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1,254 Research products, page 1 of 126

  • Canada
  • 2017-2021
  • Transport Research

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adrien Cervesato; E. Owen D. Waygood;
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council National Academy of Sciences
    Country: Canada

    Children’s independent mobility (CIM) on school days (weekdays) and on the weekend are examined in this study. Previous studies have focused primarily on weekday trips, with a vast majority only examining trips to school. However, the types of trips and the available time differ between weekdays and weekends. Weekday trips are more regular and possibly more local, whereas on the weekend the children may have more free time (i.e., no school) to engage in activities. Parents (as a group) are also less likely to have work obligations, and thus potentially more time, on the weekend. Theoretically, each context for the weekend could facilitate more independent or active mode trips. Nonetheless, this may be linked to whether destinations are local, which is linked to the built environment. Using origin–destination data (2011) for the City of Québec, this paper will expand knowledge in the field of children’s travel by examining all trips during a weekday ( n = 979) and weekend ( n = 315) for children aged 9 to 11 across five built environment types. The findings show that weekend trips are rarely independent, and that the key explanatory factors for greater CIM are shorter distances, having an older sibling, and more urban environments. Other sociodemographic variables were not significant or were inconsistent between the two types of weekday.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ashley Zachariah; Arno de Klerk;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    Solvent deasphalting and visbreaking are two important technologies in the development of processes for partial upgrading of oilsands-derived bitumen to improve oil fluidity for pipeline transport. This work investigated the impact of the process sequence, solvent deasphalting followed by visbreaking (SDA-Vis) compared to visbreaking followed by solvent deasphalting (Vis-SDA). Thermal conversion during visbreaking was performed at 380 °C for 85 min, and solvent deasphalting was performed with n-pentane. Using this combination of processes in either sequence changed bitumen from a viscosity-limited fluid to a density-limited fluid with respect to pipeline specifications. The density and viscosity of the oil products from SDA-Vis and Vis-SDA were comparable. It was found that SDA-Vis achieved 2 wt % higher liquid yield than Vis-SDA. Conversely, Vis-SDA produced an oil product with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio compared to SDA-Vis. This difference could be explained in terms of hydrogen transfer during the...

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Yisha Luo; Ali Alaghbandrad; Tersoo K. Genger; Amin Hammad;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The density and unsustainable placement of buried utilities in the limited underground space lead to coordination issues between utility owners and increase the social costs because of repeated excavations. Multi-purpose utility tunnels (MUTs) integrate all utilities in one tunnel that can be easily accessed for inspection and maintenance activities, which can be conducted all-year-round irrespective of the weather conditions. MUTs reduce the need for repeated excavations for intervention activities, and consequently, lower the traffic congestion. This paper aims to conduct a historical review of the development of MUTs in different countries, the motivation and strategies of this development, financing and cost-sharing methods, and regulations and standards. Despite the high promises of MUTs as a sustainable and resilient option for infrastructure development, their recent implementation in Europe and North America is limited mainly because of the high initial cost. China is currently leading the development of MUTs in the world on a large scale because of the central government initiatives. It is hoped that this paper will encourage further research about the development of MUTs.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ali Zirahi; Ali Haddadnia; Mohammadjavad Mohammadi; Bahareh Azinfar; Mohsen Zirrahi; Hassan Hassanzadeh; Jalal Abedi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Abstract Environmental impact and economics of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and bitumen transportation are among the major challenges of oil sands operations. We propose and assess a new approach to address these important challenges by using diluted bitumen (DilBit) as a carrier for large-scale CO2 transportation. The proposed approach provides a unique prospect to significantly reduce the cost of CO2 transportation from the carbon capture and storage (CCS) value chain, facilitate more efficient detection of DilBit spills from pipelines, utilize CO2, and improve public perception of both oil sands and CCS operations. These opportunities will offer the possibility of sustaining access to oil resources while reducing environmental impact and improving the economics of CCS and oil sands operations. Through experimental measurements, we have shown that 80–200 kg of CO2 per m3 of DilBit can be dissolved and transported. We also report simulation results from the simultaneous transportation of DilBit and CO2 and DilBit spill detection through monitoring concentration of leaked CO2.

  • Authors: 
    Abu Hena Muntakim; Ashutosh Sutra Dhar;
    Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

    AbstractThe maximum axial force on a pipeline subjected to axial ground movement is commonly calculated using a design equation developed without proper consideration of soil-pipe interaction. The ...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Graham Devitt; Mahmood Mahmoodi Nesheli; Ehab Diab; Amer Shalaby;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    Many North American cities are increasingly interested in implementing small-scale localized spot treatments to surface routes as a simpler approach than top-down, disruptive route change, or redesign. This research seeks to support the identification of effective spot treatments at intersections using a systematic, data-driven approach. By analyzing key bus performance indicators in Toronto, this study developed insights into factors affecting peak-period bus speeds and delays at the segment and intersection levels for a wide variety of route and intersection configurations across eight high-frequency routes. Candidate treatments were then identified to improve bus performance. Data were sourced from the automatic vehicle location system, general transit feed specification, and a specialized ride check and GPS survey. Features of the approaches of 100 signalized intersections along the study routes were analyzed using K-means clustering, ordinary least squares regression, and regression trees, with target variables as their morning and evening peak operating speeds, segment-level delays, and signal delays. The results showed that long signal split is a significant contributor to higher operating speeds and lower delays, suggesting signal timing adjustments are an effective treatment. Clustering analysis suggested turning restrictions, particularly for right turns at intersections with near-side stops, could be effective, since turning volumes of similarly configured intersections were lower at locations with better transit performance. Regression analyses showed that queue jump lanes are an effective treatment if signal timing plans cannot be adjusted. The results from this study are intended to assist in informing transit authorities wishing to implement future spot improvement programs.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Zainab Almheiri; Mohamed A. Meguid; Tarek Zayed;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Population growth and urbanization worldwide entail the need for continuous renewal plans for urban water distribution networks. Hence, understanding the long-term performance and predicting the service life of water pipelines are essential for facilitating early replacement, avoiding economic losses, and ensuring safe transportation of drinking water from treatment plants to consumers. However, developing a suitable model that can be used for cases where data are insufficient or incomplete remains challenging. Herein, a new advanced meta-learning paradigm based on deep neural networks is introduced. The developed model is used to predict the risk index of pipe failure. The effects of different factors that are considered essential for the deterioration modeling of water pipelines are first examined. The factors include seasonal climatic variation, chlorine content, traffic conditions, pipe material, and the spatial characteristics of water pipes. The results suggest that these factors contribute to estimating the likelihood of failure in water distribution pipelines. The presence of chlorine residual and the number of traffic lanes are the most critical factors, followed by road type, spatial characteristics, month index, traffic type, precipitation, temperature, number of breaks, and pipe depth. The proposed approach can accommodate limited, high-dimensional, and partially observed data and can be applied to any water distribution system.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ren Thomas; Luca Bertolini;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Transit-oriented development has quickly become a popular concept: it is a complex process and strategy that can contribute to more sustainable transportation patterns, decreased emissions, and enhanced regional connectivity. A significant percentage of households would like to live in high-density housing near transit. However, TOD has also contributed to the displacement of local residents, the loss of affordable housing in newly developed areas close to transit stations and stops, and the disruption of local business operations. It has been marred by overly complex development processes, financial and construction challenges, and unrealistic expectations for civic renewal. In this chapter, we discuss the characteristics of TOD, the current state of practice in cities around the world, and barriers to its implementation. At the end of the chapter, we present more detail on our two-year study on TOD implementation and outline the remaining chapters of this volume.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,254 Research products, page 1 of 126
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adrien Cervesato; E. Owen D. Waygood;
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council National Academy of Sciences
    Country: Canada

    Children’s independent mobility (CIM) on school days (weekdays) and on the weekend are examined in this study. Previous studies have focused primarily on weekday trips, with a vast majority only examining trips to school. However, the types of trips and the available time differ between weekdays and weekends. Weekday trips are more regular and possibly more local, whereas on the weekend the children may have more free time (i.e., no school) to engage in activities. Parents (as a group) are also less likely to have work obligations, and thus potentially more time, on the weekend. Theoretically, each context for the weekend could facilitate more independent or active mode trips. Nonetheless, this may be linked to whether destinations are local, which is linked to the built environment. Using origin–destination data (2011) for the City of Québec, this paper will expand knowledge in the field of children’s travel by examining all trips during a weekday ( n = 979) and weekend ( n = 315) for children aged 9 to 11 across five built environment types. The findings show that weekend trips are rarely independent, and that the key explanatory factors for greater CIM are shorter distances, having an older sibling, and more urban environments. Other sociodemographic variables were not significant or were inconsistent between the two types of weekday.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ashley Zachariah; Arno de Klerk;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    Solvent deasphalting and visbreaking are two important technologies in the development of processes for partial upgrading of oilsands-derived bitumen to improve oil fluidity for pipeline transport. This work investigated the impact of the process sequence, solvent deasphalting followed by visbreaking (SDA-Vis) compared to visbreaking followed by solvent deasphalting (Vis-SDA). Thermal conversion during visbreaking was performed at 380 °C for 85 min, and solvent deasphalting was performed with n-pentane. Using this combination of processes in either sequence changed bitumen from a viscosity-limited fluid to a density-limited fluid with respect to pipeline specifications. The density and viscosity of the oil products from SDA-Vis and Vis-SDA were comparable. It was found that SDA-Vis achieved 2 wt % higher liquid yield than Vis-SDA. Conversely, Vis-SDA produced an oil product with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio compared to SDA-Vis. This difference could be explained in terms of hydrogen transfer during the...

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Yisha Luo; Ali Alaghbandrad; Tersoo K. Genger; Amin Hammad;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The density and unsustainable placement of buried utilities in the limited underground space lead to coordination issues between utility owners and increase the social costs because of repeated excavations. Multi-purpose utility tunnels (MUTs) integrate all utilities in one tunnel that can be easily accessed for inspection and maintenance activities, which can be conducted all-year-round irrespective of the weather conditions. MUTs reduce the need for repeated excavations for intervention activities, and consequently, lower the traffic congestion. This paper aims to conduct a historical review of the development of MUTs in different countries, the motivation and strategies of this development, financing and cost-sharing methods, and regulations and standards. Despite the high promises of MUTs as a sustainable and resilient option for infrastructure development, their recent implementation in Europe and North America is limited mainly because of the high initial cost. China is currently leading the development of MUTs in the world on a large scale because of the central government initiatives. It is hoped that this paper will encourage further research about the development of MUTs.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ali Zirahi; Ali Haddadnia; Mohammadjavad Mohammadi; Bahareh Azinfar; Mohsen Zirrahi; Hassan Hassanzadeh; Jalal Abedi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Abstract Environmental impact and economics of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and bitumen transportation are among the major challenges of oil sands operations. We propose and assess a new approach to address these important challenges by using diluted bitumen (DilBit) as a carrier for large-scale CO2 transportation. The proposed approach provides a unique prospect to significantly reduce the cost of CO2 transportation from the carbon capture and storage (CCS) value chain, facilitate more efficient detection of DilBit spills from pipelines, utilize CO2, and improve public perception of both oil sands and CCS operations. These opportunities will offer the possibility of sustaining access to oil resources while reducing environmental impact and improving the economics of CCS and oil sands operations. Through experimental measurements, we have shown that 80–200 kg of CO2 per m3 of DilBit can be dissolved and transported. We also report simulation results from the simultaneous transportation of DilBit and CO2 and DilBit spill detection through monitoring concentration of leaked CO2.

  • Authors: 
    Abu Hena Muntakim; Ashutosh Sutra Dhar;
    Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

    AbstractThe maximum axial force on a pipeline subjected to axial ground movement is commonly calculated using a design equation developed without proper consideration of soil-pipe interaction. The ...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Graham Devitt; Mahmood Mahmoodi Nesheli; Ehab Diab; Amer Shalaby;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    Many North American cities are increasingly interested in implementing small-scale localized spot treatments to surface routes as a simpler approach than top-down, disruptive route change, or redesign. This research seeks to support the identification of effective spot treatments at intersections using a systematic, data-driven approach. By analyzing key bus performance indicators in Toronto, this study developed insights into factors affecting peak-period bus speeds and delays at the segment and intersection levels for a wide variety of route and intersection configurations across eight high-frequency routes. Candidate treatments were then identified to improve bus performance. Data were sourced from the automatic vehicle location system, general transit feed specification, and a specialized ride check and GPS survey. Features of the approaches of 100 signalized intersections along the study routes were analyzed using K-means clustering, ordinary least squares regression, and regression trees, with target variables as their morning and evening peak operating speeds, segment-level delays, and signal delays. The results showed that long signal split is a significant contributor to higher operating speeds and lower delays, suggesting signal timing adjustments are an effective treatment. Clustering analysis suggested turning restrictions, particularly for right turns at intersections with near-side stops, could be effective, since turning volumes of similarly configured intersections were lower at locations with better transit performance. Regression analyses showed that queue jump lanes are an effective treatment if signal timing plans cannot be adjusted. The results from this study are intended to assist in informing transit authorities wishing to implement future spot improvement programs.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Zainab Almheiri; Mohamed A. Meguid; Tarek Zayed;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Population growth and urbanization worldwide entail the need for continuous renewal plans for urban water distribution networks. Hence, understanding the long-term performance and predicting the service life of water pipelines are essential for facilitating early replacement, avoiding economic losses, and ensuring safe transportation of drinking water from treatment plants to consumers. However, developing a suitable model that can be used for cases where data are insufficient or incomplete remains challenging. Herein, a new advanced meta-learning paradigm based on deep neural networks is introduced. The developed model is used to predict the risk index of pipe failure. The effects of different factors that are considered essential for the deterioration modeling of water pipelines are first examined. The factors include seasonal climatic variation, chlorine content, traffic conditions, pipe material, and the spatial characteristics of water pipes. The results suggest that these factors contribute to estimating the likelihood of failure in water distribution pipelines. The presence of chlorine residual and the number of traffic lanes are the most critical factors, followed by road type, spatial characteristics, month index, traffic type, precipitation, temperature, number of breaks, and pipe depth. The proposed approach can accommodate limited, high-dimensional, and partially observed data and can be applied to any water distribution system.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ren Thomas; Luca Bertolini;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Transit-oriented development has quickly become a popular concept: it is a complex process and strategy that can contribute to more sustainable transportation patterns, decreased emissions, and enhanced regional connectivity. A significant percentage of households would like to live in high-density housing near transit. However, TOD has also contributed to the displacement of local residents, the loss of affordable housing in newly developed areas close to transit stations and stops, and the disruption of local business operations. It has been marred by overly complex development processes, financial and construction challenges, and unrealistic expectations for civic renewal. In this chapter, we discuss the characteristics of TOD, the current state of practice in cities around the world, and barriers to its implementation. At the end of the chapter, we present more detail on our two-year study on TOD implementation and outline the remaining chapters of this volume.