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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schellenberg, D; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Mushi, A; Savigny de, D; Mgalula, L; Mbuya, C; Victoria, C.G.;
    Country: Tanzania (United Republic of)

    Objective was to document the prevalence, age-distribution, and risk factors for anaemia in Tanzanian children less than 5 years old,thereby assisting in the development of effective strategies for controlling anaemia. Cluster sampling was used to identify 2417 households at random from four contiguous districts in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania in mid-1999. Data on various social and medical parameters were collected and analysed. Blood haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were available for 1979 of the 2131 (93%) children identified and ranged from 1.7 to 18.6 g/dl. Overall, 87% (1722) of children had an Hb <11 g/dl, 39% (775) had an Hb <8 g/dl and 3% (65) had an Hb <5 g/dl. The highest prevalence of anaemia of all three levels was in children aged 6–11 months, of whom 10% (22/226) had an Hb <5 g/dl. However, the prevalence of anaemia was already high in children aged 1–5 months (85% had an Hb <11 g/dl, 42% had an Hb <8 g/dl, and 6% had an Hb <5 g/dl). Anaemia was usually asymptomatic and when symptoms arose they were nonspecific and rarely identified as a serious illness by the care provider. A recent history of treatment with antimalarials and iron was rare. Compliance with vaccinations delivered through the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) was 82% and was notassociated with risk of anaemia. Anaemia is extremely common in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania, even in very young infants. Further implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness algorithm should improve the case management of anaemia. However, the asymptomatic nature of most episodes of anaemia highlights the need for preventive strategies. The EPI has good coverage of the target population and it may be an appropriate channel for delivering tools for controlling anaemia and malaria.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Dengler; Thomas J. Matthews; Manuel J. Steinbauer; Sebastian Wolfrum; Steffen Boch; Alessandro Chiarucci; Timo Conradi; Iwona Dembicz; Corrado Marcenò; Itziar García-Mijangos; +35 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Italy, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, Norway, Switzerland ...

    Aim Species-area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location Palaearctic grasslands and other non-forested habitats. Taxa Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation-plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested-plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm(2) to 1,024 m(2). Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis-Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis-Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. We thank all vegetation scientists who carefully collected multi‐ scale plant diversity data from Palaearctic Grasslands available in GrassPlot. The Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) and the International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS) sup‐ ported the EDGG Field Workshops, which generated a core part of the GrassPlot data. The Bavarian Research Alliance (grant BayIntAn_UBT_2017_58) and the Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) funded the initial GrassPlot workshop during which the database was established and the cur‐ rent paper was initiated. A.N. acknowledges support by the Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration (CISSC), Iran. C.M., I.B., I.G.‐M and J.A.C. were funded by the Basque Government (IT936‐16). D.V. carried out the research supported by a grant of the State Fund For Fundamental Research Ф83/53427. G.F. carried out the research in the frame of the MIUR initiative ‘Department of excellence' (Law 232/2016). I.D. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (grant DEC‐2013/09/N/NZ8/03234). J.Do. was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA 17‐19376S). M.J. was supported by grant by Slovak Academy of Sciences (VEGA 02/0095/19). W.U. ac‐ knowledges support from the Polish National Science Centre (grant 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    M. de Montigny; J. Niederle; A. G. Nikitin;
    Project: NSERC

    All indecomposable finite-dimensional representations of the homogeneous Galilei group which when restricted to the rotation subgroup are decomposed to spin 0, 1/2 and 1 representations are constructed and classified. These representations are also obtained via contractions of the corresponding representations of the Lorentz group. Finally the obtained representations are used to derive a general Pauli anomalous interaction term and Darwin and spin-orbit couplings of a Galilean particle interacting with an external electric field. 23 pages, 2 tables

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Barbara L. Shacklett; Julià Blanco; Lisa B. Hightow-Weidman; Nyaradzo Mgodi; José Alcamí; Susan Buchbinder; Mike Chirenje; Smritee Dabee; Mamadou H. Diallo; Kostyantyn Dumchev; +18 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
    Countries: Spain, United States, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | HIV Research for Preventi... (1R13AI136762-01)

    The HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) conference is dedicated to advancing HIV prevention research, responding to a growing consensus that effective and durable prevention will require a combination of approaches as well as unprecedented collaboration among scientists, practitioners, and community workers from different fields and geographic areas. The conference theme in 2018, "From Research to Impact," acknowledged an increasing focus on translation of promising research findings into practical, accessible, and affordable HIV prevention options for those who need them worldwide. HIVR4P 2018 was held in Madrid, Spain, on 21-25 October, with >1,400 participants from 52 countries around the globe, representing all aspects of HIV prevention research and implementation. The program included 137 oral and 610 poster presentations. This article presents a brief summary of highlights from the conference. More detailed information, complete abstracts as well as webcasts and daily Rapporteur summaries may be found on the conference website. Supported by Gilead who provided funding. Gilead has had no input into the content of the materials used at this meeting/conference. No other pharmaceutical company has had input into the content of the materials used at this conference. HIVR4P 2018 was made possible in part by 1 R13 AI136762-01 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The views expressed in written conference materials or publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department of Health and Human Services; nor does mention of trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Sí

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    L. T. Ellis; C. Ah-Peng; G. Aslan; V. A. Bakalin; A. Bergamini; D. A. Callaghan; P. Campisi; F. M. Raimondo; S. S. Choi; J. Csiky; +72 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Poland, Croatia, France, Portugal
    Project: EC | INTERACT (262693)

    Pseudoamblystegium subtile (Hedw.) Vanderp. & Hedenäs. CONTRIBUTORS: R. Gabriel, M. Kubová, C. Sérgio and I. Soares Albergaria. PORTUGAL, AZORES: Terceira Island, Angra do Heroísmo, municipal garden ‘Jardim Duque da Terceira’, 38° 39′ 24.0′′N, 27°13′ 05.99′′W, 31 m a.s.l, on the base of a shrub, in acidic conditions, 7 April 2017, leg. Michaela Kubová s.n. (AZU). A new understanding of the pleurocarpous moss species Pseudoamblystegium subtile was proposed by Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs (2009). The new genus is separated from the other Amblystegiaceae primarily due to its phylogenetic consistency and is characterised by the possession of leaves with a very short nerve, and erect capsules (Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs 2009). (excerpt) info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shakil Ahmed; Peter Leslie Annear; Bouaphat Phonvisay; Chansaly Phommavong; Valeria de Oliveira Cruz; Asmus Hammerich; Bart Jacobs;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractThere is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Gary E. Raskob; Nick van Es; Annelise Segers; Pantep Angchaisuksiri; Doyeun Oh; Zoltán Boda; Roger M. Lyons; Karina Meijer; Ivan Gudz; Jeffrey I. Weitz; +4 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Venous thromboembolism occurs commonly in patients with cancer. Direct oral anticoagulants are non-inferior to conventional anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. We hypothesised that edoxaban, a direct oral inhibitor of activated clotting factor Xa, might be more suitable than conventional anticoagulants in the management of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of edoxaban compared with warfarin in a subgroup of patients with cancer enrolled in the Hokusai-VTE trial. We did a prespecified subgroup analysis in August, 2013, and a post-hoc analysis of non-inferiority and safety in March, 2016, of the patients with cancer enrolled in the randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, multicentre, Hokusai-VTE trial done between Jan 28, 2010, and Oct 31, 2012. In this study, patients aged at least 18 years with acute symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis or acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (with or without deep-vein thrombosis) were assigned to receive edoxaban 60 mg once per day (or 30 mg once per day for patients with a creatinine clearance of 30-50 mL/min, bodyweight <60 kg, or who were receiving concomitant treatment with the P-glycoprotein inhibitors quinidine or verapamil) or warfarin (dose adjusted to maintain the international normalised ratio between 2·0 and 3·0) or placebos for either group for at least 3 months up to 12 months. All patients received initial therapy with open-label enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin for at least 5 days. Edoxoban (or placebo) was started after discontinuation of initial heparin; warfarin (or placebo) started concurrently with the study regimen of heparin. In our analysis we examined data for a subgroup of these patients who had a history of cancer or who had been categorised as having active cancer by the study physician at the time of enrolment. Additionally, all patients with a history of cancer were reviewed post hoc and categorised according to the presence or absence of active cancer. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of these patients with symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism during the 12-month study period, analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, with an upper limit of the CI for the hazard ratio (HR) of 1·5. The principal safety outcome was the proportion of patients who had clinically relevant bleeding in the population of patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00986154. Of 771 patients with cancer enrolled in the trial, 378 were assigned to edoxaban and 393 to warfarin. Recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in 14 (4%) of 378 patients given edoxaban and in 28 (7%) of 393 patients given warfarin (hazard ratio [HR] 0·53, 95% CI 0·28-1·00; p=0·0007). The upper limit of this 95% CI did not exceed the non-inferiority margin of 1·5 that was prespecified for the trial. Clinically relevant bleeding (major or non-major) occurred in 47 (12%) of 378 patients who received edoxaban and in 74 (19%) of 393 patients who received warfarin; HR for clinically relevant bleeding 0·64, 95% CI 0·45-0·92; p=0·017. Major bleeding occurred in ten (3%) of 378 patients with a history of cancer who received edoxaban and in 13 (3%) of 393 who received warfarin (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·35-1·83). Edoxaban might be as effective as warfarin for the treatment of patients with cancer with venous thromboembolism, and with less clinically relevant bleeding. Additional clinical trials of edoxaban versus low-molecular-weight heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer are warranted. Daiichi Sankyo

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Robert C. Reiner; Paulina A. Lindstedt; Brigette F. Blacker; Lucas Earl; Sandra B. Munro; Lucas Guimarães Abreu; Dilaram Acharya; Maryam Adabi; Rufus A. Adedoyin; Victor Adekanmbi; +242 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Reiner RC Jr, Hay SI. Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000–17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2020; 395: 1779–801—In this Article, the author byline has been amended to Local Burden of Disease Diarrhoea Collaborators. This correction has been made to the online version as of June 4, 2020, and the printed version is correct. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mykola Beshley; Natalia Kryvinska; Marian Seliuchenko; Halyna Beshley; Elhadi M. Shakshuki; Ansar-Ul-Haque Yasar;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Countries: Belgium, Austria

    This paper proposes a modified architecture of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) mobile network to provide services for the Internet of Things (IoT). This is achieved by allocating a narrow bandwidth and transferring the scheduling functions from the eNodeB base station to an NB-IoT controller. A method for allocating uplink and downlink resources of the LTE/NB-IoT hybrid technology is applied to ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) from end-to-end. This method considers scheduling traffic/resources on the NB-IoT controller, which allows eNodeB planning to remain unchanged. This paper also proposes a prioritization approach within the IoT traffic to provide End-to-End (E2E) QoS in the integrated LTE/NB-IoT network. Further, we develop &ldquo management algorithms for the IoT traffic prioritization. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we performed a number of experiments using simulations. We concluded that our proposed approach ensures high end-to-end QoS of the real-time traffic by reducing the average end-to-end transmission delay. smart queue&rdquo

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2018 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anne MacKay; Alexander Melnikov; Yuliya Mishura;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC

    In this paper, we investigate two-sided bounds for the small ball probability of a mixed fractional Brownian motion with a general deterministic trend function, in terms of respective small ball probability of a mixed fractional Brownian motion without trend. To maximize the lower bound, we consider various ways to split the trend function between the components of the mixed fractional Brownian motion for the application of Girsanov theorem, and we show that the optimal split is the solution of a Fredholm integral equation. We find that the upper bound for the probability is also a function of this optimal split. The asymptotic behaviour of the probability as the ball becomes small is analyzed for zero trend function and for the particular choice of the upper limiting function.

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Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,017 Research products, page 1 of 202
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Schellenberg, D; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Mushi, A; Savigny de, D; Mgalula, L; Mbuya, C; Victoria, C.G.;
    Country: Tanzania (United Republic of)

    Objective was to document the prevalence, age-distribution, and risk factors for anaemia in Tanzanian children less than 5 years old,thereby assisting in the development of effective strategies for controlling anaemia. Cluster sampling was used to identify 2417 households at random from four contiguous districts in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania in mid-1999. Data on various social and medical parameters were collected and analysed. Blood haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were available for 1979 of the 2131 (93%) children identified and ranged from 1.7 to 18.6 g/dl. Overall, 87% (1722) of children had an Hb <11 g/dl, 39% (775) had an Hb <8 g/dl and 3% (65) had an Hb <5 g/dl. The highest prevalence of anaemia of all three levels was in children aged 6–11 months, of whom 10% (22/226) had an Hb <5 g/dl. However, the prevalence of anaemia was already high in children aged 1–5 months (85% had an Hb <11 g/dl, 42% had an Hb <8 g/dl, and 6% had an Hb <5 g/dl). Anaemia was usually asymptomatic and when symptoms arose they were nonspecific and rarely identified as a serious illness by the care provider. A recent history of treatment with antimalarials and iron was rare. Compliance with vaccinations delivered through the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) was 82% and was notassociated with risk of anaemia. Anaemia is extremely common in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania, even in very young infants. Further implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness algorithm should improve the case management of anaemia. However, the asymptomatic nature of most episodes of anaemia highlights the need for preventive strategies. The EPI has good coverage of the target population and it may be an appropriate channel for delivering tools for controlling anaemia and malaria.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jürgen Dengler; Thomas J. Matthews; Manuel J. Steinbauer; Sebastian Wolfrum; Steffen Boch; Alessandro Chiarucci; Timo Conradi; Iwona Dembicz; Corrado Marcenò; Itziar García-Mijangos; +35 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Italy, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, Norway, Switzerland ...

    Aim Species-area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas, power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how sampling methodology or the environment influence SAR shape. Location Palaearctic grasslands and other non-forested habitats. Taxa Vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. Methods We used the GrassPlot database, containing standardized vegetation-plot data from vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens spanning a wide range of grassland types throughout the Palaearctic and including 2,057 nested-plot series with at least seven grain sizes ranging from 1 cm(2) to 1,024 m(2). Using nonlinear regression, we assessed the appropriateness of different SAR functions (power, power quadratic, power breakpoint, logarithmic, Michaelis-Menten). Based on AICc, we tested whether the ranking of functions differed among taxonomic groups, methodological settings, biomes or vegetation types. Results The power function was the most suitable function across the studied taxonomic groups. The superiority of this function increased from lichens to bryophytes to vascular plants to all three taxonomic groups together. The sampling method was highly influential as rooted presence sampling decreased the performance of the power function. By contrast, biome and vegetation type had practically no influence on the superiority of the power law. Main conclusions We conclude that SARs of sessile organisms at smaller spatial grains are best approximated by a power function. This coincides with several other comprehensive studies of SARs at different grain sizes and for different taxa, thus supporting the general appropriateness of the power function for modelling species diversity over a wide range of grain sizes. The poor performance of the Michaelis-Menten function demonstrates that richness within plant communities generally does not approach any saturation, thus calling into question the concept of minimal area. We thank all vegetation scientists who carefully collected multi‐ scale plant diversity data from Palaearctic Grasslands available in GrassPlot. The Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) and the International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS) sup‐ ported the EDGG Field Workshops, which generated a core part of the GrassPlot data. The Bavarian Research Alliance (grant BayIntAn_UBT_2017_58) and the Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) funded the initial GrassPlot workshop during which the database was established and the cur‐ rent paper was initiated. A.N. acknowledges support by the Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration (CISSC), Iran. C.M., I.B., I.G.‐M and J.A.C. were funded by the Basque Government (IT936‐16). D.V. carried out the research supported by a grant of the State Fund For Fundamental Research Ф83/53427. G.F. carried out the research in the frame of the MIUR initiative ‘Department of excellence' (Law 232/2016). I.D. was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (grant DEC‐2013/09/N/NZ8/03234). J.Do. was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA 17‐19376S). M.J. was supported by grant by Slovak Academy of Sciences (VEGA 02/0095/19). W.U. ac‐ knowledges support from the Polish National Science Centre (grant 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    M. de Montigny; J. Niederle; A. G. Nikitin;
    Project: NSERC

    All indecomposable finite-dimensional representations of the homogeneous Galilei group which when restricted to the rotation subgroup are decomposed to spin 0, 1/2 and 1 representations are constructed and classified. These representations are also obtained via contractions of the corresponding representations of the Lorentz group. Finally the obtained representations are used to derive a general Pauli anomalous interaction term and Darwin and spin-orbit couplings of a Galilean particle interacting with an external electric field. 23 pages, 2 tables

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Barbara L. Shacklett; Julià Blanco; Lisa B. Hightow-Weidman; Nyaradzo Mgodi; José Alcamí; Susan Buchbinder; Mike Chirenje; Smritee Dabee; Mamadou H. Diallo; Kostyantyn Dumchev; +18 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
    Countries: Spain, United States, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | HIV Research for Preventi... (1R13AI136762-01)

    The HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) conference is dedicated to advancing HIV prevention research, responding to a growing consensus that effective and durable prevention will require a combination of approaches as well as unprecedented collaboration among scientists, practitioners, and community workers from different fields and geographic areas. The conference theme in 2018, "From Research to Impact," acknowledged an increasing focus on translation of promising research findings into practical, accessible, and affordable HIV prevention options for those who need them worldwide. HIVR4P 2018 was held in Madrid, Spain, on 21-25 October, with >1,400 participants from 52 countries around the globe, representing all aspects of HIV prevention research and implementation. The program included 137 oral and 610 poster presentations. This article presents a brief summary of highlights from the conference. More detailed information, complete abstracts as well as webcasts and daily Rapporteur summaries may be found on the conference website. Supported by Gilead who provided funding. Gilead has had no input into the content of the materials used at this meeting/conference. No other pharmaceutical company has had input into the content of the materials used at this conference. HIVR4P 2018 was made possible in part by 1 R13 AI136762-01 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The views expressed in written conference materials or publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department of Health and Human Services; nor does mention of trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Sí

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    L. T. Ellis; C. Ah-Peng; G. Aslan; V. A. Bakalin; A. Bergamini; D. A. Callaghan; P. Campisi; F. M. Raimondo; S. S. Choi; J. Csiky; +72 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Poland, Croatia, France, Portugal
    Project: EC | INTERACT (262693)

    Pseudoamblystegium subtile (Hedw.) Vanderp. & Hedenäs. CONTRIBUTORS: R. Gabriel, M. Kubová, C. Sérgio and I. Soares Albergaria. PORTUGAL, AZORES: Terceira Island, Angra do Heroísmo, municipal garden ‘Jardim Duque da Terceira’, 38° 39′ 24.0′′N, 27°13′ 05.99′′W, 31 m a.s.l, on the base of a shrub, in acidic conditions, 7 April 2017, leg. Michaela Kubová s.n. (AZU). A new understanding of the pleurocarpous moss species Pseudoamblystegium subtile was proposed by Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs (2009). The new genus is separated from the other Amblystegiaceae primarily due to its phylogenetic consistency and is characterised by the possession of leaves with a very short nerve, and erect capsules (Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs 2009). (excerpt) info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shakil Ahmed; Peter Leslie Annear; Bouaphat Phonvisay; Chansaly Phommavong; Valeria de Oliveira Cruz; Asmus Hammerich; Bart Jacobs;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractThere is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Gary E. Raskob; Nick van Es; Annelise Segers; Pantep Angchaisuksiri; Doyeun Oh; Zoltán Boda; Roger M. Lyons; Karina Meijer; Ivan Gudz; Jeffrey I. Weitz; +4 more
    Country: Netherlands

    Venous thromboembolism occurs commonly in patients with cancer. Direct oral anticoagulants are non-inferior to conventional anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. We hypothesised that edoxaban, a direct oral inhibitor of activated clotting factor Xa, might be more suitable than conventional anticoagulants in the management of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of edoxaban compared with warfarin in a subgroup of patients with cancer enrolled in the Hokusai-VTE trial. We did a prespecified subgroup analysis in August, 2013, and a post-hoc analysis of non-inferiority and safety in March, 2016, of the patients with cancer enrolled in the randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, multicentre, Hokusai-VTE trial done between Jan 28, 2010, and Oct 31, 2012. In this study, patients aged at least 18 years with acute symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis or acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (with or without deep-vein thrombosis) were assigned to receive edoxaban 60 mg once per day (or 30 mg once per day for patients with a creatinine clearance of 30-50 mL/min, bodyweight <60 kg, or who were receiving concomitant treatment with the P-glycoprotein inhibitors quinidine or verapamil) or warfarin (dose adjusted to maintain the international normalised ratio between 2·0 and 3·0) or placebos for either group for at least 3 months up to 12 months. All patients received initial therapy with open-label enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin for at least 5 days. Edoxoban (or placebo) was started after discontinuation of initial heparin; warfarin (or placebo) started concurrently with the study regimen of heparin. In our analysis we examined data for a subgroup of these patients who had a history of cancer or who had been categorised as having active cancer by the study physician at the time of enrolment. Additionally, all patients with a history of cancer were reviewed post hoc and categorised according to the presence or absence of active cancer. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of these patients with symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism during the 12-month study period, analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, with an upper limit of the CI for the hazard ratio (HR) of 1·5. The principal safety outcome was the proportion of patients who had clinically relevant bleeding in the population of patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00986154. Of 771 patients with cancer enrolled in the trial, 378 were assigned to edoxaban and 393 to warfarin. Recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in 14 (4%) of 378 patients given edoxaban and in 28 (7%) of 393 patients given warfarin (hazard ratio [HR] 0·53, 95% CI 0·28-1·00; p=0·0007). The upper limit of this 95% CI did not exceed the non-inferiority margin of 1·5 that was prespecified for the trial. Clinically relevant bleeding (major or non-major) occurred in 47 (12%) of 378 patients who received edoxaban and in 74 (19%) of 393 patients who received warfarin; HR for clinically relevant bleeding 0·64, 95% CI 0·45-0·92; p=0·017. Major bleeding occurred in ten (3%) of 378 patients with a history of cancer who received edoxaban and in 13 (3%) of 393 who received warfarin (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·35-1·83). Edoxaban might be as effective as warfarin for the treatment of patients with cancer with venous thromboembolism, and with less clinically relevant bleeding. Additional clinical trials of edoxaban versus low-molecular-weight heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer are warranted. Daiichi Sankyo

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Robert C. Reiner; Paulina A. Lindstedt; Brigette F. Blacker; Lucas Earl; Sandra B. Munro; Lucas Guimarães Abreu; Dilaram Acharya; Maryam Adabi; Rufus A. Adedoyin; Victor Adekanmbi; +242 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Reiner RC Jr, Hay SI. Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000–17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2020; 395: 1779–801—In this Article, the author byline has been amended to Local Burden of Disease Diarrhoea Collaborators. This correction has been made to the online version as of June 4, 2020, and the printed version is correct. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mykola Beshley; Natalia Kryvinska; Marian Seliuchenko; Halyna Beshley; Elhadi M. Shakshuki; Ansar-Ul-Haque Yasar;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Countries: Belgium, Austria

    This paper proposes a modified architecture of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) mobile network to provide services for the Internet of Things (IoT). This is achieved by allocating a narrow bandwidth and transferring the scheduling functions from the eNodeB base station to an NB-IoT controller. A method for allocating uplink and downlink resources of the LTE/NB-IoT hybrid technology is applied to ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) from end-to-end. This method considers scheduling traffic/resources on the NB-IoT controller, which allows eNodeB planning to remain unchanged. This paper also proposes a prioritization approach within the IoT traffic to provide End-to-End (E2E) QoS in the integrated LTE/NB-IoT network. Further, we develop &ldquo management algorithms for the IoT traffic prioritization. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we performed a number of experiments using simulations. We concluded that our proposed approach ensures high end-to-end QoS of the real-time traffic by reducing the average end-to-end transmission delay. smart queue&rdquo

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2018 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anne MacKay; Alexander Melnikov; Yuliya Mishura;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC

    In this paper, we investigate two-sided bounds for the small ball probability of a mixed fractional Brownian motion with a general deterministic trend function, in terms of respective small ball probability of a mixed fractional Brownian motion without trend. To maximize the lower bound, we consider various ways to split the trend function between the components of the mixed fractional Brownian motion for the application of Girsanov theorem, and we show that the optimal split is the solution of a Fredholm integral equation. We find that the upper bound for the probability is also a function of this optimal split. The asymptotic behaviour of the probability as the ball becomes small is analyzed for zero trend function and for the particular choice of the upper limiting function.