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39 Research products, page 1 of 4

  • Canada
  • 2017-2021
  • Closed Access
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Rural Digital Europe

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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Cecil C. Konijnendijk;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    In 1986, British broadcaster and environmentalist Chris Baines published the book “The Wild Side of Town”. The book coincided with a popular BBC television series and had a major impact on people’s appreciation of urban wildlife in Britain. Baines wrote: “The green space in towns and cities is much more than a simple, slightly degraded duplicate of pre-war farmland. For a great many species, the town is a much better place to live in than the countryside ever was.” (Baines 1986, p. 29). Various studies have confirmed that urban areas often harbour a perhaps surprisingly high variety of species of plants and animals (e.g. Cornelis and Hermy 2004; Gustavsson et al. 2005; Alvey 2006; Lorusso et al. 2007; Nielsen et al. 2014). An article in Newsweek (Theil 2006) confirms that there is a place for nature even in the most urbanised area. It refers, for example, to research by Munich’s Technical University which found more species and more diverse habitats in selected big cities than in any national park of nature reserve. Berlin is home to two-thirds of all bird species in Germany, while Zurich hosts ten times more foxes, hedgehogs and badgers per square kilometre than the surrounding countryside. Part of the explanation is that cities offer a mosaic of habitats and microclimates, from pond-filled gardens to industrial brownfield sites and, of course, city forests. Moreover, urban green spaces harbour a large number of exotic species. A study of South-African towns, for example, found two-thirds of all woody plant species to be alien species (e.g. McConnachie et al. 2008).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Alan Farahani; Katherine L. Chiou; Rob Q. Cuthrell; Anna Harkey; Shanti Morell-Hart; Christine A. Hastorf; Payson Sheets;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Spatial analyses at the resolution of an archaeological site are usually complicated by the fact that objects and organic remains uncovered through excavation are often not found in their original location of manufacture, use, or even discard. As a result, fine-grained analyses of context-dependent culinary practices and foodways, which rely on the conjunction of both forms of evidence, may be less easily interpretable. The creation of a GIS-based spatial database, however, at the site of Joya de Ceren, El Salvador, permits just such insights into food preparation and consumption due to the sudden and catastrophic circumstances of the preservation of the site. Preliminary spatial analyses of the distributions of in situ ceramic vessels, food-processing implements (manos, metates), and paleoethnobotanical remains, confirm and elaborate upon the observations of the original excavators, including the identification of new potential activity areas within “storage” structures and possible “culinary sets” of vessels, food processing implements, and plants associated with repeated tasks in delimited areas, here labeled as “taskscapes”. The results of this study encourage further digitization of both legacy and recently uncovered archaeological data in spatial databases to continue to explore such relationships.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    William T. D. Wadsworth; Kisha Supernant; Vadim A. Kravchinsky;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: SSHRC , NSERC
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Kirkham, Jacqueline Lea;
    Country: Canada
  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Eric J. Guiry; Trevor J. Orchard; Suzanne Needs-Howarth; Paul Szpak;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    Resource depression and garden hunting are major topics of archaeological interest, with important implications for understanding cultural and environmental change. Garden hunting is difficult to study using traditional zooarchaeological approaches, but isotopic analyses of animals may provide a marker for where and when people exploited nondomesticated animals that fed on agricultural resources. To realize the full potential of isotopic approaches for reconstructing garden hunting practices—and the impacts of agriculture on past nondomesticated animal populations more broadly—a wider range of species, encompassing many “ecological perspectives,” is needed. We use bone-collagen isotopic compositions of animals (n = 643, 23 taxa, 39 sites) associated with the Late Woodland (~AD 900−1650) in what is now southern Ontario to test hypotheses about the extent to which animals used maize, an isotopically distinctive plant central to subsistence practices of Iroquoian-speaking peoples across the region. Results show that although some taxa—particularly those that may have been hard to control—had substantial access to maize, most did not, regardless of the animal resource requirements of local populations. Our findings suggest that this isotopic approach to detecting garden hunting will be more successful when applied to smaller-scale societies.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Liye Xie; Tiziana Gallo; Danielle A. Macdonald;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Ground stone tools encompass a wide array of implements important in the economic organization of many prehistoric and early historic societies; however, functional analysis of ground stone artefacts has been relatively limited in comparison to chipped stone tools. The appearance of microwear on ground stone artefacts is normally more complex and complicated than on chipped stone artefacts, as the mineral and textural components of the raw materials chosen for ground stone artefacts often are more heterogeneous. Currently, the baseline principles for analyzing microwear on ground stone artefacts are primarily based on the studies of non-cutting tools such as grinding and abrading implements. Our research uses experimental ground stone shovels and hoes crafted from oolitic dolomite to understand the raw material's effect on microwear development and to distinguish the microwear patterns associated with varying sediment conditions in the Neolithic and Early Bronze archaeological sites in the Middle Yellow River and Lower Yangzi River in China. The research combines detailed petrographic analysis of the raw material, measurement of the worked material's physical properties, and careful examination of microwear using both high-power and low-power approaches. The results not only advance the methods for microwear analysis on heterogeneous raw materials, but also enrich the microwear dataset for understanding earth-working activities associated with ground stone tools. Applying our results to analysis of archaeological counterparts will add additional lines of evidence to evaluate the importance of farming and construction activities in Neolithic and Bronze Age subsistence systems.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Eric J. Guiry; Paul Szpak; Michael P. Richards;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    Historical zooarchaeologists have made significant contributions to key questions about the social, economic, and nutritional dimensions of domestic animal use in North American colonial contexts; however, techniques commonly employed in faunal analyses do not offer a means of assessing many important aspects of how animals were husbanded and traded. We apply isotopic analyses to faunal remains from archaeological sites to assess the social and economic importance of meat trade and consumption of local and foreign animal products in northeastern North America. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of 310 cattle and pigs from 18 rural and urban archaeological sites in Upper Canada (present-day southern Ontario, Canada; ca. A.D. 1790–1890) are compared with livestock from contemporary American sources to quantify the importance of meat from different origins at rural and higher- and lower-status urban contexts. Results show significant differences between urban and rural households in the consumption of local animals and meat products acquired through long-distance trade. A striking pattern in urban contexts provides new evidence for the social significance of meat origins in historical Upper Canada and highlights the potential for isotopic approaches to reveal otherwise-hidden evidence for social and economic roles of animals in North American archaeology.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ligang Zhou; Sandra Garvie-Lok; Wenquan Fan; Xiaolong Chu;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Chinese history from the Eastern Zhou to the Han Dynasty (770 BCE to 220 CE) witnessed a social transition from conflicting territorial states to a prosperous empire. This study investigates the effects of social changes on human diet using stable isotope analysis. Human remains (n = 134) and contemporary faunal remains (n = 14) from three sites located on the Central Plains of China were analyzed, and the results have shed light on human diets in the two different eras. Most individuals of the Eastern Zhou had diets based on millet and a limited amount of animal protein. The poor ate a significant amount of wheat, which may have been a response to the food pressures of their urban environment. Wheat consumption in the Han Dynasty increased significantly, likely in response to a population increase during the early imperial period, and patterns of animal protein consumption also differed from that of the Eastern Zhou. Status-related dietary variation in the two eras was reflected in the amount of wheat eaten rather than animal protein consumption. The dietary changes seen likely reflect both adaptive strategy and active change, and seem to have benefited human health in the following dynasties. The results also indicate that significant wheat consumption started in the lowest social classes, suggesting a bottom-up mode for the adoption of wheat into human diets of the area.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Laurie J Reitsema; Tomasz Kozłowski; Douglas E. Crews; M. Anne Katzenberg; Wojciech Chudziak;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract In Europe during the medieval period, new constraints were introduced to the balance of people’s food production, distribution and consumption. As a proxy indicator of diet, stable isotope ratios from osseous remains offer a window into past human lifeways and the adoption of new dietary regimes. We report stable carbon and nitrogen isotope results of a large diachronic study of skeletons from Poland’s Pomeranian region in the Vistula River valley, using concepts of resilience, agency, and transition in bioarchaeological research frameworks to explain pace of diet change and intra-population variations in diet. Two skeletal samples are from 10 to 13th century Kaldus, an economic center of the early Piast dynasty, and two are from 12 to 14th century Gruczno, a neighboring agricultural village. Humans exhibit a mean δ 15 N value of 9.8 ± 0.9‰, a mean δ 13 C coll value of −19.4 ± 0.9‰, and a mean δ 13 C ap value of −12.74 ± 1.30‰. Despite similar time periods and shared geographic region, Kaldus and Gruczno differ markedly in terms of fish and millet consumption. Diet does not change according to expectations based on the Christianization, urbanization, and marketization of Poland at this time. Rather than broad national trends affecting what people ate, more significant influences on diet appear to have been local sociodemographic conditions, to which people adjusted in ways that enabled them to retain fundamental aspects of their daily lives spanning the medieval period.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Monica Boudreault; Alexander J. Koiter; David A. Lobb; Kui Liu; Glenn Benoy; Philip N. Owens; Sheng Li;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: NSERC

    Sediment fingerprinting is increasingly being used to improve the understanding of sediment dynamics within the critical zone and provide information that can help guide management decisions at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to investigate both the implications of different sediment fingerprinting sampling designs and spatial scales on the characterization of sediment dynamics in a predominantly agricultural watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Color and radionuclide fingerprints were used to discriminate between three potential sediment sources: agricultural topsoil, agricultural streambanks, and forested areas (topsoil and streambanks). Suspended sediment was collected seasonally, between 2008 and 2014, at five sites with drainage areas ranging from 3.0 to 13.4 km2. Using the same source and sediment data set, multiple-, nested-, and local-location fingerprinting sampling designs were employed to investigate the influence of scale of observation, geomorphic connectivity, land use, and the heterogeneity of source fingerprints on apportionment results. Sediment collected in the headwaters was primarily derived from forested areas while the sediment collected at the outlet of the watershed was primarily from agricultural topsoil. When comparing the multiple- and nested-location designs, it was found that accounting for the spatial variability in the fingerprint properties of each source had a small difference in the sediment apportionment results. Furthermore, the local-location design demonstrated that the sediment collected at each location was composed of predominately local sources as opposed to upstream sediment entering the local catchment. Assessment of the sources of sediment at a range of spatial scales better accounts for both geomorphic connectivity and differences in land use throughout the watershed. Overall, each of the three fingerprinting sampling designs provided different information that can be used to guide soil and water conservation management.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
39 Research products, page 1 of 4
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Cecil C. Konijnendijk;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    In 1986, British broadcaster and environmentalist Chris Baines published the book “The Wild Side of Town”. The book coincided with a popular BBC television series and had a major impact on people’s appreciation of urban wildlife in Britain. Baines wrote: “The green space in towns and cities is much more than a simple, slightly degraded duplicate of pre-war farmland. For a great many species, the town is a much better place to live in than the countryside ever was.” (Baines 1986, p. 29). Various studies have confirmed that urban areas often harbour a perhaps surprisingly high variety of species of plants and animals (e.g. Cornelis and Hermy 2004; Gustavsson et al. 2005; Alvey 2006; Lorusso et al. 2007; Nielsen et al. 2014). An article in Newsweek (Theil 2006) confirms that there is a place for nature even in the most urbanised area. It refers, for example, to research by Munich’s Technical University which found more species and more diverse habitats in selected big cities than in any national park of nature reserve. Berlin is home to two-thirds of all bird species in Germany, while Zurich hosts ten times more foxes, hedgehogs and badgers per square kilometre than the surrounding countryside. Part of the explanation is that cities offer a mosaic of habitats and microclimates, from pond-filled gardens to industrial brownfield sites and, of course, city forests. Moreover, urban green spaces harbour a large number of exotic species. A study of South-African towns, for example, found two-thirds of all woody plant species to be alien species (e.g. McConnachie et al. 2008).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Alan Farahani; Katherine L. Chiou; Rob Q. Cuthrell; Anna Harkey; Shanti Morell-Hart; Christine A. Hastorf; Payson Sheets;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Spatial analyses at the resolution of an archaeological site are usually complicated by the fact that objects and organic remains uncovered through excavation are often not found in their original location of manufacture, use, or even discard. As a result, fine-grained analyses of context-dependent culinary practices and foodways, which rely on the conjunction of both forms of evidence, may be less easily interpretable. The creation of a GIS-based spatial database, however, at the site of Joya de Ceren, El Salvador, permits just such insights into food preparation and consumption due to the sudden and catastrophic circumstances of the preservation of the site. Preliminary spatial analyses of the distributions of in situ ceramic vessels, food-processing implements (manos, metates), and paleoethnobotanical remains, confirm and elaborate upon the observations of the original excavators, including the identification of new potential activity areas within “storage” structures and possible “culinary sets” of vessels, food processing implements, and plants associated with repeated tasks in delimited areas, here labeled as “taskscapes”. The results of this study encourage further digitization of both legacy and recently uncovered archaeological data in spatial databases to continue to explore such relationships.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    William T. D. Wadsworth; Kisha Supernant; Vadim A. Kravchinsky;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: SSHRC , NSERC
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Kirkham, Jacqueline Lea;
    Country: Canada
  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Eric J. Guiry; Trevor J. Orchard; Suzanne Needs-Howarth; Paul Szpak;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    Resource depression and garden hunting are major topics of archaeological interest, with important implications for understanding cultural and environmental change. Garden hunting is difficult to study using traditional zooarchaeological approaches, but isotopic analyses of animals may provide a marker for where and when people exploited nondomesticated animals that fed on agricultural resources. To realize the full potential of isotopic approaches for reconstructing garden hunting practices—and the impacts of agriculture on past nondomesticated animal populations more broadly—a wider range of species, encompassing many “ecological perspectives,” is needed. We use bone-collagen isotopic compositions of animals (n = 643, 23 taxa, 39 sites) associated with the Late Woodland (~AD 900−1650) in what is now southern Ontario to test hypotheses about the extent to which animals used maize, an isotopically distinctive plant central to subsistence practices of Iroquoian-speaking peoples across the region. Results show that although some taxa—particularly those that may have been hard to control—had substantial access to maize, most did not, regardless of the animal resource requirements of local populations. Our findings suggest that this isotopic approach to detecting garden hunting will be more successful when applied to smaller-scale societies.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Liye Xie; Tiziana Gallo; Danielle A. Macdonald;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Ground stone tools encompass a wide array of implements important in the economic organization of many prehistoric and early historic societies; however, functional analysis of ground stone artefacts has been relatively limited in comparison to chipped stone tools. The appearance of microwear on ground stone artefacts is normally more complex and complicated than on chipped stone artefacts, as the mineral and textural components of the raw materials chosen for ground stone artefacts often are more heterogeneous. Currently, the baseline principles for analyzing microwear on ground stone artefacts are primarily based on the studies of non-cutting tools such as grinding and abrading implements. Our research uses experimental ground stone shovels and hoes crafted from oolitic dolomite to understand the raw material's effect on microwear development and to distinguish the microwear patterns associated with varying sediment conditions in the Neolithic and Early Bronze archaeological sites in the Middle Yellow River and Lower Yangzi River in China. The research combines detailed petrographic analysis of the raw material, measurement of the worked material's physical properties, and careful examination of microwear using both high-power and low-power approaches. The results not only advance the methods for microwear analysis on heterogeneous raw materials, but also enrich the microwear dataset for understanding earth-working activities associated with ground stone tools. Applying our results to analysis of archaeological counterparts will add additional lines of evidence to evaluate the importance of farming and construction activities in Neolithic and Bronze Age subsistence systems.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Eric J. Guiry; Paul Szpak; Michael P. Richards;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    Historical zooarchaeologists have made significant contributions to key questions about the social, economic, and nutritional dimensions of domestic animal use in North American colonial contexts; however, techniques commonly employed in faunal analyses do not offer a means of assessing many important aspects of how animals were husbanded and traded. We apply isotopic analyses to faunal remains from archaeological sites to assess the social and economic importance of meat trade and consumption of local and foreign animal products in northeastern North America. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of 310 cattle and pigs from 18 rural and urban archaeological sites in Upper Canada (present-day southern Ontario, Canada; ca. A.D. 1790–1890) are compared with livestock from contemporary American sources to quantify the importance of meat from different origins at rural and higher- and lower-status urban contexts. Results show significant differences between urban and rural households in the consumption of local animals and meat products acquired through long-distance trade. A striking pattern in urban contexts provides new evidence for the social significance of meat origins in historical Upper Canada and highlights the potential for isotopic approaches to reveal otherwise-hidden evidence for social and economic roles of animals in North American archaeology.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ligang Zhou; Sandra Garvie-Lok; Wenquan Fan; Xiaolong Chu;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Chinese history from the Eastern Zhou to the Han Dynasty (770 BCE to 220 CE) witnessed a social transition from conflicting territorial states to a prosperous empire. This study investigates the effects of social changes on human diet using stable isotope analysis. Human remains (n = 134) and contemporary faunal remains (n = 14) from three sites located on the Central Plains of China were analyzed, and the results have shed light on human diets in the two different eras. Most individuals of the Eastern Zhou had diets based on millet and a limited amount of animal protein. The poor ate a significant amount of wheat, which may have been a response to the food pressures of their urban environment. Wheat consumption in the Han Dynasty increased significantly, likely in response to a population increase during the early imperial period, and patterns of animal protein consumption also differed from that of the Eastern Zhou. Status-related dietary variation in the two eras was reflected in the amount of wheat eaten rather than animal protein consumption. The dietary changes seen likely reflect both adaptive strategy and active change, and seem to have benefited human health in the following dynasties. The results also indicate that significant wheat consumption started in the lowest social classes, suggesting a bottom-up mode for the adoption of wheat into human diets of the area.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Laurie J Reitsema; Tomasz Kozłowski; Douglas E. Crews; M. Anne Katzenberg; Wojciech Chudziak;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract In Europe during the medieval period, new constraints were introduced to the balance of people’s food production, distribution and consumption. As a proxy indicator of diet, stable isotope ratios from osseous remains offer a window into past human lifeways and the adoption of new dietary regimes. We report stable carbon and nitrogen isotope results of a large diachronic study of skeletons from Poland’s Pomeranian region in the Vistula River valley, using concepts of resilience, agency, and transition in bioarchaeological research frameworks to explain pace of diet change and intra-population variations in diet. Two skeletal samples are from 10 to 13th century Kaldus, an economic center of the early Piast dynasty, and two are from 12 to 14th century Gruczno, a neighboring agricultural village. Humans exhibit a mean δ 15 N value of 9.8 ± 0.9‰, a mean δ 13 C coll value of −19.4 ± 0.9‰, and a mean δ 13 C ap value of −12.74 ± 1.30‰. Despite similar time periods and shared geographic region, Kaldus and Gruczno differ markedly in terms of fish and millet consumption. Diet does not change according to expectations based on the Christianization, urbanization, and marketization of Poland at this time. Rather than broad national trends affecting what people ate, more significant influences on diet appear to have been local sociodemographic conditions, to which people adjusted in ways that enabled them to retain fundamental aspects of their daily lives spanning the medieval period.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Monica Boudreault; Alexander J. Koiter; David A. Lobb; Kui Liu; Glenn Benoy; Philip N. Owens; Sheng Li;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: NSERC

    Sediment fingerprinting is increasingly being used to improve the understanding of sediment dynamics within the critical zone and provide information that can help guide management decisions at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to investigate both the implications of different sediment fingerprinting sampling designs and spatial scales on the characterization of sediment dynamics in a predominantly agricultural watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Color and radionuclide fingerprints were used to discriminate between three potential sediment sources: agricultural topsoil, agricultural streambanks, and forested areas (topsoil and streambanks). Suspended sediment was collected seasonally, between 2008 and 2014, at five sites with drainage areas ranging from 3.0 to 13.4 km2. Using the same source and sediment data set, multiple-, nested-, and local-location fingerprinting sampling designs were employed to investigate the influence of scale of observation, geomorphic connectivity, land use, and the heterogeneity of source fingerprints on apportionment results. Sediment collected in the headwaters was primarily derived from forested areas while the sediment collected at the outlet of the watershed was primarily from agricultural topsoil. When comparing the multiple- and nested-location designs, it was found that accounting for the spatial variability in the fingerprint properties of each source had a small difference in the sediment apportionment results. Furthermore, the local-location design demonstrated that the sediment collected at each location was composed of predominately local sources as opposed to upstream sediment entering the local catchment. Assessment of the sources of sediment at a range of spatial scales better accounts for both geomorphic connectivity and differences in land use throughout the watershed. Overall, each of the three fingerprinting sampling designs provided different information that can be used to guide soil and water conservation management.