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14 Projects, page 2 of 2

  • Canada
  • UK Research and Innovation
  • 2026

10
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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/S00579X/1
    Funder Contribution: 1,245,810 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, CNR, UH, AU, University of Birmingham, ENEA, Stockholm University, Korea Polar Research Institute, Faroe Island Environment Agency, CAS...

    Shipping is the largest means of moving freight globally. Ships consume dirty fuels, making them one of the most important sources of anthropogenic aerosol in the marine atmosphere. Aerosols from shipping can affect the climate directly through absorption and scattering of radiation, with an overall cooling effect to the atmosphere. They can also indirectly influence the climate by changing cloud properties, e.g., albedo and lifetime, which further cools the atmosphere. Two key challenges for assessing future climate impact of shipping emission are (i) knowing the status of the present-day aerosol system - as a baseline from which any climate predictions are made and (ii) quantifying the amount of pollutants emitted. Currently little consensus exists on the impact of shipping emissions in the Arctic and North Atlantic Atmosphere (ANAA) primarily due to a lack of observations and insufficient model skills. Recent modelling work suggests that the Arctic aerosol baseline should account for a disparate range of natural sources. Few models are sufficiently comprehensive, and while some models can reproduce aerosol in some Arctic regions, there is evidence that models can produce similar results via different sources and processes. An inability to reflect the aerosol baseline processes can have significant impact on the reliability of future climate projections. Shipping is also undergoing significant changes. In January 2020, a new International Maritime Organisation (IMO) regulation comes into force, which reduces, by more than 80%, the sulphur content in maritime fuel oils. Superimposed on that, recent climate induced changes in Arctic sea ice are opening up new seaways enabling shorter sea passages between key markets. Significant growth in shipping via the North West Passage (NWP) is anticipated in the coming years. Thus, there is a short window of opportunity to define current atmospheric conditions, against which the impact of these changes must be determined. SEANA will take advantage of the above-mentioned opportunity to make multiple atmospheric measurements over multiple platforms to understand the present-day baselines - sources of aerosol particles including the contribution from shipping - and to determine the response of ANAA aerosol to new fuel standards after 2020. Extended measurements will be conducted at two stations adjacent to the NWP enabling the source of particles to be apportioned using receptor modelling approaches. In addition, SEANA will participate in a Korean cruise to the west side of the NWP, and a NERC cruise to the east, to measure both natural and anthropogenic particles and aerosol processes in two contrasting Arctic environments. These new observations will be integrated with recent / ongoing measurements at partner ANAA stations to generate a benchmark dataset on aerosol baseline in ANAA to constrain processes in the UK's leading global aerosol model, ensuring that the model is reproducing the baseline aerosol in the ANAA faithfully. We will then test the models' response to significant reductions in shipping sulphur emissions using observations taken during the transition to low-sulphur fuels in 2020. The revised model, which can reproduce current "baselines" and accurately predict the response of emission changes in the ANAA, will then be used to predict the future impact of shipping on air quality, clouds and radiative forcing under multiple sea-ice and shipping scenarios. SEANA will deliver a major enhancement of UK's national capacity in capturing baseline ANAA aerosol and responses to emission regulations, results of which will inform shipping policy at high-latitudes.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V000748/1
    Funder Contribution: 617,995 GBP
    Partners: UI, University of Leicester, University of Saskatchewan

    At near-noon local times, at locations in the high arctic near 80 degrees North and South, the magnetic fields which originate in the conducting core of our planet extend upwards and are magnetically connected to the dayside magnetopause. This subsolar magnetopause is the point where the magnetic field of the Earth first touches the highly supersonic solar wind flow, and the interplanetary magnetic field of solar origin which is embedded in it. This creates the magnetospheric cusps, which are the primary entry points for energy of solar wind origin into the regions of space controlled by the terrestrial magnetic field, and the atmospheric regions which underlie them. This energy transfer occurs through a process called magnetic reconnection. As such, this crucial region of near-Earth space is fundamental to understanding the flow of energy, mass and momentum throughout the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and upper atmosphere, and hence in our understanding of "space weather". The magnetospheric cusps are longstanding areas of research interest, but their highly variable nature, in both space and time, makes them a highly challenging region to fully understand. Here we describe a multi-instrument research programme based around an exciting new NASA space mission, TRACERS, due for launch in late 2022, on which the proposal PI is a named collaborator. The TRACERS programme relies on coordination with ground-based instrumentation. Of particular interest for TRACERS is the Svalbard region, an area of the high arctic uniquely well instrumented with, for example, numerous optical instruments and the NERC-funded EISCAT Svalbard radar. Around northern winter solstice Svalbard is in darkness at noon, and for ~10 days the moon is below the horizon. Such conditions offer a unique opportunity for multi-instrument cusp experiments involving cusp auroral optical observations. Our multi-instrument research programme requires the construction and deployment of a new state-of-the art digital imaging radar system, the Hankasalmi auroral imaging radar system (HAIRS). HAIRS will look northwards from Hankasalmi in Finland, having a field of view centred over the Svalbard region, revealing the ionospheric cusp region electrodynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution over a ~1 million square kilometre region of the ionosphere. In this programme, low earth orbit measurements of energetic ions precipitating from the cusp region taken by the twin TRACERS spacecraft will provide measurements of the temporal and spatial structuring of the cusp reconnection processes. Magnetically conjugate measurements of the footprint of the reconnection line from HAIRS and associated ground-based instrumentation, will measure the length and the location of the reconnection line. HAIRS will provide an analysis of the boundary motion, and of the convection velocities detected near the boundary, allowing a calculation of the reconnection rate mapped down to the ionosphere. Such a combination of instrumentation will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the temporal and spatial behaviour of cusp reconnection and its role in controlling terrestrial space weather. Outside of the science programme described here, HAIRS will offer vital complementary datasets to support the upcoming NERC-funded EISCAT 3D radar system at lower latitudes in Scandinavia, coming on stream in 2021 which will also lie in the HAIRS field of view. HAIRS will also directly complement the Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE), launching in 2023, a joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The innovative SMILE wide-field Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), provided by the UK Space Agency and other European institutions, will obtain unique measurements of the regions where the solar wind impacts the magnetosphere, regions which are directly magnetically connected to the area under study in this programme.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/X034429/1
    Funder Contribution: 262,232 GBP
    Partners: UBC, QMUL

    High entropy oxides (HEOs) are a new class of advanced materials composed of 5 or more elements in an entropy stabilized oxide. The random distribution of metal ions on an otherwise crystal lattice give them unique properties, and they are only stable at high temperatures. They have a range of important properties both theoretically and in real world applications, including high ionic conductivities, coupled with high dielectric constants, interesting mechanical properties and low thermal conductivities that approach the fundamental amorphous limit. The goal of this project will be to use computational modelling to understand the physics of HEOs at the fundamental level and use that knowledge to design materials for important future applications. The complexity of the structures and novelty of the materials makes them a rich topic of research for theorists and computational scientists. However, the compositional and configurational space of HEOs is gigantic and this complexity requires sophisticated modelling of interatomic interactions. A new class of machine learning interatomic potentials (MLIPs) are uniquely suited for this purpose. The main aims of this proposal are therefore twofold. The first is to develop computational and theoretical techniques to understand the fundamental principles of thermodynamic stability in HEOs and how the effects of different forms of compositional, structural and defect-based disorder can be used to design and predict new materials through the parameterization of MLIPs. The second is to take these atomistic structures and model the physics of thermal transport in high entropy oxides which straddle the regimes between crystalline and amorphous materials. Through collaboration between experiment and theory new materials will be atomistically designed to guide industrial applications and manufacturing.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/X005267/1
    Funder Contribution: 1,376,230 GBP
    Partners: CAS, IITR, National Institute of Hydrology, Swiss Re, University of Saskatchewan, Indian Inst of Technology Kharagpur, Universität Innsbruck, NERC British Antarctic Survey

    The world's mountains store and release frozen water when it is most valuable, as summer meltwater in the growing season. This service is an extraordinary generator of wealth and well-being, sustaining a sixth of the global population and a quarter of global GDP, but is highly vulnerable to climate change. Over the next 30 years, the Alps, Western North America, Himalayas and Andes will lose 10-40% of their snow, hundreds of cubic kilometres of summer water supply, and by end of century, mountain glaciers will lose 20-60% of their ice. To map our mountain water resources and predict their future, we must rely on models of snowfall, seasonal snowpacks, glacier gains and losses, and river runoff. The skill of these models is, however, fundamentally limited by the quality and availability of observations needed to test and develop them, and the mountain cryosphere is so large, varied and inhospitable that we lack many of these key observations. In most mountain ranges, snowfall is underestimated by 50-100%, and weather records are too short to have captured a history of their climate extremes. The thickness of only 6 of 41,000 glaciers has been surveyed in the Himalayan headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Ganges basins, so the lifespan of a water resource used by 800 million people remains unpredictable. This project aims to fill four of the key observation gaps: 1) snowfall, 2) glacier thickness, 3) runoff, and 4) weather extremes, by taking a targeted approach to provide not blanket coverage of the mountain cryosphere but carefully-selected datasets designed to test and improve model skill. Importantly, through the calibration and refinement of relevant model processes at these target sites we can eliminate gross biases and reduce uncertainties in model outputs that can then apply not just locally but across all model scales, in the past, present and future. We will make new snowfall observations with a pioneering method that, for the first time, makes unbiased measurements over areas thousands to billions of times larger than rain gauges, and use these to test and improve snowfall models that are run worldwide. To capture and understand the extremes of mountain precipitation, we will extend the decades-long instrumental record back by centuries to millennia by identifying the signals of wet and dry years preserved in high, undisturbed Himalayan-lake sediments that we will core and analyse at very high resolution. In parallel, we will use a recently acquired and uniquely extensive glacier survey from Nepal to improve glacier-thickness models on the mountain-range scale. We will use our new snowfall maps and projections to drive detailed models of snowpack and glacier evolution over the 21st century for two targeted catchments in the Alps and Himalayas. We will apply our models to our glacier thickness maps to determine how long these glaciers will survive under a changing climate, how much meltwater will flow into their catchments and how this will change. We will test the performance of our models against cutting-edge new flux and hydrochemistry observations of the contribution of different water sources to downstream river flow. Finally, we will determine which climate factors affect the frequency and severity of extreme wet and dry years for the two catchments, and how these events are likely to change through the 21st century. Together, our targeted, data-driven modelling advances will demonstrably improve our ability to quantify how much seasonal snow accumulates in the mountain cryosphere and predict how it will change in the future, what the timescales and potential trajectories for change are for glacier-ice resources, how frequently dry and wet years occur, what climate factors cause this, and how these extremes will change. By making the mountain cryosphere more predictable, we will support societies in managing change in this critical but vulnerable water resource.

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
14 Projects, page 2 of 2
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/S00579X/1
    Funder Contribution: 1,245,810 GBP
    Partners: University of Toronto, CNR, UH, AU, University of Birmingham, ENEA, Stockholm University, Korea Polar Research Institute, Faroe Island Environment Agency, CAS...

    Shipping is the largest means of moving freight globally. Ships consume dirty fuels, making them one of the most important sources of anthropogenic aerosol in the marine atmosphere. Aerosols from shipping can affect the climate directly through absorption and scattering of radiation, with an overall cooling effect to the atmosphere. They can also indirectly influence the climate by changing cloud properties, e.g., albedo and lifetime, which further cools the atmosphere. Two key challenges for assessing future climate impact of shipping emission are (i) knowing the status of the present-day aerosol system - as a baseline from which any climate predictions are made and (ii) quantifying the amount of pollutants emitted. Currently little consensus exists on the impact of shipping emissions in the Arctic and North Atlantic Atmosphere (ANAA) primarily due to a lack of observations and insufficient model skills. Recent modelling work suggests that the Arctic aerosol baseline should account for a disparate range of natural sources. Few models are sufficiently comprehensive, and while some models can reproduce aerosol in some Arctic regions, there is evidence that models can produce similar results via different sources and processes. An inability to reflect the aerosol baseline processes can have significant impact on the reliability of future climate projections. Shipping is also undergoing significant changes. In January 2020, a new International Maritime Organisation (IMO) regulation comes into force, which reduces, by more than 80%, the sulphur content in maritime fuel oils. Superimposed on that, recent climate induced changes in Arctic sea ice are opening up new seaways enabling shorter sea passages between key markets. Significant growth in shipping via the North West Passage (NWP) is anticipated in the coming years. Thus, there is a short window of opportunity to define current atmospheric conditions, against which the impact of these changes must be determined. SEANA will take advantage of the above-mentioned opportunity to make multiple atmospheric measurements over multiple platforms to understand the present-day baselines - sources of aerosol particles including the contribution from shipping - and to determine the response of ANAA aerosol to new fuel standards after 2020. Extended measurements will be conducted at two stations adjacent to the NWP enabling the source of particles to be apportioned using receptor modelling approaches. In addition, SEANA will participate in a Korean cruise to the west side of the NWP, and a NERC cruise to the east, to measure both natural and anthropogenic particles and aerosol processes in two contrasting Arctic environments. These new observations will be integrated with recent / ongoing measurements at partner ANAA stations to generate a benchmark dataset on aerosol baseline in ANAA to constrain processes in the UK's leading global aerosol model, ensuring that the model is reproducing the baseline aerosol in the ANAA faithfully. We will then test the models' response to significant reductions in shipping sulphur emissions using observations taken during the transition to low-sulphur fuels in 2020. The revised model, which can reproduce current "baselines" and accurately predict the response of emission changes in the ANAA, will then be used to predict the future impact of shipping on air quality, clouds and radiative forcing under multiple sea-ice and shipping scenarios. SEANA will deliver a major enhancement of UK's national capacity in capturing baseline ANAA aerosol and responses to emission regulations, results of which will inform shipping policy at high-latitudes.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/V000748/1
    Funder Contribution: 617,995 GBP
    Partners: UI, University of Leicester, University of Saskatchewan

    At near-noon local times, at locations in the high arctic near 80 degrees North and South, the magnetic fields which originate in the conducting core of our planet extend upwards and are magnetically connected to the dayside magnetopause. This subsolar magnetopause is the point where the magnetic field of the Earth first touches the highly supersonic solar wind flow, and the interplanetary magnetic field of solar origin which is embedded in it. This creates the magnetospheric cusps, which are the primary entry points for energy of solar wind origin into the regions of space controlled by the terrestrial magnetic field, and the atmospheric regions which underlie them. This energy transfer occurs through a process called magnetic reconnection. As such, this crucial region of near-Earth space is fundamental to understanding the flow of energy, mass and momentum throughout the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and upper atmosphere, and hence in our understanding of "space weather". The magnetospheric cusps are longstanding areas of research interest, but their highly variable nature, in both space and time, makes them a highly challenging region to fully understand. Here we describe a multi-instrument research programme based around an exciting new NASA space mission, TRACERS, due for launch in late 2022, on which the proposal PI is a named collaborator. The TRACERS programme relies on coordination with ground-based instrumentation. Of particular interest for TRACERS is the Svalbard region, an area of the high arctic uniquely well instrumented with, for example, numerous optical instruments and the NERC-funded EISCAT Svalbard radar. Around northern winter solstice Svalbard is in darkness at noon, and for ~10 days the moon is below the horizon. Such conditions offer a unique opportunity for multi-instrument cusp experiments involving cusp auroral optical observations. Our multi-instrument research programme requires the construction and deployment of a new state-of-the art digital imaging radar system, the Hankasalmi auroral imaging radar system (HAIRS). HAIRS will look northwards from Hankasalmi in Finland, having a field of view centred over the Svalbard region, revealing the ionospheric cusp region electrodynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution over a ~1 million square kilometre region of the ionosphere. In this programme, low earth orbit measurements of energetic ions precipitating from the cusp region taken by the twin TRACERS spacecraft will provide measurements of the temporal and spatial structuring of the cusp reconnection processes. Magnetically conjugate measurements of the footprint of the reconnection line from HAIRS and associated ground-based instrumentation, will measure the length and the location of the reconnection line. HAIRS will provide an analysis of the boundary motion, and of the convection velocities detected near the boundary, allowing a calculation of the reconnection rate mapped down to the ionosphere. Such a combination of instrumentation will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the temporal and spatial behaviour of cusp reconnection and its role in controlling terrestrial space weather. Outside of the science programme described here, HAIRS will offer vital complementary datasets to support the upcoming NERC-funded EISCAT 3D radar system at lower latitudes in Scandinavia, coming on stream in 2021 which will also lie in the HAIRS field of view. HAIRS will also directly complement the Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE), launching in 2023, a joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The innovative SMILE wide-field Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), provided by the UK Space Agency and other European institutions, will obtain unique measurements of the regions where the solar wind impacts the magnetosphere, regions which are directly magnetically connected to the area under study in this programme.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/X034429/1
    Funder Contribution: 262,232 GBP
    Partners: UBC, QMUL

    High entropy oxides (HEOs) are a new class of advanced materials composed of 5 or more elements in an entropy stabilized oxide. The random distribution of metal ions on an otherwise crystal lattice give them unique properties, and they are only stable at high temperatures. They have a range of important properties both theoretically and in real world applications, including high ionic conductivities, coupled with high dielectric constants, interesting mechanical properties and low thermal conductivities that approach the fundamental amorphous limit. The goal of this project will be to use computational modelling to understand the physics of HEOs at the fundamental level and use that knowledge to design materials for important future applications. The complexity of the structures and novelty of the materials makes them a rich topic of research for theorists and computational scientists. However, the compositional and configurational space of HEOs is gigantic and this complexity requires sophisticated modelling of interatomic interactions. A new class of machine learning interatomic potentials (MLIPs) are uniquely suited for this purpose. The main aims of this proposal are therefore twofold. The first is to develop computational and theoretical techniques to understand the fundamental principles of thermodynamic stability in HEOs and how the effects of different forms of compositional, structural and defect-based disorder can be used to design and predict new materials through the parameterization of MLIPs. The second is to take these atomistic structures and model the physics of thermal transport in high entropy oxides which straddle the regimes between crystalline and amorphous materials. Through collaboration between experiment and theory new materials will be atomistically designed to guide industrial applications and manufacturing.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/X005267/1
    Funder Contribution: 1,376,230 GBP
    Partners: CAS, IITR, National Institute of Hydrology, Swiss Re, University of Saskatchewan, Indian Inst of Technology Kharagpur, Universität Innsbruck, NERC British Antarctic Survey

    The world's mountains store and release frozen water when it is most valuable, as summer meltwater in the growing season. This service is an extraordinary generator of wealth and well-being, sustaining a sixth of the global population and a quarter of global GDP, but is highly vulnerable to climate change. Over the next 30 years, the Alps, Western North America, Himalayas and Andes will lose 10-40% of their snow, hundreds of cubic kilometres of summer water supply, and by end of century, mountain glaciers will lose 20-60% of their ice. To map our mountain water resources and predict their future, we must rely on models of snowfall, seasonal snowpacks, glacier gains and losses, and river runoff. The skill of these models is, however, fundamentally limited by the quality and availability of observations needed to test and develop them, and the mountain cryosphere is so large, varied and inhospitable that we lack many of these key observations. In most mountain ranges, snowfall is underestimated by 50-100%, and weather records are too short to have captured a history of their climate extremes. The thickness of only 6 of 41,000 glaciers has been surveyed in the Himalayan headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Ganges basins, so the lifespan of a water resource used by 800 million people remains unpredictable. This project aims to fill four of the key observation gaps: 1) snowfall, 2) glacier thickness, 3) runoff, and 4) weather extremes, by taking a targeted approach to provide not blanket coverage of the mountain cryosphere but carefully-selected datasets designed to test and improve model skill. Importantly, through the calibration and refinement of relevant model processes at these target sites we can eliminate gross biases and reduce uncertainties in model outputs that can then apply not just locally but across all model scales, in the past, present and future. We will make new snowfall observations with a pioneering method that, for the first time, makes unbiased measurements over areas thousands to billions of times larger than rain gauges, and use these to test and improve snowfall models that are run worldwide. To capture and understand the extremes of mountain precipitation, we will extend the decades-long instrumental record back by centuries to millennia by identifying the signals of wet and dry years preserved in high, undisturbed Himalayan-lake sediments that we will core and analyse at very high resolution. In parallel, we will use a recently acquired and uniquely extensive glacier survey from Nepal to improve glacier-thickness models on the mountain-range scale. We will use our new snowfall maps and projections to drive detailed models of snowpack and glacier evolution over the 21st century for two targeted catchments in the Alps and Himalayas. We will apply our models to our glacier thickness maps to determine how long these glaciers will survive under a changing climate, how much meltwater will flow into their catchments and how this will change. We will test the performance of our models against cutting-edge new flux and hydrochemistry observations of the contribution of different water sources to downstream river flow. Finally, we will determine which climate factors affect the frequency and severity of extreme wet and dry years for the two catchments, and how these events are likely to change through the 21st century. Together, our targeted, data-driven modelling advances will demonstrably improve our ability to quantify how much seasonal snow accumulates in the mountain cryosphere and predict how it will change in the future, what the timescales and potential trajectories for change are for glacier-ice resources, how frequently dry and wet years occur, what climate factors cause this, and how these extremes will change. By making the mountain cryosphere more predictable, we will support societies in managing change in this critical but vulnerable water resource.