will address several levels of analysis: international (through a literature review), national, regional and local. In each system, three areas have been selected for our field investigations (three “commissions scolaires” in Quebec and three “académies” in France) according to various criteria (institutional design, results and performances, degree of involvement in a policy of accountability, accessibility and feasibility of the research) to allow us to analyze different significant situations. In each area, a more in-depth analysis of a small number of schools will be conducted. The research will be conducted by five French and five Quebecois researchers from the CRIFPE (University of Montréal) and the OSC (CNRS, Sciences Po). Two technical assistants will also participate in the study conducted by the French team.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-EBI5-0003
    Funder Contribution: 299,695 EUR

    Forest landscape restoration and afforestation have recently received much international attention as a crucial opportunity for mitigating climate change (CC). Therefore, it features prominently in many political initiatives such as the EU Green Deal and the Bonn Challenge. Yet, the ongoing increase in biotic and abiotic stress driven by CC puts forests under threat. In the face of CC, adaptation and mitigation by forests are ultimately linked, because the ability of forests to sequester carbon (C) in the long run depends on the ability of trees to cope with multiple stresses. A growing body of evidence suggests that mixed forest plantations, i.e., plantations where several tree species are mixed, are more efficient in sequestrating C, while better coping with CC-related stress. Mixed plantations thus represent an opportunity for an important nature-based solution for CC mitigation and adaptation. However, monocultures still dominate the world?s forest plantations. The reasons for the apparent resistance to mixed plantations among landowners and stakeholders need to be identified and addressed in future forest policies to promote the large-scale expansion of more CC-resilient mixed forest plantations. One of the possible factors that may have prevented the expansion of mixed plantations at large scales is insufficient scientific evidence for practitioners and policy-makers. Using a global network of forest biodiversity experiments (TreeDivNet), we will provide a mechanistic understanding of how tree diversity, species identities and management (thinning and fertilization) influence both the potential of mixed forest plantations to mitigate (C sequestration) and adapt (drought and herbivory resilience) to CC, in a win-win approach. In addition, we will translate this knowledge into guidelines that can be widely adopted by practitioners and policy-makers. The TreeDivNet network comprises 26 experiments spread across the globe, with ca. 1.2M planted trees. All these experiments were based on a common, statistically sound design that allows detection of causal relationships between tree diversity, management and forest ecosystem functioning (incl. C sequestration). The functional and mechanistic focus of MixForChange and the contrasting environmental contexts embedded in the network will allow us to scale-up our findings beyond case studies to provide evidence-based guidelines for mixed plantation management in a broad range of environments. Moreover, MixForChange will analyse in a common framework, and at unprecedented scale, synergies and trade-offs between the CC mitigation and adaptation potential of mixed plantations and the fulfilment of stakeholders? objectives. The societal impact of MixForChange will be ensured by a strong focus on knowledge transfer and capacity-building at all levels of management and governance. MixForChange will make an important contribution to promoting mixed forest plantations as nature-based solutions to fight CC.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0008
    Funder Contribution: 224,640 EUR

    We assist today to an increase of the ageing population (in France and in Quebec, ? of the population will have more than 60 years in 2050) along with a risk of vulnerabilisation of elderly people. To cope with this demographic challenge, States have set up legal mechanisms of protection as well as socio-medical services. These mechanisms and services rest on social rights that need to be activated. The access to these rights is rendered difficult when the cognitive vulnerability of the elders weakens their capacity to exercise their rights and to put forward their interests. This creates a series of situations in which the respect of their fundamental rights is endangered, in spite of or because of the recourse to these legal mechanisms of protection. The increase in the recourse to these mechanisms poses various types of problems, the more so as their legal foundation is disputed today. The need assessment for protection rests on dubious criteria; the control of the decisions taken and of the actions conducted for the person by others remains scarce; the respect of the preferences of the person is difficult to realize. This poses the problem of the access to their rights by the persons with cognitive vulnerability. Project ACSEDROITS will assess whether the current legal tools and their social uses in France and in Quebec make it possible to solve or on the contrary contribute to worsen the difficulties of access to their rights by the elders with cognitive vulnerability. It will be articulated around two hypothesis: 1) the difficulties of access to the rights are reinforced by the lack of communication between social and civil rights, at the legal level (legislation, case law and doctrine), and at the level of social uses and legal conscientiousness that persons have of their rights; 2) a better respect of the rights of the vulnerable elders implies a new delimitation of the concept of legal capacity leaning towards a procedural comprehension of the decision-making processes leading to the opening of the protection regimes, the limitation of fundamental rights and the legal imposition of care and services. To test these hypothesis, the project will be based on an interdisciplinary scientific program implying an ethnographic approach of the difficulties met by the actors, a theoretical analysis of the anthropo-legal concept of capacity, and an analysis of comparative law.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-RRRP-0001
    Funder Contribution: 196,450 EUR

    The aim of this project is to examine a broad set of inequalities over the last five decades in a coherent framework across the major economies of North America and Europe. This project will provide a major source for comparative research on inequality trends and will be a key element of the Deaton Review of Inequalities. The focus will be on inequalities in employment, human capital, earnings and family income during working life. There are 17 country-based research teams involved with extensive experience in the analysis of survey and administrative micro-data sources and leading expertise in the measurement of inequality. Each team is responsible for their country-specific data, which will draw from both major household surveys and administrative records, but all analyses are coordinated across countries to provide harmonious treatment of variable definition and estimation. The first part of each study will describe inequalities in the key economic and social variables including measures of income, earnings, consumption, wealth inequalities, and to decompose these by age, education, gender, race, ethnicity and demographic group. The second part of each study will allow the country authors to highlight the key inequality issues in their country, the policy successes and the policy failures, including issues relating to COVID-19. For example, what pre-existing economic, geographical, racial or ethnic inequalities have been particularly highlighted by COVID-19? Is the pandemic making them worse or better? Are there new inequalities that COVID-19 had made important? The results of the 17 country reports will be synthesized in a series of jointly-authored papers highlighting key differences and commonalities across the economies on outcomes and policy responses.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-13-JCLI-0001
    Funder Contribution: 448,745 EUR

    Three teams of diverse natural and social scientist will engage in a collaborative regional case study set in the arid region of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The partners will work closely with the civil society organizations in the region as well as the entities that manage water, giving particular focus to the community values and economic circumstance that influence water related decisions. Interviews with the leaders and managers of these entities will assist the partners in translating mental models to graphically portray the impacts of drought on social-economical systems. The partners will characterize the water balances, flows, and allocation in key sub-watersheds of the region by identifying current and historical influences on the system’s network. This research will be coupled with GCM based rainfall pattern research to develop new analytical perspectives that ascribe additional value to forecasts that build system intelligence. The partners, in collaboration with local leaders and managers, will ultimately create sets of alternative actions that could build specific kinds of resilience in water-oriented SES. The proposed project would provide a fuller characterization of relevant SES dynamics, including effects of external drivers and multiple scales of governance. It would create a deeper understanding of the biophysical and social processes affecting these systems, of the benefits affected by these processes, and how these processes are addressed in regulatory and water allocation. It would produce a more appropriate representation of the complexity and uncertainty within SES in conceptual and methodological terms, which will contribute to improved decision processes that generate better alternatives and greater insight for decision-making at multiple scales. Civil society organizations will play an important role in project design. The research teams will be managed by the leading PI and will meet regularly to discuss progress, and will have close contact with civil society organizations throughout the project.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-18-PRIM-0015
    Funder Contribution: 1,451,810 EUR

    The objective of this project is to develop efficient bio-intervention strategies, enhanced process criteria, monitoring and sampling schemes, and an easy-to-use food safety decision support IT tool for participating artisanal food producers, aiming to the reduction and control of food-borne pathogens in 15 artisanal fermented foods of meat or dairy origin produced in Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria. The project will be developed through an integrated risk-based approach sustained by the concepts of (i) extensive tracking surveys in the artisanal food chains, in order to identify origin, routes of contamination, risk factors favouring pathogens’ survival, and technological causes for lack of homogeneity in the quality/safety of end-products; (ii) bio-preservation, whereby functional starter cultures and natural antimicrobial extracts will be assessed as extra hurdles to ensure safety and extend shelf-life, hence reducing chemical preservatives and waste; (iii) fate studies of pathogens, and (iv) dynamic modelling, in order to mathematically describe the growth and survival kinetics of pathogens, as affected by the food’s intrinsic properties and the enhanced manufacture variants (i.e., biopreservatives and alternative process variables); and (v) risk process modelling, for the delineation of the most effective bio-interventions, optimisation of process variables and norms/standards, and design of quality monitoring tools. A safety decision support IT tool, assembling all project’s outputs, will be developed to enable artisanal producers to assess the lethality of traditional and biopreservation-based manufacturing processes, and generate sampling schemes and control charts upon their current and target safety levels. The implementation of bio-interventions and optimised process criteria will ensure safety and quality standardisation of artisanal foods; preventing food crisis, loss of trust and facilitating international trade.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0005
    Funder Contribution: 242,731 EUR

    Our project belongs to the theme of public policies and social innovations facing demographic changes and targets two sub-themes: the transformation of public services and the specificities concerning the provision of public services at the local level. Throughout Europe and Canada, the proportion of older adults will significantly increase in the future. This population is heterogeneous along social (socio-economic inequalities), familial (differentiated networks of potential caregivers), and cultural (effect of migration dynamics) lines. This heterogeneity leads to important regional disparities within each country. As a result, local contexts affect various dimensions of services offered as well as the different types of support provided by caregivers. Consequently, adapting these services to a local population raises important horizontal equity issues since national policies usually aim to provide similar services throughout the entire territory. The main goal of our project is to study and compare social policies targeting older adults in France and Québec, and specifically analyse how social and medico-social services take into account local particularities. This requires identifying the appropriate geographical level of analysis and to reconstruct the demographic, social and migratory evolution of the territories. This project also studies policy changes that are triggered by these demographic changes at the local and national levels. In a nutshell, this project aims to construct a multidimensional “biography” of territory.

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48 Projects
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-19-FQSM-0004
    Funder Contribution: 308,238 EUR

    Estuarine and coastal ecosystems are essential for human activities, as they provide a wide variety of ecosystem services (ES). However, they are subject to increasing anthropogenic pressures incurred by coastal development, marine traffic, overexploitation of aquatic resources and diversification of tourism and recreational use. Accounting for these human-ecosystems interactions in land planning projects, in a comprehensive, holistic and integrated way, is still a challenge in decision-making. The “Cost to coast” research project aims at filling in the existing gaps in this integration and providing the missing elements that prevent the sustainable development of coastal/estuary territories, by using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and tools. “Cost to coast” project is divided into four inter-related research activities that will allow reaching four objectives. First, it aims at proposing a harmonized conceptual framework for the consistent assessment of ES at a territorial scale throughout a life cycle perspective. Second, it will develop a methodology to identify the “basket” of ES relevant to estuarine and coastal areas, which are shared by different stakeholders at a territorial scale (e.g. maritime freight and port activities, fishing, recreational-tourism, high value conservation area), by applying the conceptual framework initially developed. Third, it will create a new set of indicators to be applied in quantitative life cycle impact assessment methods (e.g. readily available to LCA practitioners for use within IMPACT World+), in order to quantify the potential loss/gain of aquatic ES (i.e. from coastal and sea use), in compliance with the conceptual framework developed. Finally, this project aims at applying the developed methodologies and set of indicators to characterize the human impacts on ES. The operationalization will be conducted on two case studies, i.e. the Thau lagoon, on the Mediterranean Sea coast, in France; and the St. Lawrence estuary, in Quebec (Canada) with a specific focus on the Lac Saint-Pierre. These two territories have different sets of ES, though the direct provision of resources with the presence of aquaculture, fishing and shellfish farming activities; as well as indirectly, through cultural services, such as those linked with recreation and cultural activities. The project is scheduled for 3 years and it combines the expertise of six different research teams from Québec and France, as an evidence of its multi- and inter-disciplinary character. The researchers and graduate students are involved in various fields of research and development, such as LCA (system analysis, impact assessment methodology development, LCA operationalization), ES quantification and valuation, marine ecology and biology, geography and economics. The project will deliver high qualification staff (4 PhD, 1 Postdoc and 3 MSc students), scientific papers and communications. Lastly, the “Cost to coast” project pays attention to serving and better informing the decision-making process. For that, tools, documentation, and other project deliverables will be made available to territorial stakeholders and to the lay public, in simple wording and, at the same time, to the LCA community (i.e., practitioners and researchers) in order to ease and sustain its use.

    more_vert
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-13-PRGE-0011
    Funder Contribution: 605,563 EUR

    This project addresses the point 4.2 of the call for proposal, dedicated to electrochemical capacitors (ECs) so called supercapacitors or ultracapacitors. This point mentions that : « A major effort of research must focus on improving the energy density, including implementation of new organic electrolytes to increase the electrochemical window and security. Asymmetric or hybrid systems are other avenues to explore.”.Our goal is to double the energy density of nowadays symmetrical carbon ECs, i.e from 5 to 10 Wh/kg or 7 to 15 Wh/L. Unlike most of todays research efforts which aim at replacing carbon by other materials (oxides, nitrides, etc...), thus leading to drastic changes in fabrication process, we propose to keep the carbon electrode and simply add electroactive molecules that will be anchored at the surface of carbon, thus adding a faradic component to the double layer capacitance of carbon. This concept is not new since it has been developed for more than 5 years by the partners of this consortium as well as by other teams. However, most of the work has been done in aqueous based electrolytes. The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is at stage 2 (Invention begins, practical applications can be invented, applications are speculative). Our goal is to apply the current knowledge to the development of devices in organic based electrolytes, and to push TRL level to stage 4 (Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together), being able at the end of the project to give prototype cells to companies for initiating stage 5 of TRL (Component validation in relevant environment). Subsequently the present project is dedicated to technological developments. We want to improve the energy density of carbon-based devices in organic electrolyte by two fold. This will be achieved by keeping the same cell voltage (or slightly increasing it), almost the same double layer capacitance (EDLC) of carbon electrodes but providing an extra Faradaic capacity (and not capacitance since it is purely Faradaic) to both carbon electrodes by functionalizing the surface of carbon with judiciously chosen electroactive molecules. This concept has been successfully applied to aqueous based electrolyte using quinone based functionalized carbons. The choice of the electroactive molecules (multi-electron processes are preferred to single electron process, low molecular weight is needed, adequate active electrochemical window…), the choice of the carbon (large surface area, adequate porosity not too much affected by molecular grafting on the surface, etc…), the interaction between the molecules and carbon powder (high grafting yield, etc..) and finally the behavior of modified carbon electrodes in different organic (or ionic liquid) based electrolytes are the key points that control the final performance of the modified carbon electrodes. These requirements correspond to the 5 tasks of the project. Doubling the energy density must be achieved while keeping high power capability and long term cycling efficiency which are the bottlenecks of the proposed technology. For this purpose, a consortium gathering 4 academic laboratories (including a Canadian partner) has been set up. The 4 labs have been working together for more than 12 years with more than 30 common papers and communications and already 5 common PhD and post-docs. The consortium will take benefit from the belonging of the French labs to the French Network on Energy Storage (RS2E - http://www.energie-rs2e.com/fr) to get access to prototyping facilities to lead the concept to 1000F cells.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-NEUR-0002
    Funder Contribution: 199,800 EUR
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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-11-FRQU-0001
    Funder Contribution: 149,510 EUR

    The aim of the (New)AGE project is to compare the various forms of governance of education based on policies of accountability that have been implemented in France and Quebec for the last fifteen years. The global purpose is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the processes and conditions that influence the institutionalization and enactment of these new forms of governance and to propose a theoretical model to account for their expected or unexpected effects. In order to do this we will analyse the dynamics of policies of accountability in each educational system and the various national and local translations of international doctrines such as Accountability and New Public Management. The research has three main objectives. 1.Understanding and comparing the trajectory of policies of accountability in each society and the forms of governance implemented in each educational system beyond the diffusion of the transnational models that inspired them. 2.Analysing and comparing at various levels (national, regional, local) the role of actors and organisations in the reception, the recontextualisation and the appropriation of these policies. This objective is related to our hypothesis concerning the fact that the legitimacy and concrete configurations of accountability policies are strongly dependant on these processes of mediation. 3.Analysing and comparing the effects of the various policy tools and instruments (indicators, plans, contracts) used for implementation and of the ways in which they are used on the effectiveness and the legitimacy of these new policies. These objectives require a specific and pluralist theoretical framework -that of a sociology of public action in education- which borrows theories and concepts from sociology (sociology of education, of regulation, of organisations, of professions and of knowledge), policy analysis in political science (research on policy tools, governance theories, State theory) and education (testing, evaluation and measurement in education, teachers' professional identities). The research is based on qualitative methods of analysis: semi-directive interviews with about 200 actors of the educational systems of the two countries, analysis of official documents and professional literature, exploitation of the dispatches from a press agency that specialises in the education sector (for France) and analysis of internal documents from various organisations. Some common tools will be defined to conduct the research such as common grids for interviews. The research will address several levels of analysis: international (through a literature review), national, regional and local. In each system, three areas have been selected for our field investigations (three “commissions scolaires” in Quebec and three “académies” in France) according to various criteria (institutional design, results and performances, degree of involvement in a policy of accountability, accessibility and feasibility of the research) to allow us to analyze different significant situations. In each area, a more in-depth analysis of a small number of schools will be conducted. The research will be conducted by five French and five Quebecois researchers from the CRIFPE (University of Montréal) and the OSC (CNRS, Sciences Po). Two technical assistants will also participate in the study conducted by the French team.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-20-EBI5-0003
    Funder Contribution: 299,695 EUR

    Forest landscape restoration and afforestation have recently received much international attention as a crucial opportunity for mitigating climate change (CC). Therefore, it features prominently in many political initiatives such as the EU Green Deal and the Bonn Challenge. Yet, the ongoing increase in biotic and abiotic stress driven by CC puts forests under threat. In the face of CC, adaptation and mitigation by forests are ultimately linked, because the ability of forests to sequester carbon (C) in the long run depends on the ability of trees to cope with multiple stresses. A growing body of evidence suggests that mixed forest plantations, i.e., plantations where several tree species are mixed, are more efficient in sequestrating C, while better coping with CC-related stress. Mixed plantations thus represent an opportunity for an important nature-based solution for CC mitigation and adaptation. However, monocultures still dominate the world?s forest plantations. The reasons for the apparent resistance to mixed plantations among landowners and stakeholders need to be identified and addressed in future forest policies to promote the large-scale expansion of more CC-resilient mixed forest plantations. One of the possible factors that may have prevented the expansion of mixed plantations at large scales is insufficient scientific evidence for practitioners and policy-makers. Using a global network of forest biodiversity experiments (TreeDivNet), we will provide a mechanistic understanding of how tree diversity, species identities and management (thinning and fertilization) influence both the potential of mixed forest plantations to mitigate (C sequestration) and adapt (drought and herbivory resilience) to CC, in a win-win approach. In addition, we will translate this knowledge into guidelines that can be widely adopted by practitioners and policy-makers. The TreeDivNet network comprises 26 experiments spread across the globe, with ca. 1.2M planted trees. All these experiments were based on a common, statistically sound design that allows detection of causal relationships between tree diversity, management and forest ecosystem functioning (incl. C sequestration). The functional and mechanistic focus of MixForChange and the contrasting environmental contexts embedded in the network will allow us to scale-up our findings beyond case studies to provide evidence-based guidelines for mixed plantation management in a broad range of environments. Moreover, MixForChange will analyse in a common framework, and at unprecedented scale, synergies and trade-offs between the CC mitigation and adaptation potential of mixed plantations and the fulfilment of stakeholders? objectives. The societal impact of MixForChange will be ensured by a strong focus on knowledge transfer and capacity-building at all levels of management and governance. MixForChange will make an important contribution to promoting mixed forest plantations as nature-based solutions to fight CC.

    more_vert
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0008
    Funder Contribution: 224,640 EUR

    We assist today to an increase of the ageing population (in France and in Quebec, ? of the population will have more than 60 years in 2050) along with a risk of vulnerabilisation of elderly people. To cope with this demographic challenge, States have set up legal mechanisms of protection as well as socio-medical services. These mechanisms and services rest on social rights that need to be activated. The access to these rights is rendered difficult when the cognitive vulnerability of the elders weakens their capacity to exercise their rights and to put forward their interests. This creates a series of situations in which the respect of their fundamental rights is endangered, in spite of or because of the recourse to these legal mechanisms of protection. The increase in the recourse to these mechanisms poses various types of problems, the more so as their legal foundation is disputed today. The need assessment for protection rests on dubious criteria; the control of the decisions taken and of the actions conducted for the person by others remains scarce; the respect of the preferences of the person is difficult to realize. This poses the problem of the access to their rights by the persons with cognitive vulnerability. Project ACSEDROITS will assess whether the current legal tools and their social uses in France and in Quebec make it possible to solve or on the contrary contribute to worsen the difficulties of access to their rights by the elders with cognitive vulnerability. It will be articulated around two hypothesis: 1) the difficulties of access to the rights are reinforced by the lack of communication between social and civil rights, at the legal level (legislation, case law and doctrine), and at the level of social uses and legal conscientiousness that persons have of their rights; 2) a better respect of the rights of the vulnerable elders implies a new delimitation of the concept of legal capacity leaning towards a procedural comprehension of the decision-making processes leading to the opening of the protection regimes, the limitation of fundamental rights and the legal imposition of care and services. To test these hypothesis, the project will be based on an interdisciplinary scientific program implying an ethnographic approach of the difficulties met by the actors, a theoretical analysis of the anthropo-legal concept of capacity, and an analysis of comparative law.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-22-RRRP-0001
    Funder Contribution: 196,450 EUR

    The aim of this project is to examine a broad set of inequalities over the last five decades in a coherent framework across the major economies of North America and Europe. This project will provide a major source for comparative research on inequality trends and will be a key element of the Deaton Review of Inequalities. The focus will be on inequalities in employment, human capital, earnings and family income during working life. There are 17 country-based research teams involved with extensive experience in the analysis of survey and administrative micro-data sources and leading expertise in the measurement of inequality. Each team is responsible for their country-specific data, which will draw from both major household surveys and administrative records, but all analyses are coordinated across countries to provide harmonious treatment of variable definition and estimation. The first part of each study will describe inequalities in the key economic and social variables including measures of income, earnings, consumption, wealth inequalities, and to decompose these by age, education, gender, race, ethnicity and demographic group. The second part of each study will allow the country authors to highlight the key inequality issues in their country, the policy successes and the policy failures, including issues relating to COVID-19. For example, what pre-existing economic, geographical, racial or ethnic inequalities have been particularly highlighted by COVID-19? Is the pandemic making them worse or better? Are there new inequalities that COVID-19 had made important? The results of the 17 country reports will be synthesized in a series of jointly-authored papers highlighting key differences and commonalities across the economies on outcomes and policy responses.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-13-JCLI-0001
    Funder Contribution: 448,745 EUR

    Three teams of diverse natural and social scientist will engage in a collaborative regional case study set in the arid region of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The partners will work closely with the civil society organizations in the region as well as the entities that manage water, giving particular focus to the community values and economic circumstance that influence water related decisions. Interviews with the leaders and managers of these entities will assist the partners in translating mental models to graphically portray the impacts of drought on social-economical systems. The partners will characterize the water balances, flows, and allocation in key sub-watersheds of the region by identifying current and historical influences on the system’s network. This research will be coupled with GCM based rainfall pattern research to develop new analytical perspectives that ascribe additional value to forecasts that build system intelligence. The partners, in collaboration with local leaders and managers, will ultimately create sets of alternative actions that could build specific kinds of resilience in water-oriented SES. The proposed project would provide a fuller characterization of relevant SES dynamics, including effects of external drivers and multiple scales of governance. It would create a deeper understanding of the biophysical and social processes affecting these systems, of the benefits affected by these processes, and how these processes are addressed in regulatory and water allocation. It would produce a more appropriate representation of the complexity and uncertainty within SES in conceptual and methodological terms, which will contribute to improved decision processes that generate better alternatives and greater insight for decision-making at multiple scales. Civil society organizations will play an important role in project design. The research teams will be managed by the leading PI and will meet regularly to discuss progress, and will have close contact with civil society organizations throughout the project.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-18-PRIM-0015
    Funder Contribution: 1,451,810 EUR

    The objective of this project is to develop efficient bio-intervention strategies, enhanced process criteria, monitoring and sampling schemes, and an easy-to-use food safety decision support IT tool for participating artisanal food producers, aiming to the reduction and control of food-borne pathogens in 15 artisanal fermented foods of meat or dairy origin produced in Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria. The project will be developed through an integrated risk-based approach sustained by the concepts of (i) extensive tracking surveys in the artisanal food chains, in order to identify origin, routes of contamination, risk factors favouring pathogens’ survival, and technological causes for lack of homogeneity in the quality/safety of end-products; (ii) bio-preservation, whereby functional starter cultures and natural antimicrobial extracts will be assessed as extra hurdles to ensure safety and extend shelf-life, hence reducing chemical preservatives and waste; (iii) fate studies of pathogens, and (iv) dynamic modelling, in order to mathematically describe the growth and survival kinetics of pathogens, as affected by the food’s intrinsic properties and the enhanced manufacture variants (i.e., biopreservatives and alternative process variables); and (v) risk process modelling, for the delineation of the most effective bio-interventions, optimisation of process variables and norms/standards, and design of quality monitoring tools. A safety decision support IT tool, assembling all project’s outputs, will be developed to enable artisanal producers to assess the lethality of traditional and biopreservation-based manufacturing processes, and generate sampling schemes and control charts upon their current and target safety levels. The implementation of bio-interventions and optimised process criteria will ensure safety and quality standardisation of artisanal foods; preventing food crisis, loss of trust and facilitating international trade.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-16-FRQC-0005
    Funder Contribution: 242,731 EUR

    Our project belongs to the theme of public policies and social innovations facing demographic changes and targets two sub-themes: the transformation of public services and the specificities concerning the provision of public services at the local level. Throughout Europe and Canada, the proportion of older adults will significantly increase in the future. This population is heterogeneous along social (socio-economic inequalities), familial (differentiated networks of potential caregivers), and cultural (effect of migration dynamics) lines. This heterogeneity leads to important regional disparities within each country. As a result, local contexts affect various dimensions of services offered as well as the different types of support provided by caregivers. Consequently, adapting these services to a local population raises important horizontal equity issues since national policies usually aim to provide similar services throughout the entire territory. The main goal of our project is to study and compare social policies targeting older adults in France and Québec, and specifically analyse how social and medico-social services take into account local particularities. This requires identifying the appropriate geographical level of analysis and to reconstruct the demographic, social and migratory evolution of the territories. This project also studies policy changes that are triggered by these demographic changes at the local and national levels. In a nutshell, this project aims to construct a multidimensional “biography” of territory.

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