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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
62 Projects, page 1 of 7

  • Canada
  • 2013-2022
  • 2010

10
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  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 240837
    Partners: University of Nottingham, University of Regina, VATTENFALL, CO2 GeoNet, PPC, ENEL INGEGNERIA E RICERCA SPA, PML, SINTEF PETROLEUM AS, UNIPER TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED, STATOIL PETROLEUM...
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 258378
    Partners: UW, TP VISION EUROPE BV, UPMC, Technicolor (France), MARTEL GMBH, EURECOM, Telefonica Research and Development, TECHNICOLOR, TNO, POLITO...
  • Funder: NIH Project Code: 4R01DA028532-04
    Funder Contribution: 366,702 USD
    Partners: UBC
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 233758
    Partners: Valenciaport, Mobycon, Schenker AB, CSSA, TREDIT, Port of Cork, PTV PLANUNG TRANSPORT VERKEHR AG., SPC, K-NET S.A., UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN - UAEGEAN...
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 251186
    Partners: UNIGE, Stemcell Technologies, ENKAM PHARMACEUTICALS A/S, KLINIKUM DER UNIVERSITAET ZU KOELN, BIOT
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/H009914/1
    Funder Contribution: 360,717 GBP
    Partners: University of Cambridge, University of Regina, GSC

    Modern marine ecosystems were established during the early Palaeozoic radiations of animals, first the 'Cambrian Explosion' and then, some 50 million years later, in the 'Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.' By tracking the details of diversification through this critical interval, it should be possible to reconstruct not only the dynamics early animal evolution, but also the underlying effects of accruing ecological novelty. Unfortunately, the conventional fossil record represents only a fraction of ancient diversity, while famous 'soft-bodied' biotas such as the Burgess Shale are too rare to provide larger-scale patterns. I propose to circumvent these problems by exploiting a new, largely untapped source of palaeontological data: Burgess Shale-type microfossils. Like their macroscopic counterparts these fossils record the presence of non-biomineralizing organisms, but they also extend the view to include previously unrecorded forms and fine features. More significantly, they are proving to be quite common - to the extent that they can begin to be used to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Systematic analysis of Burgess Shale-type microfossils through the Middle to Late Cambrian will shed fundamental new light on early evolutionary patterns, not least the poorly known interval between the Cambrian and Ordovician radiations. By integrating this enhanced fossil record with the principles of biological oceanography and macroecology, this study will also provide a unique, evolutionary view of how modern marine ecosystems function. This study will focus on the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, which contains one of the largest, best preserved and most extensively sampled sequences of early Palaeozoic rocks on Earth. In addition to famously fossiliferous units exposed in the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt - including the Burgess Shale itself - strata extend eastwards for over 1000 km in the subsurface, where they have been penetrated by hundreds of petroleum exploration boreholes. These subsurface materials are housed in state-of-the-art storage facilities in Calgary, Alberta and Regina, Saskatchewan and offer a unique opportunity to sample systematically through the whole of the Middle-Late Cambrian, and across an expansive shallow-water platform into continental-margin environments exposed in the Rocky Mountains. Preliminary work in both subsurface and outcrop occurrences has identified an exquisite range of Burgess Shale-type microfossils. More comprehensive sampling and analysis will substantially advance our understanding of early Palaeozoic diversity, macroevolutionary patterns, and the co-evolution of ecosystem function and environments.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 251515
    Partners: UBC, INRIA, STRUCTURAL VIBRATIONS SOLUTIONS A/S
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 244706
    Partners: UH, IEO, SLU, Swedish National Board of Fisheries, Luke, Agrocampus Ouest, DFO, AUTH, FIN, Marine Institute...
  • Funder: NIH Project Code: 2R01DA028648-11
    Funder Contribution: 538,742 USD
    Partners: UBC
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/H017348/1
    Funder Contribution: 1,013,550 GBP
    Partners: BCCR, University of Liège, IOW, Dalhousie University, CAU, Institute for Oceanography Kiel, CEREGE, University of Southampton, Alfred Wegener Inst for Polar & Marine R, Marine Research Institution...

    The burning of fossil fuels is releasing vast quantities of extra carbon dioxide to the Earth's atmosphere. Much of this stays in the atmosphere, raising CO2 levels, but much also leaves the atmosphere after a time, either to become sequestered in trees and plants, or else to become absorbed in the oceans. CO2 staying in the atmosphere is a greenhouse gas, causing global warming; CO2 entering the sea makes it more acidic, and the ongoing acidification of seawater is seen in observational records at various sites where time-series data are collected. The changing chemistry of seawater due to ocean acidification is mostly well understood and not subject to debate. What is much less well known is the impact that the changing chemistry will have on marine organisms and ecosystems, on biogeochemical cycling in the sea, and on how the sea interacts with the atmosphere to influence climate. We will look to investigate these questions in terms of how the surface waters of the world's oceans, and the life within, will respond to ocean acidification. Most of what we know about biological impacts, and the source of the current concern about the impact on marine life, comes from experimental studies in which individual organisms (e.g. single corals) or mono-specific populations (e.g. plankton cultures) have been subjected to elevated CO2 (and the associated lower pH) in laboratory experiments. These laboratory experiments have the advantage of being performed under controlled conditions in which everything can be kept constant except for changes to CO2. So if a response is observed, then the cause is clear. However, there are also limitations to laboratory studies. For instance, organisms have no time to adapt evolutionarily, and there is no possibility of shifts in species composition away from more sensitive forms towards more acid-tolerant forms, as might be expected to occur in nature. Another shortcoming is the absence of food-web complexity in most experiments, and therefore the absence of competition, predation, and other interactions that determine the viability of organisms in the natural environment. We seek to advance the study of ocean acidification by collecting more observations of naturally-occurring ecosystems in places where the chemistry of seawater is naturally more acidic, and/or where it naturally holds more carbon,as well as locations which are not so acidic, and/or hold more usual amounts of carbon. By contrasting the two sets of observations, we will gain an improved understanding of how acidification affects organisms living in their natural environment, after assemblage reassortments and evolutionary adaptation have had time to play out. Most of the planned work will be carried out on 3 cruises to places with strong gradients in seawater carbon and pH: to the Arctic Ocean, around the British Isles, and to the Southern Ocean. As well a making observations we will also conduct a large number of experiments, in which we will bring volumes of natural seawater from the ocean surface into containers on the deck of the ship, together with whatever life is contained within, and there subject them to higher CO2 and other stressors. We will monitor the changes that take place to these natural plankton communities (including to biogeochemical and climate-related processes) as the seawater is made more acidic. A major strength of such studies is the inclusion of natural environmental variability and complexity that is difficult or impossible to capture in laboratory experiments. Thus, the responses measured during these experiments on the naturally-occurring community may represent more accurately the future response of the surface ocean to ocean acidification. In order to carry out this experimental/observational work programme we have assembled a strong UK-wide team with an extensive track record of successfully carrying out sea-going scientificresearch projects of this type.

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
62 Projects, page 1 of 7
  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 240837
    Partners: University of Nottingham, University of Regina, VATTENFALL, CO2 GeoNet, PPC, ENEL INGEGNERIA E RICERCA SPA, PML, SINTEF PETROLEUM AS, UNIPER TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED, STATOIL PETROLEUM...
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 258378
    Partners: UW, TP VISION EUROPE BV, UPMC, Technicolor (France), MARTEL GMBH, EURECOM, Telefonica Research and Development, TECHNICOLOR, TNO, POLITO...
  • Funder: NIH Project Code: 4R01DA028532-04
    Funder Contribution: 366,702 USD
    Partners: UBC
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 233758
    Partners: Valenciaport, Mobycon, Schenker AB, CSSA, TREDIT, Port of Cork, PTV PLANUNG TRANSPORT VERKEHR AG., SPC, K-NET S.A., UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN - UAEGEAN...
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 251186
    Partners: UNIGE, Stemcell Technologies, ENKAM PHARMACEUTICALS A/S, KLINIKUM DER UNIVERSITAET ZU KOELN, BIOT
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/H009914/1
    Funder Contribution: 360,717 GBP
    Partners: University of Cambridge, University of Regina, GSC

    Modern marine ecosystems were established during the early Palaeozoic radiations of animals, first the 'Cambrian Explosion' and then, some 50 million years later, in the 'Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.' By tracking the details of diversification through this critical interval, it should be possible to reconstruct not only the dynamics early animal evolution, but also the underlying effects of accruing ecological novelty. Unfortunately, the conventional fossil record represents only a fraction of ancient diversity, while famous 'soft-bodied' biotas such as the Burgess Shale are too rare to provide larger-scale patterns. I propose to circumvent these problems by exploiting a new, largely untapped source of palaeontological data: Burgess Shale-type microfossils. Like their macroscopic counterparts these fossils record the presence of non-biomineralizing organisms, but they also extend the view to include previously unrecorded forms and fine features. More significantly, they are proving to be quite common - to the extent that they can begin to be used to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Systematic analysis of Burgess Shale-type microfossils through the Middle to Late Cambrian will shed fundamental new light on early evolutionary patterns, not least the poorly known interval between the Cambrian and Ordovician radiations. By integrating this enhanced fossil record with the principles of biological oceanography and macroecology, this study will also provide a unique, evolutionary view of how modern marine ecosystems function. This study will focus on the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, which contains one of the largest, best preserved and most extensively sampled sequences of early Palaeozoic rocks on Earth. In addition to famously fossiliferous units exposed in the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt - including the Burgess Shale itself - strata extend eastwards for over 1000 km in the subsurface, where they have been penetrated by hundreds of petroleum exploration boreholes. These subsurface materials are housed in state-of-the-art storage facilities in Calgary, Alberta and Regina, Saskatchewan and offer a unique opportunity to sample systematically through the whole of the Middle-Late Cambrian, and across an expansive shallow-water platform into continental-margin environments exposed in the Rocky Mountains. Preliminary work in both subsurface and outcrop occurrences has identified an exquisite range of Burgess Shale-type microfossils. More comprehensive sampling and analysis will substantially advance our understanding of early Palaeozoic diversity, macroevolutionary patterns, and the co-evolution of ecosystem function and environments.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 251515
    Partners: UBC, INRIA, STRUCTURAL VIBRATIONS SOLUTIONS A/S
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 244706
    Partners: UH, IEO, SLU, Swedish National Board of Fisheries, Luke, Agrocampus Ouest, DFO, AUTH, FIN, Marine Institute...
  • Funder: NIH Project Code: 2R01DA028648-11
    Funder Contribution: 538,742 USD
    Partners: UBC
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/H017348/1
    Funder Contribution: 1,013,550 GBP
    Partners: BCCR, University of Liège, IOW, Dalhousie University, CAU, Institute for Oceanography Kiel, CEREGE, University of Southampton, Alfred Wegener Inst for Polar & Marine R, Marine Research Institution...

    The burning of fossil fuels is releasing vast quantities of extra carbon dioxide to the Earth's atmosphere. Much of this stays in the atmosphere, raising CO2 levels, but much also leaves the atmosphere after a time, either to become sequestered in trees and plants, or else to become absorbed in the oceans. CO2 staying in the atmosphere is a greenhouse gas, causing global warming; CO2 entering the sea makes it more acidic, and the ongoing acidification of seawater is seen in observational records at various sites where time-series data are collected. The changing chemistry of seawater due to ocean acidification is mostly well understood and not subject to debate. What is much less well known is the impact that the changing chemistry will have on marine organisms and ecosystems, on biogeochemical cycling in the sea, and on how the sea interacts with the atmosphere to influence climate. We will look to investigate these questions in terms of how the surface waters of the world's oceans, and the life within, will respond to ocean acidification. Most of what we know about biological impacts, and the source of the current concern about the impact on marine life, comes from experimental studies in which individual organisms (e.g. single corals) or mono-specific populations (e.g. plankton cultures) have been subjected to elevated CO2 (and the associated lower pH) in laboratory experiments. These laboratory experiments have the advantage of being performed under controlled conditions in which everything can be kept constant except for changes to CO2. So if a response is observed, then the cause is clear. However, there are also limitations to laboratory studies. For instance, organisms have no time to adapt evolutionarily, and there is no possibility of shifts in species composition away from more sensitive forms towards more acid-tolerant forms, as might be expected to occur in nature. Another shortcoming is the absence of food-web complexity in most experiments, and therefore the absence of competition, predation, and other interactions that determine the viability of organisms in the natural environment. We seek to advance the study of ocean acidification by collecting more observations of naturally-occurring ecosystems in places where the chemistry of seawater is naturally more acidic, and/or where it naturally holds more carbon,as well as locations which are not so acidic, and/or hold more usual amounts of carbon. By contrasting the two sets of observations, we will gain an improved understanding of how acidification affects organisms living in their natural environment, after assemblage reassortments and evolutionary adaptation have had time to play out. Most of the planned work will be carried out on 3 cruises to places with strong gradients in seawater carbon and pH: to the Arctic Ocean, around the British Isles, and to the Southern Ocean. As well a making observations we will also conduct a large number of experiments, in which we will bring volumes of natural seawater from the ocean surface into containers on the deck of the ship, together with whatever life is contained within, and there subject them to higher CO2 and other stressors. We will monitor the changes that take place to these natural plankton communities (including to biogeochemical and climate-related processes) as the seawater is made more acidic. A major strength of such studies is the inclusion of natural environmental variability and complexity that is difficult or impossible to capture in laboratory experiments. Thus, the responses measured during these experiments on the naturally-occurring community may represent more accurately the future response of the surface ocean to ocean acidification. In order to carry out this experimental/observational work programme we have assembled a strong UK-wide team with an extensive track record of successfully carrying out sea-going scientificresearch projects of this type.