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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Roy Otten; Chung Jung Mun; Daniel S. Shaw; Melvin N. Wilson; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgrounds and aimsDespite the link between stress and addictive behavior in adulthood, little is known about how early life stress in families predicts the early emergence of substance use in adolescence. This study tested a developmental cascade model, proposing that early stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction covary, and both disrupt the refinement of inhibitory control, which evolves into problem behavior in middle/late childhood and subsequent substance use exploration in early adolescence.MethodsData came from the Early Steps Multisite study, a community sample of at‐risk families in the metropolitan US areas of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Eugene (Oregon) and Charlottesville (Virginia) with children aged 2 years at the start of the study and 14 years at the last measurement (n = 364). Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.ResultsEarly stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction assessed at ages 2–5 were negatively related to inhibitory control at ages 7 and 8. Low levels of inhibitory control were prognostic of childhood problem behavior at ages 9 and 10. Finally, late childhood problem behavior was associated with substance use at age 14. Parental drug use was directly related to substance use at age 14.ConclusionsEarly life stress may disrupt child inhibitory control, which can cascade into behavioral and peer problem behavior in childhood and, in turn, heighten the risk for early adolescent substance use.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2019 . 2018
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019 . 2018
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Matthew Y W, Kwan; John, Cairney; John A, Hay; Brent E, Faught;

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, p<.05), and poorer physical activity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, p<.05). Meditational analyses found attitudes (B=.23, p<.05) and subjective norms (B=.31, p<.05) partially mediating the relationship between DCD and physical activity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Research in Developm...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Research in Developmental Disabilities
    Article . 2013
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Research in Developm...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Research in Developmental Disabilities
      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Mikaeel Valli; Sang Soo Cho; Mario Masellis; Robert Chen; +5 Authors

    AbstractRapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common condition found in more than 50% of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Molecular imaging shows that PD with RBD (PD‐RBD+) have lower striatal dopamine transporter activity within the caudate and putamen relative to PD without RBD (PD‐RBD−). However, the characterization of the extra‐striatal dopamine within the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways remains unknown. We aim to elucidate this with PET imaging in 15 PD‐RBD+ and 15 PD‐RBD− patients, while having 15 age‐matched healthy controls (HC). Each participant underwent a single PET scan with [11C]FLB‐457 to detect the D2 receptor availability within the extra‐striatal regions of interest (ROI), including the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic areas. [11C]FLB‐457 retention was expressed as the nondisplaceable binding potential. Our results reveal that relative to HC, PD‐RBD+ and PD‐RBD− patients have lower levels of D2 receptor availability within the uncus parahippocampus, superior, lateral, and inferior temporal cortex. PD‐RBD+ showed steep decline in D2 receptors within the left uncus parahippocampus with increasing disease severity, but this was not observed for PD‐RBD− patients. Findings imply that extra‐striatal dopaminergic system may play a role in contributing to symptomatic progress in PD patients with RBD. However, validation with more advanced PD patients are needed.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Neuroscience Research
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neuroscience Research
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jennie G. Briard; Suria Jahan; Priya Chandran; David Allan; +2 Authors

    The success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation depends in part on the number and the quality of cells transplanted. Cryoinjuries during freezing and thawing reduce the ability of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to proliferate and differentiate after thawing. Up to 20% of the patients undergoing umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant experience delayed or failed engraftment, likely because of the inadequate hematopoietic potency of the unit. Therefore, the optimization of cryopreservation protocols, with an emphasis on the preservation of HSPCs, is an important issue. Current protocols typically utilize a 10% dimethyl sulfoxide cryoprotectant solution. This solution ensures 70–80% post-thaw cell viability by diluting intracellular solutes and maintaining the cell volume during cryopreservation. However, this solution fails to fully protect HSPCs, resulting in the loss of potency. Therefore, a new class of cryoprotectants (N-aryl-d-aldonamides) was designed and assessed for the ability to inhibit ice recrystallization and to protect HSPCs against cryoinjury. Several highly active ice recrystallization inhibitors were discovered. When used as additives to the conventional cryoprotectant solution, these nontoxic small molecules improved the preservation of functionally divergent hematopoietic progenitors in the colony-forming unit and long-term culture-initiating cell assays. By contrast, structurally similar compounds that did not inhibit ice recrystallization failed to improve the post-thaw recovery of myeloid progenitors. Together, these results demonstrate that the supplementation of cryopreservation solution with compounds capable of controlling ice recrystallization increases the post-thaw function and potency of HSPCs in UCB. This increase may translate into reduced risk of engraftment failure and allow for greater use of cryopreserved cord blood units.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    ACS Omega
    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ACS Omega
    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ACS Omega
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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      ACS Omega
      Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ACS Omega
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: S, Treit; Z, Chen; C, Rasmussen; C, Beaulieu;

    Abstract Inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are two key executive functions that develop in childhood and adolescence, increasing one’s capacity to respond dynamically to changing external demands and refrain from impulsive behaviors. These gains evolve in concert with significant brain development. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified numerous frontal and cingulate cortical areas associated with performance on inhibition tasks, but less is known about the involvement of the underlying anatomical connectivity, namely white matter. Here we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine correlations between a DTI-derived parameter, fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter, and performance on the NEPSY-II Inhibition test (Naming, Inhibition and Switching conditions) in 49 healthy children aged 5–16 years (20 females; 29 males). First, whole brain voxel-based analysis revealed several clusters in the frontal projections of the corpus callosum, where higher FA was associated with worse inhibitory performance, as well as several clusters in posterior brain regions and one in the brainstem where higher FA was associated with better cognitive flexibility (in the Switching task), suggesting a dichotomous relationship between FA and these two aspects of cognitive control. Tractography through these clusters identified several white matter tracts, which were then manual traced in native space. Pearson’s correlations confirmed associations between higher FA of frontal projections of the corpus callosum with poorer inhibitory performance (independent of age), though associations with Switching were not significant. Post-hoc evaluation suggested that FA of orbital and anterior frontal projections of the corpus callosum also mediated performance differences across conditions, which may reflect differences in self-monitoring or strategy use. These findings suggest a link between the development of inhibition and cognitive control with that of the underlying white matter, and may help to identify deviations of neurobiology in adolescent psychopathology.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Neurosciencearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neuroscience
    Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Neurosciencearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience
      Article . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stephen D, Gowing; Simon C, Chow; Jonathan J, Cools-Lartigue; Crystal B, Chen; +11 Authors

    Abstract Introduction Surgery is essential for cure of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Rates of postoperative bacterial pneumonias, however, remain high, and clinical data suggests that post-operative infectious complications confer an increased risk for metastasis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate the inflammatory response to infection by recognizing evolutionarily conserved bacterial structures at the surface of numerous pulmonary cell types; yet, little is known about how host TLR activation influences NSCLC metastasis. TLR4 recognizes gram-negative bacterium lipopolysaccharide activating the innate immune system. Methods C57BL/6 and TLR4 knockout murine airways were inoculated with Escherichia coli or lipopolysaccharide. Hepatic metastasis assays and intravital microscopy were performed. Bronchoepithelial conditioned media was generated through coincubation of bronchoepithelial cells with TLR4 activating Escherichia coli or lipopolysaccharide. Subsequently, H59 NSCLC were stimulated with conditioned media and subject to various adhesion assays. Results We demonstrate that gram-negative Escherichia coli pneumonia augments the formation of murine H59 NSCLC liver metastases in C57BL/6 mice through TLR4 activation. Additionally, infected C57BL/6 mice demonstrate increased H59 NSCLC in vivo hepatic sinusoidal adhesion compared with negative controls, a response that is significantly diminished in TLR4 knockout mice. Similarly, intratracheal injection of purified TLR4 activating lipopolysaccharide increases in vivo adhesion of H59 cells to murine hepatic sinusoids. Furthermore, H59 cells incubated with bronchoepithelial conditioned medium show increased cell adhesion to in vitro extracellular matrix proteins and in vivo hepatic sinusoids through a mechanism dependent on bronchoepithelial TLR4 activation and interleukin-6 secretion. Conclusion TLR4 is a viable therapeutic target for NSCLC metastasis augmented by gram-negative pneumonia.

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    Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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    Journal of Thoracic Oncology
    Article . 2019
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      Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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      Journal of Thoracic Oncology
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Rosemary Basson; Julia I. O’Loughlin; Joanne Weinberg; Allan H. Young; +2 Authors

    Abstract Previous research has found lower serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or its sulfated form, DHEA-S, in women diagnosed with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). Given that DHEA and DHEA-S have multiple direct actions on the brain as well as anti-glucocorticoid properties, it is possible that lower levels of DHEA directly impact women’s sexual functioning. To date, the significance of the lower DHEA levels remains unclear. To our knowledge, there has been no empirical study of stress hormones as markers of HPA dysregulation in women with HSDD. To attend to this gap, the present study utilized several measures of HPA axis function – morning and evening cortisol and DHEA, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal cortisol slope, and cortisol:DHEA ratio – and examined their relationship with sexual functioning in N = 275 women with (n = 137) and without (n = 138) HSDD. Results demonstrated multiple hormonal markers of HPA dysregulation in women diagnosed with HSDD compared to control participants, specifically, lower AM cortisol and AM DHEA levels, a flatter diurnal cortisol slope, and a lower CAR. Overall, results of the present study indicate that persistently low sexual desire in women is associated with HPA axis dysregulation, with both cortisol and DHEA alterations potentially detrimental to sexual desire.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Psychoneuroendocrinology
    Article . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.14288/1.037...
    Other literature type . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Psychoneuroendocrinology
      Article . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.14288/1.037...
      Other literature type . 2020
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    Authors: Giani, Oancea; Megan L, O'Mara; W F Drew, Bennett; D Peter, Tieleman; +2 Authors

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) represents a focal point in the immune recognition of virally or malignantly transformed cells by translocating proteasomal degradation products into the endoplasmic reticulum–lumen for loading of MHC class I molecules. Based on a number of experimental data and the homology to the bacterial ABC exporter Sav1866, we constructed a 3D structural model of the core TAP complex and used it to examine the interface between the transmembrane and nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) by cysteine-scanning and cross-linking approaches. Herein, we demonstrate the functional importance of the newly identified X-loop in the NBD in coupling substrate binding to downstream events in the transport cycle. We further verified domain swapping in a heterodimeric ABC half-transporter complex by cysteine cross-linking. Strikingly, either substrate binding or translocation can be blocked by cross-linking the X-loop to coupling helix 2 or 1, respectively. These results resolve the structural arrangement of the transmission interface and point to different functions of the cytosolic loops and coupling helices in substrate binding, signaling, and transport.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2009
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2009
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    Authors: Monica Bawor; Brittany B. Dennis; Charlie Tan; Guillaume Paré; +10 Authors

    Background The heritability of opioid use disorder has been widely investigated; however, the influence of specific genes on methadone treatment outcomes is not well understood. The association between response to methadone treatment and genes that are involved in substance use behaviors and reward mechanisms is poorly understood, despite evidence suggesting their contribution to opioid use disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) polymorphisms on continued opioid use among patients on methadone treatment for opioid use disorder. Methods BDNF 196G>A (rs6265) and DRD2-241A>G (rs1799978) genetic variants were examined in patients with opioid use disorder who were recruited from methadone treatment clinics across Southern Ontario, Canada. We collected demographic information, substance use history, blood for genetic analysis, and urine to measure opioid use. We used regression analysis to examine the association between continued opioid use and genetic variants, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, methadone dose, duration in treatment, and number of urine screens. Results Among 240 patients treated with methadone for opioid use disorder, 36.3 percent (n = 87) and 11.3 percent (n = 27) had at least one risk allele for rs6265 and rs1799978, respectively. These genetic variants were not significantly associated with continued opioid use while on methadone maintenance treatment [rs6265: odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.792, 2.371, p = 0.264; rs1799978: OR 1.27, 95 % CI 0.511, 3.182, p = 0.603]. Conclusions Despite an association of BDNFrs6265 and DRD2rs1799978 with addictive behaviors, these variants were not associated with continued illicit opioid use in patients treated with methadone. Problematic use of opioids throughout treatment with methadone may be attributed to nongenetic factors or a polygenic effect requiring further exploration. Additional research should focus on investigating these findings in larger samples and different populations.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Andrea Krüsi; Kate D’Adamo; Ariel Sernick;

    AbstractThis chapter focuses on cis and trans sex workers’ experiences with law enforcement, and how various regimes of regulating sex work including full and partial criminalisation, legalisation, and decriminalisation shape the human rights and the work environments of sex workers globally including access to occupational health and safety, police protection, and legal recourse. Criminalisation and policing of sex work constitute forms of structural violence that perpetuate and exacerbate experiences of interpersonal violence and negative health outcomes among sex workers globally. Country spotlights from the global North and South provide examples of different regimes of regulation and draw attention to how laws and regulations interact with specific work environments in various settings to shape sex workers’ lived experiences of health, safety, and human rights. This chapter highlights how various approaches to criminalising and policing sex work undermine sex workers’ safety, health and human rights, including violence and poor health and concludes with an evidence-based call for the decriminalisation of sex work globally.

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
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    Authors: Roy Otten; Chung Jung Mun; Daniel S. Shaw; Melvin N. Wilson; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgrounds and aimsDespite the link between stress and addictive behavior in adulthood, little is known about how early life stress in families predicts the early emergence of substance use in adolescence. This study tested a developmental cascade model, proposing that early stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction covary, and both disrupt the refinement of inhibitory control, which evolves into problem behavior in middle/late childhood and subsequent substance use exploration in early adolescence.MethodsData came from the Early Steps Multisite study, a community sample of at‐risk families in the metropolitan US areas of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Eugene (Oregon) and Charlottesville (Virginia) with children aged 2 years at the start of the study and 14 years at the last measurement (n = 364). Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.ResultsEarly stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction assessed at ages 2–5 were negatively related to inhibitory control at ages 7 and 8. Low levels of inhibitory control were prognostic of childhood problem behavior at ages 9 and 10. Finally, late childhood problem behavior was associated with substance use at age 14. Parental drug use was directly related to substance use at age 14.ConclusionsEarly life stress may disrupt child inhibitory control, which can cascade into behavioral and peer problem behavior in childhood and, in turn, heighten the risk for early adolescent substance use.

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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2019
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    Addiction
    Article . 2019 . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Matthew Y W, Kwan; John, Cairney; John A, Hay; Brent E, Faught;

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, p<.05), and poorer physical activity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, p<.05). Meditational analyses found attitudes (B=.23, p<.05) and subjective norms (B=.31, p<.05) partially mediating the relationship between DCD and physical activity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD.

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    Research in Developmental Disabilities
    Article . 2013
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Research in Developmental Disabilities
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