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13,186 Research products

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  • 0210 nano-technology
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lapointe, Jerome; Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Ledemi, Yannick; Dupont, Albert; +3 Authors

    Multiphoton absorption via ultrafast laser focusing is the only technology that allows a three-dimensional structural modification of transparent materials. However, the magnitude of the refractive index change is rather limited, preventing the technology from being a tool of choice for the manufacture of compact photonic integrated circuits. We propose to address this issue by employing a femtosecond-laser-induced electronic band-gap shift (FLIBGS), which has an exponential impact on the refractive index change for propagating wavelengths approaching the material electronic resonance, as predicted by the Kramers–Kronig relations. Supported by theoretical calculations, based on a modified Sellmeier equation, the Tauc law, and waveguide bend loss calculations, we experimentally show that several applications could take advantage of this phenomenon. First, we demonstrate waveguide bends down to a submillimeter radius, which is of great interest for higher-density integration of fs-laser-written quantum and photonic circuits. We also demonstrate that the refractive index contrast can be switched from negative to positive, allowing direct waveguide inscription in crystals. Finally, the effect of the FLIBGS can compensate for the fs-laser-induced negative refractive index change, resulting in a zero refractive index change at specific wavelengths, paving the way for new invisibility applications. Invisible and miniaturized laser-inscribed photonic circuits Energy gap changes in photonic materials induced by femtosecond laser pulses could lead to new invisibility and miniaturized applications. Jerome Lapointe and colleagues at Canada’s Laval University conducted theoretical and experimental investigations to study the effects of inducing ‘band gap shifts’ within crystals and glasses when a femtosecond laser is used to inscribe optic waveguides inside them. The new technology led to nanoscale changes that supported the inscription of smooth, bendy channels that can be used to efficiently direct light through them while minimizing energy loss. This is a significant step to meet the growing demand for miniaturized photonic and quantum circuits. These channels also become invisible to the naked eye when red light is shone through them, paving the way to transparent photonics applications, which can be placed on phone screens and car windshields.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Light: Science &...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Light: Science &...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Takayuki, Hiratani; Wadood Y, Hamad; Mark J, MacLachlan;

    Fabrication of novel organic and inorganic depolarizing films derived from quasinematic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) organization is demonstrated. These films convert linearly polarized and circularly polarized light into unpolarized light over the entire visible region. Patterning of the quasinematic CNCs on top of a chiral nematic film gives latent images that are revealed only upon observation through the circularly polarizing filters.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Advanced Materialsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Advanced Materials
    Article . 2017
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Advanced Materialsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Advanced Materials
      Article . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Miguel A. Vigil Fuentes; Suman Thakur; Feng Wu; Manjusri Misra; +2 Authors

    AbstractIn this study, the 3D printability of a series of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends were investigated using fused filament fabrication (FFF). The studied blends suffered from poor 3D printability due to differences in compatibility and low thermal resistance. These shortcomings were addressed by incorporating a functionalized styrene-acrylate copolymer with oxirane moieties as a chain extender (CE). To enhance mechanical properties, the synergistic effect of 3D printing parameters such as printing temperature and speed, layer thickness and bed temperature were explored. Rheological analysis showed improvement in the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA:CE blend by allowing a higher printing temperature (220 °C) and sufficient printing speed (45 mm s−1). The surface morphology of fractured tensile specimens showed good bonding between layers when a bed temperature of 60 °C was used and a layer thickness of 0.25 mm was designed. The optimized printing samples shown higher storage modulus and strength, resulting in stiffer and stronger parts. The crystallinity, morphology and performance of the 3D printed products were correlated to share key methods to improve the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA based blends which may be implemented in other biopolymer blends, and further highlight how process parameters enhance the mechanical performance of 3D printed products.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scientific Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scientific Reports
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sara M. Almenabawy; Yibo Zhang; Rajiv Prinja; Geetu Sharma; +1 Authors

    In this work, significant enhancement in absorption, especially in the near infra-red region, is achieved for ultra-thin crystalline silicon of various thicknesses using a photonic crystal structure. This is realized by patterning the silicon with close-packed inverted pyramid structuring, wherein the lattice spacing is comparable to the wavelength of the near infra-red light, which results in strong wave-interference-based light trapping. Absorption enhancement of more than a factor of two in the spectral range of 1000–1100 nm is achieved without any other optical enhancments. Details on the techniques used to realize the ultra-thin silicon, the fabrication of the inverted pyramids using standard photolithography and a complete optical analysis are reported in this work.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1109/pvsc45...
    Conference object . 2020
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1109/pvsc45...
      Conference object . 2020
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  • Authors: Xuyan Cao; Biao Wan; Hanyu Liu; Lailei Wu; +2 Authors

    Elemental copper and potassium are immiscible under ambient conditions. It is known that pressure is a useful tool to promote the reaction between two different elements by modifying their electronic structure significantly. Here, we predict the formation of four K–Cu compounds (K3Cu2, K2Cu, K5Cu2, and K3Cu) under moderate pressure through unbiased structure search and first-principles calculations. Among all predicted structures, the simulated x-ray diffraction pattern of K3Cu2 perfectly matches a K–Cu compound synthesized in 2004. Further simulations indicate that the K–Cu compounds exhibit diverse structural features with novel forms of Cu aggregations, including Cu dimers, linear and zigzag Cu chains, and Cu-centered polyhedrons. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that Cu atoms behave as anions to accept electrons from K atoms through fully filling 4s orbitals and partially extending 4p orbitals. Covalent Cu–Cu interaction is found in these compounds, which is associated with the sp hybridizations. These results provide insights into the understanding of the phase diversity of alkali/alkaline earth and metal systems.

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  • Authors: Victoria E J, Berryman; Matthew G, Baker; Russell J, Boyd;

    Density functional theory is used to study a series of model iron porphyrins in the gas phase. In the first part of this study, three range-separated hybrid density functionals developed by Chai and Head-Gordon were assessed; ωB97, ωB97X, and ωB97XD. The effects of including full Hartree-Fock exchange at long-range and dispersion corrections are reported with respect to the geometries and binding energies of oxygen to the iron porphyrin systems. The functionals all correctly predict the quintet ground state for the deoxy-iron porphyrins, where typically hybrid functionals fail and predict a triplet ground state. Including dispersion in ωB97XD is shown to give the best results for the O2 binding energy and geometrical parameters. The second part of the study employs ωB97XD to study iron porphine systems with different amino acids in the axial position. Geometrical parameters are reported and compared to experimental data, where available. Binding energies of the systems with oxygen are also reported and discussed.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Van Dijken, Jaron G.; Brett, Michael J.;

    a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure. We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
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    Molecules
    Other literature type . Article . 2012
    License: CC BY
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    Molecules
    Article . 2012
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    Molecules
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NRC Publications Archive
    Other literature type . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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      Molecules
      Other literature type . Article . 2012
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      Molecules
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      Molecules
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      NRC Publications Archive
      Other literature type . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Saharnaz Montazeri; Maryam Aramesh; Sushant K. Rawal; Stephen C. Veldhuis;

    Abstract Inconel 718 is widely used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent mechanical properties, such as high corrosion and heat resistance and great strength at elevated temperatures. Unfortunately, the poor machinability of this alloy still presents a major challenge for manufacturers. Developing different types of tool coatings is a common method for enhancing the machinability performance of this class of materials. Almost all of the coatings selected to improve tool productivity are super-hard coatings. Authors have shown in their previous study that the deposition of a soft monolayer Al-Si coating on a tool, which has never been used before for machining applications, significantly improves tool performance and outperforms most of the recommended hard coatings during the machining of Inconel 718. Since deposition parameters in the PVD process play a significant effect on the properties of coatings and since no data is present in the literature for this tool coating, the effect of three main deposition parameters including bias voltage, deposition time, and gas pressure were investigated around their proposed extreme ranges. The Al-Si coatings deposited under different parameters were characterized and discussed in terms of hardness, roughness, coverage, adhesion, residual stress, coating microstructure, and coating material distribution. Based on the results of thorough coating characterizations, the Al-Si coating with full coverage and uniform material distribution was selected for further machining investigations. The results showed that most defects and complications in commercial hard coatings used for the machining of Inconel, including hardness, roughness, and residual stress formation, are not of any concern for Al-Si coatings, and the limits of the parameters should be defined mainly based on the microstructure and composition uniformity of the coating. The results also showed that a soft Al-Si PVD coating improves tool life by around 500%, which is much higher than the commercially available coatings, and decreases the initial cutting force by 150% during the machining of Inconel 718. The in-depth material characterizations of the coating, including XPS analysis and machinability analyses, showed that the considerable improvements were mainly attributed to the superior lubricating properties of the Al-Si coating deposited on the cutting tool.

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    Wear
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Conrad Rizal; Eric E. Fullerton;

    We investigated the role of microstructure and Co layer thickness on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of as-deposited and annealed Ta (5 nm)/[Co (t Co)/Au (2 nm)] × N = 20 multilayers with 1 ≤ t Co ≤ 2 nm prepared using dc-magnetron sputtering. These multilayers were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer, a p-MOKE magnetometer and a microscopy magnetometer, small angle x-ray reflection (XRR), and wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These multilayers demonstrated strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with their saturation magnetization close to the bulk magnetization of Co. Magnetization and magnetic anisotropy increased with annealing and this increase is directly linked to the strain relaxation and sharpening of the interfaces after annealing. Using XRR analysis before and after annealing, and fitting these XRR data, the multilayer periodicities are extracted and the refined layer thickness and surface roughness are determined. Using XRD analysis and fitting these XRD spectra, information regarding both the average lattice spacing of atoms and the strain developed on an individual layer were determined.

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    Journal of Physics D Applied Physics
    Article . 2017
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      Journal of Physics D Applied Physics
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Wei Xiao; Qian Sun; Jian Liu; Biwei Xiao; +9 Authors

    The pursuit of a high-capacity anode material has been urgently required for commercializing sodium-ion batteries with a high energy density and an improved working safety. In the absence of thermodynamically stable sodium intercalated compounds with graphite, constructing nanostructures with expanded interlayer distances is still the mainstream option for developing high-performance carbonaceous anodes. In this regard, a surface-functionalized and pore-forming strategy through a facile CO2 thermal etching route was rationally adopted to engineer negligible oxygenated functionalities on commercial carbon for boosting the sodium storage process. Benefitted from the abundant ionic/electronic pathways and more active reaction sites in the microporous structure with noticeable pseudocapacitive behaviors, the functionalized porous carbon could achieve a highly reversible capacity of 505 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1, an excellent rate performance of 181 mA h g-1 at 16,000 mA g-1, and an exceptional rate cycle stability of 176 mA h g-1 at 3200 mA g-1 over 1000 cycles. These outstanding electrochemical properties should be ascribed to a synergistic mechanism, fully utilizing the graphitic and amorphous structures for synchronous intercalations of sodium ions and solvated sodium ion compounds, respectively. Additionally, the controllable generation and evolution of a robust but thin solid electrolyte interphase film with the emergence of obvious capacitive reactions on the defective surface, favoring the rapid migration of sodium ions and solvated species, also contribute to a remarkable electrochemical performance of this porous carbon black.

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    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
    Article . 2020
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      ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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13,186 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lapointe, Jerome; Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Ledemi, Yannick; Dupont, Albert; +3 Authors

    Multiphoton absorption via ultrafast laser focusing is the only technology that allows a three-dimensional structural modification of transparent materials. However, the magnitude of the refractive index change is rather limited, preventing the technology from being a tool of choice for the manufacture of compact photonic integrated circuits. We propose to address this issue by employing a femtosecond-laser-induced electronic band-gap shift (FLIBGS), which has an exponential impact on the refractive index change for propagating wavelengths approaching the material electronic resonance, as predicted by the Kramers–Kronig relations. Supported by theoretical calculations, based on a modified Sellmeier equation, the Tauc law, and waveguide bend loss calculations, we experimentally show that several applications could take advantage of this phenomenon. First, we demonstrate waveguide bends down to a submillimeter radius, which is of great interest for higher-density integration of fs-laser-written quantum and photonic circuits. We also demonstrate that the refractive index contrast can be switched from negative to positive, allowing direct waveguide inscription in crystals. Finally, the effect of the FLIBGS can compensate for the fs-laser-induced negative refractive index change, resulting in a zero refractive index change at specific wavelengths, paving the way for new invisibility applications. Invisible and miniaturized laser-inscribed photonic circuits Energy gap changes in photonic materials induced by femtosecond laser pulses could lead to new invisibility and miniaturized applications. Jerome Lapointe and colleagues at Canada’s Laval University conducted theoretical and experimental investigations to study the effects of inducing ‘band gap shifts’ within crystals and glasses when a femtosecond laser is used to inscribe optic waveguides inside them. The new technology led to nanoscale changes that supported the inscription of smooth, bendy channels that can be used to efficiently direct light through them while minimizing energy loss. This is a significant step to meet the growing demand for miniaturized photonic and quantum circuits. These channels also become invisible to the naked eye when red light is shone through them, paving the way to transparent photonics applications, which can be placed on phone screens and car windshields.

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    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Takayuki, Hiratani; Wadood Y, Hamad; Mark J, MacLachlan;

    Fabrication of novel organic and inorganic depolarizing films derived from quasinematic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) organization is demonstrated. These films convert linearly polarized and circularly polarized light into unpolarized light over the entire visible region. Patterning of the quasinematic CNCs on top of a chiral nematic film gives latent images that are revealed only upon observation through the circularly polarizing filters.

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    Advanced Materials
    Article . 2017
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      Advanced Materials
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    Authors: Miguel A. Vigil Fuentes; Suman Thakur; Feng Wu; Manjusri Misra; +2 Authors

    AbstractIn this study, the 3D printability of a series of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends were investigated using fused filament fabrication (FFF). The studied blends suffered from poor 3D printability due to differences in compatibility and low thermal resistance. These shortcomings were addressed by incorporating a functionalized styrene-acrylate copolymer with oxirane moieties as a chain extender (CE). To enhance mechanical properties, the synergistic effect of 3D printing parameters such as printing temperature and speed, layer thickness and bed temperature were explored. Rheological analysis showed improvement in the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA:CE blend by allowing a higher printing temperature (220 °C) and sufficient printing speed (45 mm s−1). The surface morphology of fractured tensile specimens showed good bonding between layers when a bed temperature of 60 °C was used and a layer thickness of 0.25 mm was designed. The optimized printing samples shown higher storage modulus and strength, resulting in stiffer and stronger parts. The crystallinity, morphology and performance of the 3D printed products were correlated to share key methods to improve the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA based blends which may be implemented in other biopolymer blends, and further highlight how process parameters enhance the mechanical performance of 3D printed products.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Scientific Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Scientific Reports
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      Scientific Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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