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  • Authors: Lili Mats; Fiona Logue; Richard D. Oleschuk;

    Magnetic actuation is a droplet manipulation mechanism in digital microfluidics (DMF), where droplets can be actuated over a (super)hydrophobic surface with a magnetic force. Superparamagnetic particles or ferromagnetic liquids are added to the droplets to provide a “handle” by which the magnet can exert a force on the droplet. In this study, we present a novel method of magnetic manipulation, where droplets instead contain paramagnetic salts with molar magnetic susceptibilities (χm) approximately ≈10 000× < that for superparamagnetic particles. Droplet actuation is facilitated by low surface friction on fluorous silica nanoparticle-based superhydrophobic coatings, where <2 μN is required for reproducible droplet actuation. Different paramagnetic salts with χm from ≈4500 to 72 000 (× 10–6 cm3 mol–1) were used to make aqueous solutions of different concentration and tested for droplet actuation and sliding angle using permanent magnets (1.8–2.1 kG). Paramagnetic salts are compared in terms of solubility, m...

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Chelsea L. Voinorosky; Katherine J. Stewart;

    Abstract Herbicide use on boreal transmission line rights-of-way has been relatively limited compared to more temperate regions and therefore challenges exist in estimating and communicating the associated risks. Herbicides directly enter the ecosystem through deposition on vegetation and soils and can be a vector of contamination to browsing herbivores. Triclopyr drift and foliage concentrations were quantified following basal bark (Garlon RTU) and low-volume foliar (Garlon XRT) field treatments to aspen (Populus tremuloides) saplings and willow (Salix bebbiana) shrubs, respectively. Greater drift concentrations localized at the stem base were observed following basal bark treatments. Conversely, concentrations in foliage following the low-volume foliar treatment (DT50 = 5.7 days and DT90 = 34.6 days) were much higher than following basal bark treatment, which also required two days to translocate into the leaves. However, dissipation was rapid from both application methods and triclopyr in foliage was less than 20 μg g−1 a year following application. A risk assessment revealed an acceptable level of risk for acute toxicity to wildlife browsing on contaminated leaves from the residues detected in this study; however, an unacceptable level of risk for chronic toxicity to long-term browsing moose. Site-specific data regarding browsing behaviour on herbicide treated rights-of-ways and species-specific reference values are needed to improve confidence in the tier-two risk assessment. Basal bark application is ideal when stem density is lower and toxic effects for herbivores is of concern and low-volume foliar applications are best suited in areas with higher stem density when off-target herbicide deposition is less acceptable.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Environme...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Environme...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Douglas W. Morris; Shomen Mukherjee;

    Carrying capacity is one of the most important, yet least understood and rarely estimated, parameters in population management and modeling. A simple behavioral metric of carrying capacity would advance theory, conservation, and management of biological populations. Such a metric should be possible because behavior is finely attuned to variation in environment including population density. We connect optimal foraging theory with population dynamics and life history to develop a simple model that predicts this sort of adaptive density-dependent change in food consumption. We then confirm the model's unexpected and manifold predictions with field experiments. The theory predicts reproductive thresholds that alter the marginal value of energy as well as the value of time. Both effects cause a pronounced discontinuity in quitting-harvest rate that we revealed with foraging experiments. Red-backed voles maintained across a range of high densities foraged at a lower density-dependent rate than the same animals exposed to low-density treatments. The change in harvest rate is diagnostic of populations that exceed their carrying capacity. Ecologists, conservation biologists, and wildlife managers may thus be able to use simple and efficient foraging experiments to estimate carrying capacity and habitat quality.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ecologyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ecology
    Article . 2007
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ecologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ecology
      Article . 2007
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Seamus H. McCooey; Stephen J. Connon;

    AbstractFor Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Angewandte Chemiearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Angewandte Chemiearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Matthew H. Alford; James B. Girton; Gunnar Voet; Glenn S. Carter; +2 Authors

    We report the first direct turbulence observations in the Samoan Passage (SP), a 40 km wide notch in the South Pacific bathymetry through which flows most of the water supplying the North Pacific abyssal circulation. The observed turbulence is 1000 to 10,000 times typical abyssal levels —strong enough to completely mix away the densest water entering the passage—confirming inferences from previous coarser temperature and salinity sections. Accompanying towed measurements of velocity and temperature with horizontal resolution of about 250 m indicate the dominant processes responsible for the turbulence. Specifically, the flow accelerates substantially at the primary sill within the passage, reaching speeds as great as 0.55 m s−1. A strong hydraulic response is seen, with layers first rising to clear the sill and then plunging hundreds of meters downward. Turbulence results from high shear at the interface above the densest fluid as it descends and from hydraulic jumps that form downstream of the sill. In addition to the primary sill, other locations along the multiple interconnected channels through the Samoan Passage also have an effect on the mixing of the dense water. In fact, quite different hydraulic responses and turbulence levels are observed at seafloor features separated laterally by a few kilometers, suggesting that abyssal mixing depends sensitively on bathymetric details on small scales.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Research...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Research...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Kévin Lamy; Thierry Portafaix; Béatrice Josse; Colette Brogniez; +33 Authors

    We have derived values of the Ultraviolet Index (UVI) at solar noon using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet Model (TUV) driven by ozone, temperature and aerosol fields from climate simulations of the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1). Since clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in climate projections, we simulated only the clear-sky UVI. We compared the modelled UVI climatologies against present-day climatological values of UVI derived from both satellite data (the OMI-Aura OMUVBd product) and ground-based measurements (from the NDACC network). Depending on the region, relative differences between the UVI obtained from CCMI/TUV calculations and the ground-based measurements ranged between −5.9% and 10.6%. We then calculated the UVI evolution throughout the 21st century for the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5). Compared to 1960s values, we found an average increase in the UVI in 2100 (of 2–4%) in the tropical belt (30°N-30°S). For the mid-latitudes, we observed a 1.8 to 3.4 % increase in the Southern Hemisphere for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0, and found a 2.3% decrease in RCP 8.5. Higher increases in UVI are projected in the Northern Hemisphere except for RCP 8.5. At high latitudes, ozone recovery is well identified and induces a complete return of mean UVI levels to 1960 values for RCP 8.5 in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, UVI levels in 2100 are higher by 0.5 to 5.5% for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0 and they are lower by 7.9% for RCP 8.5. We analysed the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) on UVI from 1960 by comparing CCMI sensitivity simulations (1960–2100) with fixed GHGs or ODSs at their respective 1960 levels. As expected with ODS fixed at their 1960 levels, there is no large decrease in ozone levels and consequently no sudden increase in UVI levels. With fixed GHG, we observed a delayed return of ozone to 1960 values, with a corresponding pattern of change observed on UVI, and looking at the UVI difference between 2090s values and 1960s values, we found an 8 % increase in the tropical belt during the summer of each hemisphere. Finally we show that, while in the Southern Hemisphere the UVI is mainly driven by total ozone column, in the Northern Hemisphere both total ozone column and aerosol optical depth drive UVI levels, with aerosol optical depth having twice as much influence on the UVI as total ozone column does.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    https://acp.copernicus.org/art...
    Preprint
    License: cc-by
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: John R. de Bruyn; Piotr Habdas; Stella Kim;

    We study the fingering instability that occurs at the contact line of a thin sheet of a yield-stress fluid flowing down an incline. We derive an expression for the wavelength of the finger pattern as a function of inclination angle for a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. The wavelength is predicted to diverge at a finite angle which is related to the yield stress of the fluid. We also measure the wavelength of the finger pattern with suspensions of bentonite clay in water. Our experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Dmitrii F. Perepichka; Martin R. Bryce;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Angewandte Chemie In...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Angewandte Chemie In...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: George de Barros; Clayton V. Deutsch;

    Abstract In geostatistical simulation, a realization represents one possible outcome of the spatial uncertainty model. Tens to hundreds of realizations are generated in order to understand response property variation. There are ways to summarize local uncertainty, but visualizing all realizations is important to understand joint uncertainty between multiple locations. There is no straightforward manner to visualize all realizations at the same time or in sequence. This paper presents a new method to sequentially display multiple geostatistical realizations. The proposed algorithm performs an ordering of the visible portion of the realizations (images), according to the distance between realizations. The concept of distance corresponds to the differences computed cell by cell for every realization pair or to the differences computed from a moving window filtering applied to each realization. To define an optimal sequence of realizations, the shortest path route through the realizations is established by a simulated annealing technique. The gradual transition between realizations is enhanced by an image morphing technique where intermediate images are introduced between the original images. The final result consists of an animation that shows the sequence of realizations and allows better understanding of the uncertainty model.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Computers & Geoscien...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Computers & Geoscien...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Miguel A. Vigil Fuentes; Suman Thakur; Feng Wu; Manjusri Misra; +2 Authors

    AbstractIn this study, the 3D printability of a series of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends were investigated using fused filament fabrication (FFF). The studied blends suffered from poor 3D printability due to differences in compatibility and low thermal resistance. These shortcomings were addressed by incorporating a functionalized styrene-acrylate copolymer with oxirane moieties as a chain extender (CE). To enhance mechanical properties, the synergistic effect of 3D printing parameters such as printing temperature and speed, layer thickness and bed temperature were explored. Rheological analysis showed improvement in the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA:CE blend by allowing a higher printing temperature (220 °C) and sufficient printing speed (45 mm s−1). The surface morphology of fractured tensile specimens showed good bonding between layers when a bed temperature of 60 °C was used and a layer thickness of 0.25 mm was designed. The optimized printing samples shown higher storage modulus and strength, resulting in stiffer and stronger parts. The crystallinity, morphology and performance of the 3D printed products were correlated to share key methods to improve the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA based blends which may be implemented in other biopolymer blends, and further highlight how process parameters enhance the mechanical performance of 3D printed products.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Scientific Reports
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338,682 Research products
  • Authors: Lili Mats; Fiona Logue; Richard D. Oleschuk;

    Magnetic actuation is a droplet manipulation mechanism in digital microfluidics (DMF), where droplets can be actuated over a (super)hydrophobic surface with a magnetic force. Superparamagnetic particles or ferromagnetic liquids are added to the droplets to provide a “handle” by which the magnet can exert a force on the droplet. In this study, we present a novel method of magnetic manipulation, where droplets instead contain paramagnetic salts with molar magnetic susceptibilities (χm) approximately ≈10 000× < that for superparamagnetic particles. Droplet actuation is facilitated by low surface friction on fluorous silica nanoparticle-based superhydrophobic coatings, where <2 μN is required for reproducible droplet actuation. Different paramagnetic salts with χm from ≈4500 to 72 000 (× 10–6 cm3 mol–1) were used to make aqueous solutions of different concentration and tested for droplet actuation and sliding angle using permanent magnets (1.8–2.1 kG). Paramagnetic salts are compared in terms of solubility, m...

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Chelsea L. Voinorosky; Katherine J. Stewart;

    Abstract Herbicide use on boreal transmission line rights-of-way has been relatively limited compared to more temperate regions and therefore challenges exist in estimating and communicating the associated risks. Herbicides directly enter the ecosystem through deposition on vegetation and soils and can be a vector of contamination to browsing herbivores. Triclopyr drift and foliage concentrations were quantified following basal bark (Garlon RTU) and low-volume foliar (Garlon XRT) field treatments to aspen (Populus tremuloides) saplings and willow (Salix bebbiana) shrubs, respectively. Greater drift concentrations localized at the stem base were observed following basal bark treatments. Conversely, concentrations in foliage following the low-volume foliar treatment (DT50 = 5.7 days and DT90 = 34.6 days) were much higher than following basal bark treatment, which also required two days to translocate into the leaves. However, dissipation was rapid from both application methods and triclopyr in foliage was less than 20 μg g−1 a year following application. A risk assessment revealed an acceptable level of risk for acute toxicity to wildlife browsing on contaminated leaves from the residues detected in this study; however, an unacceptable level of risk for chronic toxicity to long-term browsing moose. Site-specific data regarding browsing behaviour on herbicide treated rights-of-ways and species-specific reference values are needed to improve confidence in the tier-two risk assessment. Basal bark application is ideal when stem density is lower and toxic effects for herbivores is of concern and low-volume foliar applications are best suited in areas with higher stem density when off-target herbicide deposition is less acceptable.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Environme...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Douglas W. Morris; Shomen Mukherjee;

    Carrying capacity is one of the most important, yet least understood and rarely estimated, parameters in population management and modeling. A simple behavioral metric of carrying capacity would advance theory, conservation, and management of biological populations. Such a metric should be possible because behavior is finely attuned to variation in environment including population density. We connect optimal foraging theory with population dynamics and life history to develop a simple model that predicts this sort of adaptive density-dependent change in food consumption. We then confirm the model's unexpected and manifold predictions with field experiments. The theory predicts reproductive thresholds that alter the marginal value of energy as well as the value of time. Both effects cause a pronounced discontinuity in quitting-harvest rate that we revealed with foraging experiments. Red-backed voles maintained across a range of high densities foraged at a lower density-dependent rate than the same animals exposed to low-density treatments. The change in harvest rate is diagnostic of populations that exceed their carrying capacity. Ecologists, conservation biologists, and wildlife managers may thus be able to use simple and efficient foraging experiments to estimate carrying capacity and habitat quality.

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    Ecology
    Article . 2007
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ecology
      Article . 2007
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    Authors: Seamus H. McCooey; Stephen J. Connon;

    AbstractFor Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text.

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