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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
11 Projects, page 1 of 2

  • Canada
  • 2017-2021
  • 2017
  • 2021

10
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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BB/P02582X/1
    Funder Contribution: 30,612 GBP
    Partners: SFU, MUN, UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA, University of Aberdeen

    Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P013090/1
    Funder Contribution: 419,180 GBP
    Partners: LU, FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, Western Australian Museum, RAS, Natural History Museum, The Hunterian, SIA, Swedish Museum of Natural History, University of Bristol, University of Ottawa...

    Our proposal brings together world class expertise and cutting-edge methods to answer a key question in the history of life: how did vertebrates conquer the land? We address this question by testing four key hypotheses derived from long-standing assertions that selection acted upon the skull to drive adaptations for improved terrestrial feeding during the water to land transition. Our methods offer a means to shift away from analogy-driven assertions of evolutionary history towards rigorous testable hypotheses founded upon mechanical principles, and will set a benchmark for future studies in evolutionary biomechanics. For the first 200 million years of their history, vertebrates lived an aquatic existence. Between 385 and 350 million years ago they evolved a host of anatomical features that ultimately enabled vertebrates to conquer land. This reorganization of the vertebrate skeleton created the basic tetrapod body plan of a consolidated head with mobile neck, arms and legs with digits and air breathing lungs. This plan has persisted, subject to modification, ever since and is shared by all terrestrial vertebrates. It was proposed over 50 years ago that tetrapods modified their skull bones and jaw muscles to create a stronger and 'more efficient' structure, capable of forceful biting for feeding on land. This reorganization is seen as key to their subsequent radiations, enabling tetrapods to expand into new ecological niches by feeding on terrestrial plants, large prey and hard or tough food. It has been proposed that these modifications came at the cost of reduced hydrodynamic efficiency and a slower bite, and could only be achieved by the loss of suction feeding and the evolution of rib-based breathing, thus freeing the skull from its roles in aquatic locomotion, drawing prey into the mouth and pumping air into the lungs. These ideas have been perpetuated in textbooks for decades, yet are based on out-dated simple line drawings of skulls and jaw closing muscles, and remain to be tested. We now have a rich and informative fossil record that documents changes in skull shape across the water to land transition. However, until now, we have lacked the means to test these hypotheses in a quantitative, rigorous way. In this proposal we will determine how changes in skull form and function enabled vertebrates to feed in a terrestrial environment and document the sequence of evolutionary changes and trade-offs that lead to their conquering of land. We will integrate principles from palaeontology and biology to reconstruct skull anatomy in 14 fossil tetrapods. Mathematical and mechanical principles will then be used to test the hypothesis that changes to skull anatomy resulted in tetrapod skulls evolving from hydrodynamically streamlined broad, flat skulls that could deliver a rapid (but weak) bite to strongly built skulls that could produce a more effective, forceful bite. New evolutionary modelling methods will assess how selection for skull strength or hydrodynamic efficiency shaped the evolution of the tetrapod skull. Our project will produce methodological advances that can be applied more broadly to evolutionary transitions and radiations, and to address long standing questions linking form and function. Palaeontologists, anatomists, biomechanists, evolutionary and developmental biologists and engineers will benefit from this work, which will establish new international collaborations. Its visual aspect and focus on early tetrapods will appeal to the general public, offering engagement opportunities and generating media interest. Members of our team are leaders in developing and validating methods for reconstructing and simulating the musculoskeletal anatomy and function of fossil organisms and have been involved in developing new methods for modelling how function has shaped form in deep time. The time is therefore ripe to apply our knowledge and skills to one of the key events in the history of life and our ow

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P006493/1
    Funder Contribution: 508,106 GBP
    Partners: Aquaplan-niva, UoC, OSU, HGF, UQAR, University of Tromsø, Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zürich, University of Leeds, Alfred Wegener Inst for Polar & Marine R...

    ChAOS will quantify the effect of changing sea ice cover on organic matter quality, benthic biodiversity, biological transformations of carbon and nutrient pools, and resulting ecosystem function at the Arctic Ocean seafloor. We will achieve this by determining the amount, source, and bioavailability of organic matter (OM) and associated nutrients exported to the Arctic seafloor; its consumption, transformation, and cycling through the benthic food chain; and its eventual burial or recycling back into the water column. We will study these coupled biological and biogeochemical processes by combining (i) a detailed study of representative Arctic shelf sea habitats that intersect the ice edge, with (ii) broad-scale in situ validation studies and shipboard experiments, (iii) manipulative laboratory experiments that will identify causal relationships and mechanisms, (iv) analyses of highly spatially and temporally resolved data obtained by the Canadian, Norwegian and German Arctic programmes to establish generality, and (v) we will integrate new understanding of controls and effects on biodiversity, biogeochemical pathways and nutrient cycles into modelling approaches to explore how changes in Arctic sea ice alter ecosystems at regional scales. We will focus on parts of the Arctic Ocean where drastic changes in sea ice cover are the main environmental control, e.g., the Barents Sea. Common fieldwork campaigns will form the core of our research activity. Although our preferred focal region is a N-S transect along 30 degree East in the Barents Sea where ice expansion and retreat are well known and safely accessible, we will also use additional cruises to locations that share similar sediment and water conditions in Norway, retrieving key species for extended laboratory experiments that consider future environmental forcing. Importantly, the design of our campaign is not site specific, allowing our approach to be applied in other areas that share similar regional characteristics. This flexibility maximizes the scope for coordinated activities between all programme consortia (pelagic or benthic) should other areas of the Arctic shelf be preferable once all responses to the Announcement of Opportunity have been evaluated. In support of our field campaign, and informed by the analysis of field samples and data obtained by our international partners (in Norway, Canada, USA, Italy, Poland and Germany), we will conduct a range of well-constrained laboratory experiments, exposing incubated natural sediment to environmental conditions that are most likely to vary in response to the changing sea ice cover, and analysing the response of biology and biogeochemistry to these induced changes in present versus future environments (e.g., ocean acidification, warming). We will use existing complementary data sets provided by international project partners to achieve a wider spatial and temporal coverage of different parts of the Arctic Ocean. The unique combination of expertise (microbiologists, geochemists, ecologists, modellers) and facilities across eight leading UK research institutions will allow us to make new links between the quantity and quality of exported OM as a food source for benthic ecosystems, the response of the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across the full spectrum of benthic organisms, and the effects on the partitioning of carbon and nutrients between recycled and buried pools. To link the benthic sub-system to the Arctic Ocean as a whole, we will establish close links with complementary projects studying biogeochemical processes in the water column, benthic environment (and their interactions) and across the land-ocean transition. This will provide the combined data sets and process understanding, as well as novel, numerically efficient upscaling tools, required to develop predictive models (e.g., MEDUSA) that allow for a quantitative inclusion seafloor into environmental predictions of the changing Arctic Ocean.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/R001324/1
    Funder Contribution: 253,939 GBP
    Partners: Utrecht University, UBC, Boston College, University of Sheffield, UWEC

    In establishing the theory of evolution Charles Darwin realized that life originated only once and over billions of years diversified, through evolution, into the bewildering diversity of life on Earth today. Since this monumental paradigm shift a major goal of biology has been to establish the 'true tree of life' in terms of evolutionary relationships of the different types of organism and timing of their divergence. The most problematic and least understood regions of the tree of life are its deep roots: the origin of life and its early diversification. This is because these events occurred billions of years ago in the deep past and: (i) the primary divergence into the three domains of life (bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes) involved a complicated combining of organisms in 'endosymbiotic events'; (ii) the organisms involved are unfamiliar because modern relatives, if any, have changed dramatically through time; (iii) the fossil record is poor in rocks from such ancient times; (iv) techniques such as molecular clock analyses become unreliable the further back in time one investigates. The euglenids are a bizarre group of single-celled organisms common on the planet today. They inhabit freshwater environments where they move through the water using a unique motion called 'peristaltic movement'. Intriguingly, they either feed by ingesting matter (like animals) or through harvesting the Sun's energy (like plants). It is believed that they can do the latter because they combined with a photosynthetic unicellular green algae during a 'secondary endosymbiotic event'. Euglenoids are familiar to many of us as they are routinely examined in elementary laboratory classes, to familiarise students with the basic features of single-celled eukaryotes and the fact that some display characteristics of both animals and plants. Euglenids are particularly fascinating because studies of their anatomy and genome suggest they are among the most primitive of the earliest eukaryote organisms (that is organisms that have a true cell and evolved through the combination of more basic organisms (bacteria and archaea) that lack a true cell). Unfortunately euglenids lack a recognisable fossil record so we know little regarding their origin and evolutionary history. In order to remedy this major problem we have trawled the literature and discovered a number of fossils that have euglenid-like characters. Our insight is that we have discovered a way of recognising whether a fossil does indeed represent a true euglenid. Modern euglenids have a unique cell wall structure, and by taking extremely thin sections of their cell walls (less that 1/10,000 mm in thickness) and examining them under a powerful Transmission Electron Microscope, it is possible to identify this unique structure. We have undertaken preliminary studies on potential fossil euglenids and demonstrated that we can observe such structure in the fossils and hence prove that they are indeed euglenids. Some of the euglenid-like fossils are a staggering 1 billion years old. Our proposal is to analyse potential euglenid fossils from throughout the geological column and, by demonstrating which possess the characteristic euglenid wall structure, provide a continuous fossil record for the euglenids. This will place euglenids as one of the few groups of early divergent eukaryotes with a deep fossil record (and the first of the SuperGroup Excavates). This is important because it will provide evidence for the timing and nature of the diversification of the earliest eukaryotes. It will also provide an important fossil calibration point for molecular biologists that undertake molecular clock studies. Furthermore, we are addressing a highly topical research area and our findings will fuel current controversies concerning whether the eukaryotes evolved in the ocean or in fresh water and how and when euglenids acquired their secondary endosymbiotic green alga.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 733296
    Overall Budget: 2,231,440 EURFunder Contribution: 2,149,200 EUR
    Partners: NCN, MINISTERSTWO NAUKI I SZKOLNICTWA WYZSZEGO, UKRI, MINISTERIO DE CIENCIA, TECNOLOGIA E INNOVACION, IC, ANR, CSO-MOH, MCTeIP, BMBF, ISCIII...

    EXEDRA, an EXpansion of the European Joint Programming Initiative on Drug Resistance to Antimicrobials, will build on, and further support the structure and activities of JPIAMR to address the two major objectives of HCO-04-2016 topic: extending JPIAMR globally and creating a long-term sustainable structure for future expansion and governance which will coordinate national funding and collaborative actions supporting the implementation of the JPIAMR Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). JPIAMR EXEDRA will be the second Coordinated Support Action (CSA) for this Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) and essentially build on the work of the first CSA (JPIAMR), which ended February 2016. It will provide a strong support structure for the JPIAMR during the forthcoming implementation and expansion phaseby maintaining a continuity between the objectives, tasks and Work Packages of EXEDRA and JPIAMR. Support facilitated by the CSA EXEDRA will ensure that the ethos of joint programming in the area antimicrobial drug resistance becoming embedded within JPIAMR member’s research and innovation policies and programmes. EXEDRA will have the following work packages: WP1 Management and coordination; WP2 Strategy, governance, and long term sustainability; WP3 Internationalisation and capacity extension; WP4 Alignment with policy and industry; WP5 Research alignment; WP6 Communication, dissemination, and advocacy. EXEDRA will significantly contribute to the delivery of the JPIAMR SRA combined with the JPI-EC-AMR effort and the experience of the JPIAMR members. EXEDRA (and the JPIAMR) will support transnational cooperation to to pool substantial and long-term research funding and serve to complement other initiatives in the AMR area. It will create momentum with the potential to move the frontiers forward and offer new opportunities for industry, new tools for society, and new evidence-based data for policy makers, which will inspire other necessary initiatives.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 730879
    Overall Budget: 4,968,250 EURFunder Contribution: 4,955,880 EUR
    Partners: UMCG, TAU, MHH, UKRI, University of Sheffield, CNR, UAB, CNRS, CSIC, FUNDACAO CALOUSTE GULBENKIAN...

    The INFRAFRONTIER RI integrates European Mouse Clinics and the European Mouse Mutant Archive with the common goal to ensure access to mouse models for basic research of human health and disease, and to translate this knowledge into therapeutic approaches for the benefit of the European society. The expanded INFRAFRONTIER2020 network, coordinated by the INFRAFRONTIER GmbH, includes 3 SMEs and is strategically responding to the INFRADEV3 call with aligned objectives to advance the long-term sustainability which are 1) development of business models and a stable legal framework; 2) raise awareness of the INFRAFRONTIER RI; 3) provide bespoke services aligned with user demands; 4) promote best practices in mouse phenogenomics; 5) enhance robustness of the INFRAFRONTIER IT infrastructure and use of the EMMA strain resource; and 6) improve business processes. Towards achieving these objectives key INFRAFRONTIER2020 project deliverables are: • INFRAFRONTIER Business Plan2.0, and business models for all services • Stable legal framework built on the INFRAFRONTIER legal entity • INFRAFRONTIER annual stakeholder conferences • Customised mouse model and secondary phenotyping pilot services • INFRAFRONTIER advanced training schools in mouse phenogenomics • Reengineered EMMA Database2.0 system • Annotated mouse models of human diseases • Quality management system for the legal entity INFRAFRONTIER2020 will 1) enhance the sustainable operation of the INFRAFRONTIER RI; 2) continue to structure the ERA, 3) foster innovation, and 4) address major societal challenges in human health by customised service pilots supporting research into common and rare diseases. A sustainable INFRAFRONTIER RI will ensure the quality of deposited mice and support the reproducibility of biological results. Outreach efforts will raise awareness of resources and services and facilitate sustainable engagement with industry and global consortia such as the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P017231/1
    Funder Contribution: 688,773 GBP
    Partners: Beihang University, Johns Hopkins University, UCT, University of Otago, Met Office, FMI, NRCan, NASA, UGOE, Goethe University Frankfurt...

    Space weather describes the changing properties of near-Earth space, which influences the flow of electrical currents in this region, particularly within the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Space weather results from solar magnetic activity, which waxes and wanes over the Sunspot cycle of 11 years, due to eruptions of electrically charged material from the Sun's outer atmosphere. Particularly severe space weather can affect ground-based, electrically conducting infrastructures such as power transmission systems (National Grid), pipelines and railways. Ground based networks are at risk because rapidly changing electrical currents in space, driven by space weather, cause rapid geomagnetic field changes on the ground. These magnetic changes give rise to electric fields in the Earth that act as a 'battery' across conducting infrastructures. This 'battery' causes geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) to flow to or from the Earth, through conducting networks, instead of in the more resistive ground. These GIC upset the safe operation of transformers, risking damage and blackouts. GIC also cause enhanced corrosion in long metal pipeline networks and interfere with railway signalling systems. Severe space weather in March 1989 damaged power transformers in the UK and caused a long blackout across Quebec, Canada. The most extreme space weather event known - the 'Carrington Event' of 1859 - caused widespread failures and instabilities in telegraph networks, fires in telegraph offices and auroral displays to low latitudes. The likelihood of another such extreme event is estimated to be around 10% per decade. Severe space weather is therefore recognised in the UK government's National Risk Register as a one-in-two to one-in-twenty year event, for which industry and government needs to plan to mitigate the risk. Some studies have estimated the economic consequence of space weather and GIC to run to billions of dollars per day in the major advanced economies, through the prolonged loss of electrical power. There are mathematical models of how GIC are caused by space weather and where in the UK National Grid they may appear (there are no models of GIC flow in UK pipelines or railway networks). However these models are quite limited in what they can do and may therefore not provide a true picture of GIC risk in grounded systems, for example highlighting some locations as being at risk, when in fact any problems lie elsewhere. The electrical model that has been developed to represent GIC at transformer substations in the National Grid misses key features, such as a model of the 132kV transmission system of England and Wales, or any model for Northern Ireland. The conductivity of the subsurface of the UK is known only partly and in some areas not at all well. (We need to know the conductivity in order to compute the electric field that acts as the 'battery' for GIC.) The UK GIC models only 'now-cast', at best, and they have no forecast capability, even though this is a stated need of industry and government. We do not have tried and tested now-cast models, or even forecast models, of magnetic variations on the ground. This is because of our under-developed understanding of how currents flow in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, how these interconnect and how they relate to conditions in the solar wind. In this project we will therefore upgrade existing or create new models that relate GIC in power, pipe and railway networks to ionospheric, magnetospheric and solar wind conditions. These models will address the issues we have identified with the current generation of models and their capabilities and provide accurate data for industry and governments to assess our risk from space weather. In making progress on these issues we will also radically improve on our physical understanding of the way electrical currents and electromagnetic fields interact near and in the Earth and how they affect the important technologies we rely on.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P014801/1
    Funder Contribution: 438,242 GBP
    Partners: University of Reading, Asia Pacific Resources International Ltd, University of Alberta, Badan Restorasi Gambut (BRG), Swansea University, TKU, ECMWF

    The severe El Niño episode of 2015 led to a major and damaging increase in Indonesian peatland fire, highlighting an urgent need to develop operational systems to forecast potentially severe fire events in order to mitigate the impacts of fire and haze. 10 ASEAN states have formally agreed to control peatland and forest fires and urgently need an early fire warning system: a need that we address in this proposal. An operational 'early warning' system for forecasting dangerous burning conditions is within reach using state-of-the-art modelling tools, such as the ECMWF's System 4 seasonal forecast model, but is currently hampered by insufficient knowledge about the influence of fluctuations in peat moisture on fire, particularly during periods of extreme drought, highlighted by the 1997-98 and 2015 El Niño episodes- the strongest and second strongest on record. The majority of present-day fires in Indonesia result from deliberate burning for land clearance, and this human factor means that burning can be influenced by policy and altered land management practice. The translation of scientific research into evidence-based policy and the official regulation and restriction of burning do not work well in Indonesia and new approaches are needed. We plan to both develop a new scientific forecasting tool for fire danger and to influence policy and fire regulations: a novel combination of urgent science and policy research. This project will develop a suite of climate-, hydrological- and agent-based modelling to predict the incidence of peat fires based on computations and observations for the period 1997 to 2014, and will use the 2015 El Niño event to benchmark the forecast tools. Our working hypothesis is that the increased fire risk associated with dry peat does not trigger appropriate changes in the management practices adopted by local landowners in their use of fire, if there are no incentives provided by policy. Our anticipated outputs are: * An operational model of peatland fire occurrence, based on a tropical peatland hydrology model, an agent-based model, and seasonal climate data derived from state-of-the-art reanalysis data and seasonal forecasts, and Earth Observation Data. * An operational early fire warning system for peatlands based on seasonal climate forecasts. * A more complete understanding of how climate, socio-economic and geographic factors interact to drive peatland fires. * Evidence-based policy tools for reducing the number of fires and area burned each year in Riau province, Sumatra. * Evidence-based proposals towards new Indonesian fire reduction management strategies and policy input. The forecasting system will be web-based and accessible, and will predict the risk of peatland fire occurrence up to three months ahead, enabling sufficient time to spread awareness of the impending risk through the community, and to mobilise fire-fighting resources and other fire prevention measures if required. Consideration of non-climate drivers of peatland fire occurrence is critically important because this will help us capture the spatio-temporal patterns in fire in different regions displaying similar climate regimes. Non-climate driven factors also present the most tractable means to develop mitigation actions. We will combine the results of our work on climate, socio-economic and geographic factors to generate a multi-factorial model for peatland fire occurrence. The model system will be developed in close collaboration with Indonesian stakeholders following the operational needs of agencies, municipalities and companies in the area. Key stakeholders include the Indonesian peatland restoration agency, Indonesia ministry, ASEAN Regional Haze Support Unit, local communities, forestry companies, local and international researchers. The model system will be robust and simple enough for in-house daily use by our Indonesian stakeholders, who will take over the system, and run and maintain it on their own servers.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P011926/1
    Funder Contribution: 361,991 GBP
    Partners: Met Office, Climate and Cryosphere Project, EnviroSim (Canada), WSL Swiss Inst for Snow & Avalanche Res, ECMWF, University of Edinburgh, NCAR, Meteo-France CNRM, University of Saskatchewan, NERC British Antarctic Survey

    Snow is a material with remarkable physical properties that profoundly alters the characteristics of the Earth's surface where it lies. Because snow has a high albedo (the fraction of solar radiation that it reflects rather than absorbs) and a high latent heat of fusion (the energy required to melt it), it delays the warming of the atmosphere and the ground in spring each year. Satellite measurements of Northern Hemisphere snow cover have now been available for 50 years, and a strong decreasing trend correlated with warming has been observed in spring over that period. Less snow accumulates in a warmer climate and melts sooner, increasing the absorption of solar radiation and reinforcing the warming (a strong positive feedback). Snow conducts heat poorly because it contains trapped air and so insulates the ground from cold temperatures in winter; this controls soil freezing and provides protection for short plants, small animals and soil microbes living in snowy regions, with important and complex impacts on the global carbon cycle. For all of these reasons, it is important that climate models should be able to predict snow cover accurately. Unfortunately, the latest climate models still differ greatly in their simulations of how snow cover varies from year to year in the current climate and how it will change in the future. There are many potential sources for this uncertainty, including errors in snowfall and temperature patterns predicted by models, multiple processes that control the rate of snowmelt but may be poorly represented in models, and uncertainty in setting optimal values for model parameters. It has proven very difficult to disentangle these sources of uncertainty and to determine how they can be reduced. In this project, we will use a new modelling system in which a single meteorological variable, model process or parameter value can be varied at a time, allowing highly controlled experiments to precisely determine how they influence simulations. Direct measurements of snow properties at research sites and satellite measurements of snow cover and albedo across the Northern Hemisphere will be used to identify the best simulations. Because snow melts both as the weather warms in spring and as the climate warms, improving the ability of models to simulate the current seasonal cycle and past trends can be expected to improve projections of future conditions, provided that the improvements are obtained for sound physical reasons. Improved predictions and better understanding of the sensitivity of snow to climate change will contribute to reviews of climate science by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which are essential resources for policymakers. Another important feature of snow is that it stores precipitation that falls in the mountains over winter and releases it in warmer times of year when human demand for water is higher. Many parts of the world are provided with water and threatened by floods from melting snow in upstream mountain regions. Even if the total amount of precipitation does not change in a warming climate, a shift to more falling as rain rather than snow will lead to river flows peaking earlier in the year, requiring major changes in the management of water resources. Global climate models, which cannot resolve processes occurring on scales smaller than a few hundred kilometres, are not adequate tools for informing water management decisions, but national weather services are now beginning to run forecasts for limited areas and short periods with kilometre-scale resolutions. We will use high-resolution meteorological data and the same modelling methods that we applied on the hemispheric scale to make and test predictions for snowmelt in well-instrumented areas of the French and Swiss Alps. Methods developed will be incorporated in a "downscaling toolkit" which will be made available to researchers and water managers by the International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: ES/P009255/1
    Funder Contribution: 2,156,860 GBP
    Partners: Canadian Standards Association (CSA), ZJOU, Massey University, CSIC, Jagiellonian University, UNSW, Macquarie University, Eurofound, Japan Lutheran College, UWA...

    Our programme focuses on the care needs of adults living at home with chronic health problems or disabilities, and seeks sustainable solutions to the UK's contemporary 'crisis of care'. It is distinctive in investigating sustainability and wellbeing in care holistically across care systems, work and relationships; addresses disconnection between theorisations of care in different disciplines; and locates all its research in the context of international scholarship, actively engaging with policy partners. It will fill knowledge gaps, contribute new theoretical ideas and data analyses, and provide useful, accurate evidence to inform care planning, provision and experience. It develops and critically engages with policy and theoretical debates about: care infrastructure (systems, networks, partnerships, standards); divisions of caring labour/the political economy of care (inequalities, exploitation); care ethics, rights, recognition and values (frameworks, standards, entitlements, wellbeing outcomes); care technologies and human-technological interactions; and care relations in emotional, familial, community and intergenerational context. Our team comprises 20 scholars in 7 universities, linked to an international network spanning 15 countries. Our programme comprises integrative activities, in which the whole team works together to develop a new conceptual framework on sustainable care and wellbeing, and two Work Strands, each with 4 linked projects, on 'Care Systems' & 'Care Work & Relationships'. 'Care Systems' will: (i) study prospects, developments and differentiation in the four care systems operating in England, N. Ireland, Scotland & Wales, comparing their approaches to markets, privatisation and reliance on unpaid care; (ii) model costs and contributions in care, covering those of carers and employers as well as public spending on care; (iii) assess the potential of emerging technologies to enhance care system sustainability; and (iv) analyse, in a dynamic policy context, migrant care workers' role in the sustainability of homecare. 'Care Work & Relationships' will: (i) develop case studies of emerging homecare models, and assess their implications for sustainable wellbeing; (ii) focus on carers who combine employment with unpaid care, filling gaps in knowledge about the effectiveness of workplace support and what care leave and workplace standard schemes can contribute to sustainable care arrangements; (iii) explore how care technologies can be integrated to support working carers, ensuring wellbeing outcomes across caring networks; and (iv) investigate care 'in' and 'out of' place, as systems adapt or come under pressure associated with population diversity and mobility. Each project will collaborate with our international partners. These scholars, in 26 collaborating institutions, will ensure we learn from others about ways of understanding, measuring or interpreting developments in how care is organised and experienced, and keep up to date with latest research and scholarship. Our capacity-building strategy will build future scholarly expertise in the study of sustainability and wellbeing in care, and ensure our concepts, methods, and research findings achieve international standards of excellence. Universities in our partnership are contributing 5 UK & 12 overseas PhD studentships, enabling us to form an international early career scholar network on sustainable care, supported by our senior team and partners. Our impact strategy, led by Carers UK, involves leading UK and international policy partners. Informing policy, practice and debate, we will co-produce analyses and guidance, enhance data quality, promote good practice and engage decision-makers, policymakers, practitioners in the public, private and voluntary sectors, carers, people with care needs, and the media. Our Advisory Board of leading academics, policy/practice figures and opinion formers will guide all our work.

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
11 Projects, page 1 of 2
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BB/P02582X/1
    Funder Contribution: 30,612 GBP
    Partners: SFU, MUN, UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA, University of Aberdeen

    Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P013090/1
    Funder Contribution: 419,180 GBP
    Partners: LU, FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, Western Australian Museum, RAS, Natural History Museum, The Hunterian, SIA, Swedish Museum of Natural History, University of Bristol, University of Ottawa...

    Our proposal brings together world class expertise and cutting-edge methods to answer a key question in the history of life: how did vertebrates conquer the land? We address this question by testing four key hypotheses derived from long-standing assertions that selection acted upon the skull to drive adaptations for improved terrestrial feeding during the water to land transition. Our methods offer a means to shift away from analogy-driven assertions of evolutionary history towards rigorous testable hypotheses founded upon mechanical principles, and will set a benchmark for future studies in evolutionary biomechanics. For the first 200 million years of their history, vertebrates lived an aquatic existence. Between 385 and 350 million years ago they evolved a host of anatomical features that ultimately enabled vertebrates to conquer land. This reorganization of the vertebrate skeleton created the basic tetrapod body plan of a consolidated head with mobile neck, arms and legs with digits and air breathing lungs. This plan has persisted, subject to modification, ever since and is shared by all terrestrial vertebrates. It was proposed over 50 years ago that tetrapods modified their skull bones and jaw muscles to create a stronger and 'more efficient' structure, capable of forceful biting for feeding on land. This reorganization is seen as key to their subsequent radiations, enabling tetrapods to expand into new ecological niches by feeding on terrestrial plants, large prey and hard or tough food. It has been proposed that these modifications came at the cost of reduced hydrodynamic efficiency and a slower bite, and could only be achieved by the loss of suction feeding and the evolution of rib-based breathing, thus freeing the skull from its roles in aquatic locomotion, drawing prey into the mouth and pumping air into the lungs. These ideas have been perpetuated in textbooks for decades, yet are based on out-dated simple line drawings of skulls and jaw closing muscles, and remain to be tested. We now have a rich and informative fossil record that documents changes in skull shape across the water to land transition. However, until now, we have lacked the means to test these hypotheses in a quantitative, rigorous way. In this proposal we will determine how changes in skull form and function enabled vertebrates to feed in a terrestrial environment and document the sequence of evolutionary changes and trade-offs that lead to their conquering of land. We will integrate principles from palaeontology and biology to reconstruct skull anatomy in 14 fossil tetrapods. Mathematical and mechanical principles will then be used to test the hypothesis that changes to skull anatomy resulted in tetrapod skulls evolving from hydrodynamically streamlined broad, flat skulls that could deliver a rapid (but weak) bite to strongly built skulls that could produce a more effective, forceful bite. New evolutionary modelling methods will assess how selection for skull strength or hydrodynamic efficiency shaped the evolution of the tetrapod skull. Our project will produce methodological advances that can be applied more broadly to evolutionary transitions and radiations, and to address long standing questions linking form and function. Palaeontologists, anatomists, biomechanists, evolutionary and developmental biologists and engineers will benefit from this work, which will establish new international collaborations. Its visual aspect and focus on early tetrapods will appeal to the general public, offering engagement opportunities and generating media interest. Members of our team are leaders in developing and validating methods for reconstructing and simulating the musculoskeletal anatomy and function of fossil organisms and have been involved in developing new methods for modelling how function has shaped form in deep time. The time is therefore ripe to apply our knowledge and skills to one of the key events in the history of life and our ow

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P006493/1
    Funder Contribution: 508,106 GBP
    Partners: Aquaplan-niva, UoC, OSU, HGF, UQAR, University of Tromsø, Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zürich, University of Leeds, Alfred Wegener Inst for Polar & Marine R...

    ChAOS will quantify the effect of changing sea ice cover on organic matter quality, benthic biodiversity, biological transformations of carbon and nutrient pools, and resulting ecosystem function at the Arctic Ocean seafloor. We will achieve this by determining the amount, source, and bioavailability of organic matter (OM) and associated nutrients exported to the Arctic seafloor; its consumption, transformation, and cycling through the benthic food chain; and its eventual burial or recycling back into the water column. We will study these coupled biological and biogeochemical processes by combining (i) a detailed study of representative Arctic shelf sea habitats that intersect the ice edge, with (ii) broad-scale in situ validation studies and shipboard experiments, (iii) manipulative laboratory experiments that will identify causal relationships and mechanisms, (iv) analyses of highly spatially and temporally resolved data obtained by the Canadian, Norwegian and German Arctic programmes to establish generality, and (v) we will integrate new understanding of controls and effects on biodiversity, biogeochemical pathways and nutrient cycles into modelling approaches to explore how changes in Arctic sea ice alter ecosystems at regional scales. We will focus on parts of the Arctic Ocean where drastic changes in sea ice cover are the main environmental control, e.g., the Barents Sea. Common fieldwork campaigns will form the core of our research activity. Although our preferred focal region is a N-S transect along 30 degree East in the Barents Sea where ice expansion and retreat are well known and safely accessible, we will also use additional cruises to locations that share similar sediment and water conditions in Norway, retrieving key species for extended laboratory experiments that consider future environmental forcing. Importantly, the design of our campaign is not site specific, allowing our approach to be applied in other areas that share similar regional characteristics. This flexibility maximizes the scope for coordinated activities between all programme consortia (pelagic or benthic) should other areas of the Arctic shelf be preferable once all responses to the Announcement of Opportunity have been evaluated. In support of our field campaign, and informed by the analysis of field samples and data obtained by our international partners (in Norway, Canada, USA, Italy, Poland and Germany), we will conduct a range of well-constrained laboratory experiments, exposing incubated natural sediment to environmental conditions that are most likely to vary in response to the changing sea ice cover, and analysing the response of biology and biogeochemistry to these induced changes in present versus future environments (e.g., ocean acidification, warming). We will use existing complementary data sets provided by international project partners to achieve a wider spatial and temporal coverage of different parts of the Arctic Ocean. The unique combination of expertise (microbiologists, geochemists, ecologists, modellers) and facilities across eight leading UK research institutions will allow us to make new links between the quantity and quality of exported OM as a food source for benthic ecosystems, the response of the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across the full spectrum of benthic organisms, and the effects on the partitioning of carbon and nutrients between recycled and buried pools. To link the benthic sub-system to the Arctic Ocean as a whole, we will establish close links with complementary projects studying biogeochemical processes in the water column, benthic environment (and their interactions) and across the land-ocean transition. This will provide the combined data sets and process understanding, as well as novel, numerically efficient upscaling tools, required to develop predictive models (e.g., MEDUSA) that allow for a quantitative inclusion seafloor into environmental predictions of the changing Arctic Ocean.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/R001324/1
    Funder Contribution: 253,939 GBP
    Partners: Utrecht University, UBC, Boston College, University of Sheffield, UWEC

    In establishing the theory of evolution Charles Darwin realized that life originated only once and over billions of years diversified, through evolution, into the bewildering diversity of life on Earth today. Since this monumental paradigm shift a major goal of biology has been to establish the 'true tree of life' in terms of evolutionary relationships of the different types of organism and timing of their divergence. The most problematic and least understood regions of the tree of life are its deep roots: the origin of life and its early diversification. This is because these events occurred billions of years ago in the deep past and: (i) the primary divergence into the three domains of life (bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes) involved a complicated combining of organisms in 'endosymbiotic events'; (ii) the organisms involved are unfamiliar because modern relatives, if any, have changed dramatically through time; (iii) the fossil record is poor in rocks from such ancient times; (iv) techniques such as molecular clock analyses become unreliable the further back in time one investigates. The euglenids are a bizarre group of single-celled organisms common on the planet today. They inhabit freshwater environments where they move through the water using a unique motion called 'peristaltic movement'. Intriguingly, they either feed by ingesting matter (like animals) or through harvesting the Sun's energy (like plants). It is believed that they can do the latter because they combined with a photosynthetic unicellular green algae during a 'secondary endosymbiotic event'. Euglenoids are familiar to many of us as they are routinely examined in elementary laboratory classes, to familiarise students with the basic features of single-celled eukaryotes and the fact that some display characteristics of both animals and plants. Euglenids are particularly fascinating because studies of their anatomy and genome suggest they are among the most primitive of the earliest eukaryote organisms (that is organisms that have a true cell and evolved through the combination of more basic organisms (bacteria and archaea) that lack a true cell). Unfortunately euglenids lack a recognisable fossil record so we know little regarding their origin and evolutionary history. In order to remedy this major problem we have trawled the literature and discovered a number of fossils that have euglenid-like characters. Our insight is that we have discovered a way of recognising whether a fossil does indeed represent a true euglenid. Modern euglenids have a unique cell wall structure, and by taking extremely thin sections of their cell walls (less that 1/10,000 mm in thickness) and examining them under a powerful Transmission Electron Microscope, it is possible to identify this unique structure. We have undertaken preliminary studies on potential fossil euglenids and demonstrated that we can observe such structure in the fossils and hence prove that they are indeed euglenids. Some of the euglenid-like fossils are a staggering 1 billion years old. Our proposal is to analyse potential euglenid fossils from throughout the geological column and, by demonstrating which possess the characteristic euglenid wall structure, provide a continuous fossil record for the euglenids. This will place euglenids as one of the few groups of early divergent eukaryotes with a deep fossil record (and the first of the SuperGroup Excavates). This is important because it will provide evidence for the timing and nature of the diversification of the earliest eukaryotes. It will also provide an important fossil calibration point for molecular biologists that undertake molecular clock studies. Furthermore, we are addressing a highly topical research area and our findings will fuel current controversies concerning whether the eukaryotes evolved in the ocean or in fresh water and how and when euglenids acquired their secondary endosymbiotic green alga.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 733296
    Overall Budget: 2,231,440 EURFunder Contribution: 2,149,200 EUR
    Partners: NCN, MINISTERSTWO NAUKI I SZKOLNICTWA WYZSZEGO, UKRI, MINISTERIO DE CIENCIA, TECNOLOGIA E INNOVACION, IC, ANR, CSO-MOH, MCTeIP, BMBF, ISCIII...

    EXEDRA, an EXpansion of the European Joint Programming Initiative on Drug Resistance to Antimicrobials, will build on, and further support the structure and activities of JPIAMR to address the two major objectives of HCO-04-2016 topic: extending JPIAMR globally and creating a long-term sustainable structure for future expansion and governance which will coordinate national funding and collaborative actions supporting the implementation of the JPIAMR Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). JPIAMR EXEDRA will be the second Coordinated Support Action (CSA) for this Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) and essentially build on the work of the first CSA (JPIAMR), which ended February 2016. It will provide a strong support structure for the JPIAMR during the forthcoming implementation and expansion phaseby maintaining a continuity between the objectives, tasks and Work Packages of EXEDRA and JPIAMR. Support facilitated by the CSA EXEDRA will ensure that the ethos of joint programming in the area antimicrobial drug resistance becoming embedded within JPIAMR member’s research and innovation policies and programmes. EXEDRA will have the following work packages: WP1 Management and coordination; WP2 Strategy, governance, and long term sustainability; WP3 Internationalisation and capacity extension; WP4 Alignment with policy and industry; WP5 Research alignment; WP6 Communication, dissemination, and advocacy. EXEDRA will significantly contribute to the delivery of the JPIAMR SRA combined with the JPI-EC-AMR effort and the experience of the JPIAMR members. EXEDRA (and the JPIAMR) will support transnational cooperation to to pool substantial and long-term research funding and serve to complement other initiatives in the AMR area. It will create momentum with the potential to move the frontiers forward and offer new opportunities for industry, new tools for society, and new evidence-based data for policy makers, which will inspire other necessary initiatives.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 730879
    Overall Budget: 4,968,250 EURFunder Contribution: 4,955,880 EUR
    Partners: UMCG, TAU, MHH, UKRI, University of Sheffield, CNR, UAB, CNRS, CSIC, FUNDACAO CALOUSTE GULBENKIAN...

    The INFRAFRONTIER RI integrates European Mouse Clinics and the European Mouse Mutant Archive with the common goal to ensure access to mouse models for basic research of human health and disease, and to translate this knowledge into therapeutic approaches for the benefit of the European society. The expanded INFRAFRONTIER2020 network, coordinated by the INFRAFRONTIER GmbH, includes 3 SMEs and is strategically responding to the INFRADEV3 call with aligned objectives to advance the long-term sustainability which are 1) development of business models and a stable legal framework; 2) raise awareness of the INFRAFRONTIER RI; 3) provide bespoke services aligned with user demands; 4) promote best practices in mouse phenogenomics; 5) enhance robustness of the INFRAFRONTIER IT infrastructure and use of the EMMA strain resource; and 6) improve business processes. Towards achieving these objectives key INFRAFRONTIER2020 project deliverables are: • INFRAFRONTIER Business Plan2.0, and business models for all services • Stable legal framework built on the INFRAFRONTIER legal entity • INFRAFRONTIER annual stakeholder conferences • Customised mouse model and secondary phenotyping pilot services • INFRAFRONTIER advanced training schools in mouse phenogenomics • Reengineered EMMA Database2.0 system • Annotated mouse models of human diseases • Quality management system for the legal entity INFRAFRONTIER2020 will 1) enhance the sustainable operation of the INFRAFRONTIER RI; 2) continue to structure the ERA, 3) foster innovation, and 4) address major societal challenges in human health by customised service pilots supporting research into common and rare diseases. A sustainable INFRAFRONTIER RI will ensure the quality of deposited mice and support the reproducibility of biological results. Outreach efforts will raise awareness of resources and services and facilitate sustainable engagement with industry and global consortia such as the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P017231/1
    Funder Contribution: 688,773 GBP
    Partners: Beihang University, Johns Hopkins University, UCT, University of Otago, Met Office, FMI, NRCan, NASA, UGOE, Goethe University Frankfurt...

    Space weather describes the changing properties of near-Earth space, which influences the flow of electrical currents in this region, particularly within the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Space weather results from solar magnetic activity, which waxes and wanes over the Sunspot cycle of 11 years, due to eruptions of electrically charged material from the Sun's outer atmosphere. Particularly severe space weather can affect ground-based, electrically conducting infrastructures such as power transmission systems (National Grid), pipelines and railways. Ground based networks are at risk because rapidly changing electrical currents in space, driven by space weather, cause rapid geomagnetic field changes on the ground. These magnetic changes give rise to electric fields in the Earth that act as a 'battery' across conducting infrastructures. This 'battery' causes geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) to flow to or from the Earth, through conducting networks, instead of in the more resistive ground. These GIC upset the safe operation of transformers, risking damage and blackouts. GIC also cause enhanced corrosion in long metal pipeline networks and interfere with railway signalling systems. Severe space weather in March 1989 damaged power transformers in the UK and caused a long blackout across Quebec, Canada. The most extreme space weather event known - the 'Carrington Event' of 1859 - caused widespread failures and instabilities in telegraph networks, fires in telegraph offices and auroral displays to low latitudes. The likelihood of another such extreme event is estimated to be around 10% per decade. Severe space weather is therefore recognised in the UK government's National Risk Register as a one-in-two to one-in-twenty year event, for which industry and government needs to plan to mitigate the risk. Some studies have estimated the economic consequence of space weather and GIC to run to billions of dollars per day in the major advanced economies, through the prolonged loss of electrical power. There are mathematical models of how GIC are caused by space weather and where in the UK National Grid they may appear (there are no models of GIC flow in UK pipelines or railway networks). However these models are quite limited in what they can do and may therefore not provide a true picture of GIC risk in grounded systems, for example highlighting some locations as being at risk, when in fact any problems lie elsewhere. The electrical model that has been developed to represent GIC at transformer substations in the National Grid misses key features, such as a model of the 132kV transmission system of England and Wales, or any model for Northern Ireland. The conductivity of the subsurface of the UK is known only partly and in some areas not at all well. (We need to know the conductivity in order to compute the electric field that acts as the 'battery' for GIC.) The UK GIC models only 'now-cast', at best, and they have no forecast capability, even though this is a stated need of industry and government. We do not have tried and tested now-cast models, or even forecast models, of magnetic variations on the ground. This is because of our under-developed understanding of how currents flow in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, how these interconnect and how they relate to conditions in the solar wind. In this project we will therefore upgrade existing or create new models that relate GIC in power, pipe and railway networks to ionospheric, magnetospheric and solar wind conditions. These models will address the issues we have identified with the current generation of models and their capabilities and provide accurate data for industry and governments to assess our risk from space weather. In making progress on these issues we will also radically improve on our physical understanding of the way electrical currents and electromagnetic fields interact near and in the Earth and how they affect the important technologies we rely on.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P014801/1
    Funder Contribution: 438,242 GBP
    Partners: University of Reading, Asia Pacific Resources International Ltd, University of Alberta, Badan Restorasi Gambut (BRG), Swansea University, TKU, ECMWF

    The severe El Niño episode of 2015 led to a major and damaging increase in Indonesian peatland fire, highlighting an urgent need to develop operational systems to forecast potentially severe fire events in order to mitigate the impacts of fire and haze. 10 ASEAN states have formally agreed to control peatland and forest fires and urgently need an early fire warning system: a need that we address in this proposal. An operational 'early warning' system for forecasting dangerous burning conditions is within reach using state-of-the-art modelling tools, such as the ECMWF's System 4 seasonal forecast model, but is currently hampered by insufficient knowledge about the influence of fluctuations in peat moisture on fire, particularly during periods of extreme drought, highlighted by the 1997-98 and 2015 El Niño episodes- the strongest and second strongest on record. The majority of present-day fires in Indonesia result from deliberate burning for land clearance, and this human factor means that burning can be influenced by policy and altered land management practice. The translation of scientific research into evidence-based policy and the official regulation and restriction of burning do not work well in Indonesia and new approaches are needed. We plan to both develop a new scientific forecasting tool for fire danger and to influence policy and fire regulations: a novel combination of urgent science and policy research. This project will develop a suite of climate-, hydrological- and agent-based modelling to predict the incidence of peat fires based on computations and observations for the period 1997 to 2014, and will use the 2015 El Niño event to benchmark the forecast tools. Our working hypothesis is that the increased fire risk associated with dry peat does not trigger appropriate changes in the management practices adopted by local landowners in their use of fire, if there are no incentives provided by policy. Our anticipated outputs are: * An operational model of peatland fire occurrence, based on a tropical peatland hydrology model, an agent-based model, and seasonal climate data derived from state-of-the-art reanalysis data and seasonal forecasts, and Earth Observation Data. * An operational early fire warning system for peatlands based on seasonal climate forecasts. * A more complete understanding of how climate, socio-economic and geographic factors interact to drive peatland fires. * Evidence-based policy tools for reducing the number of fires and area burned each year in Riau province, Sumatra. * Evidence-based proposals towards new Indonesian fire reduction management strategies and policy input. The forecasting system will be web-based and accessible, and will predict the risk of peatland fire occurrence up to three months ahead, enabling sufficient time to spread awareness of the impending risk through the community, and to mobilise fire-fighting resources and other fire prevention measures if required. Consideration of non-climate drivers of peatland fire occurrence is critically important because this will help us capture the spatio-temporal patterns in fire in different regions displaying similar climate regimes. Non-climate driven factors also present the most tractable means to develop mitigation actions. We will combine the results of our work on climate, socio-economic and geographic factors to generate a multi-factorial model for peatland fire occurrence. The model system will be developed in close collaboration with Indonesian stakeholders following the operational needs of agencies, municipalities and companies in the area. Key stakeholders include the Indonesian peatland restoration agency, Indonesia ministry, ASEAN Regional Haze Support Unit, local communities, forestry companies, local and international researchers. The model system will be robust and simple enough for in-house daily use by our Indonesian stakeholders, who will take over the system, and run and maintain it on their own servers.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/P011926/1
    Funder Contribution: 361,991 GBP
    Partners: Met Office, Climate and Cryosphere Project, EnviroSim (Canada), WSL Swiss Inst for Snow & Avalanche Res, ECMWF, University of Edinburgh, NCAR, Meteo-France CNRM, University of Saskatchewan, NERC British Antarctic Survey

    Snow is a material with remarkable physical properties that profoundly alters the characteristics of the Earth's surface where it lies. Because snow has a high albedo (the fraction of solar radiation that it reflects rather than absorbs) and a high latent heat of fusion (the energy required to melt it), it delays the warming of the atmosphere and the ground in spring each year. Satellite measurements of Northern Hemisphere snow cover have now been available for 50 years, and a strong decreasing trend correlated with warming has been observed in spring over that period. Less snow accumulates in a warmer climate and melts sooner, increasing the absorption of solar radiation and reinforcing the warming (a strong positive feedback). Snow conducts heat poorly because it contains trapped air and so insulates the ground from cold temperatures in winter; this controls soil freezing and provides protection for short plants, small animals and soil microbes living in snowy regions, with important and complex impacts on the global carbon cycle. For all of these reasons, it is important that climate models should be able to predict snow cover accurately. Unfortunately, the latest climate models still differ greatly in their simulations of how snow cover varies from year to year in the current climate and how it will change in the future. There are many potential sources for this uncertainty, including errors in snowfall and temperature patterns predicted by models, multiple processes that control the rate of snowmelt but may be poorly represented in models, and uncertainty in setting optimal values for model parameters. It has proven very difficult to disentangle these sources of uncertainty and to determine how they can be reduced. In this project, we will use a new modelling system in which a single meteorological variable, model process or parameter value can be varied at a time, allowing highly controlled experiments to precisely determine how they influence simulations. Direct measurements of snow properties at research sites and satellite measurements of snow cover and albedo across the Northern Hemisphere will be used to identify the best simulations. Because snow melts both as the weather warms in spring and as the climate warms, improving the ability of models to simulate the current seasonal cycle and past trends can be expected to improve projections of future conditions, provided that the improvements are obtained for sound physical reasons. Improved predictions and better understanding of the sensitivity of snow to climate change will contribute to reviews of climate science by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which are essential resources for policymakers. Another important feature of snow is that it stores precipitation that falls in the mountains over winter and releases it in warmer times of year when human demand for water is higher. Many parts of the world are provided with water and threatened by floods from melting snow in upstream mountain regions. Even if the total amount of precipitation does not change in a warming climate, a shift to more falling as rain rather than snow will lead to river flows peaking earlier in the year, requiring major changes in the management of water resources. Global climate models, which cannot resolve processes occurring on scales smaller than a few hundred kilometres, are not adequate tools for informing water management decisions, but national weather services are now beginning to run forecasts for limited areas and short periods with kilometre-scale resolutions. We will use high-resolution meteorological data and the same modelling methods that we applied on the hemispheric scale to make and test predictions for snowmelt in well-instrumented areas of the French and Swiss Alps. Methods developed will be incorporated in a "downscaling toolkit" which will be made available to researchers and water managers by the International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: ES/P009255/1
    Funder Contribution: 2,156,860 GBP
    Partners: Canadian Standards Association (CSA), ZJOU, Massey University, CSIC, Jagiellonian University, UNSW, Macquarie University, Eurofound, Japan Lutheran College, UWA...

    Our programme focuses on the care needs of adults living at home with chronic health problems or disabilities, and seeks sustainable solutions to the UK's contemporary 'crisis of care'. It is distinctive in investigating sustainability and wellbeing in care holistically across care systems, work and relationships; addresses disconnection between theorisations of care in different disciplines; and locates all its research in the context of international scholarship, actively engaging with policy partners. It will fill knowledge gaps, contribute new theoretical ideas and data analyses, and provide useful, accurate evidence to inform care planning, provision and experience. It develops and critically engages with policy and theoretical debates about: care infrastructure (systems, networks, partnerships, standards); divisions of caring labour/the political economy of care (inequalities, exploitation); care ethics, rights, recognition and values (frameworks, standards, entitlements, wellbeing outcomes); care technologies and human-technological interactions; and care relations in emotional, familial, community and intergenerational context. Our team comprises 20 scholars in 7 universities, linked to an international network spanning 15 countries. Our programme comprises integrative activities, in which the whole team works together to develop a new conceptual framework on sustainable care and wellbeing, and two Work Strands, each with 4 linked projects, on 'Care Systems' & 'Care Work & Relationships'. 'Care Systems' will: (i) study prospects, developments and differentiation in the four care systems operating in England, N. Ireland, Scotland & Wales, comparing their approaches to markets, privatisation and reliance on unpaid care; (ii) model costs and contributions in care, covering those of carers and employers as well as public spending on care; (iii) assess the potential of emerging technologies to enhance care system sustainability; and (iv) analyse, in a dynamic policy context, migrant care workers' role in the sustainability of homecare. 'Care Work & Relationships' will: (i) develop case studies of emerging homecare models, and assess their implications for sustainable wellbeing; (ii) focus on carers who combine employment with unpaid care, filling gaps in knowledge about the effectiveness of workplace support and what care leave and workplace standard schemes can contribute to sustainable care arrangements; (iii) explore how care technologies can be integrated to support working carers, ensuring wellbeing outcomes across caring networks; and (iv) investigate care 'in' and 'out of' place, as systems adapt or come under pressure associated with population diversity and mobility. Each project will collaborate with our international partners. These scholars, in 26 collaborating institutions, will ensure we learn from others about ways of understanding, measuring or interpreting developments in how care is organised and experienced, and keep up to date with latest research and scholarship. Our capacity-building strategy will build future scholarly expertise in the study of sustainability and wellbeing in care, and ensure our concepts, methods, and research findings achieve international standards of excellence. Universities in our partnership are contributing 5 UK & 12 overseas PhD studentships, enabling us to form an international early career scholar network on sustainable care, supported by our senior team and partners. Our impact strategy, led by Carers UK, involves leading UK and international policy partners. Informing policy, practice and debate, we will co-produce analyses and guidance, enhance data quality, promote good practice and engage decision-makers, policymakers, practitioners in the public, private and voluntary sectors, carers, people with care needs, and the media. Our Advisory Board of leading academics, policy/practice figures and opinion formers will guide all our work.