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220 Research products, page 1 of 22

  • Canada
  • Open Access
  • MSpace at the University of Manitoba
  • Energy Research

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Riffat I. Munir; Victor Spicer; Oleg V. Krokhin; Dmitry Shamshurin; Xiangli Zhang; Marcel Taillefer; Warren Blunt; Nazim Cicek; Richard Sparling; David B. Levin;
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: Canada

    Background Clostridium termitidis CT1112 is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, mesophilic, spore-forming, cellulolytic bacterium, originally isolated from the gut of a wood feeding termite Nasusitermes lujae. It has the ability to hydrolyze both cellulose and hemicellulose, and ferment the degradation products to acetate, formate, ethanol, lactate, H2, and CO2. It is therefore ges in gene and gene product expression during growth of C. termitidis on cellobiose, xylose, xylan, and α–cellulose. Results Correlation of transcriptome and proteome data with growth and fermentation profiles identified putative carbon-catabolism pathways in C. termitidis. The majority of the proteins associated with central metabolism were detected in high abundance. While major differences were not observed in gene and gene-product expression for enzymes associated with metabolic pathways under the different substrate conditions, xylulokinase and xylose isomerase of the pentose phosphate pathway were found to be highly up-regulated on five carbon sugars compared to hexoses. In addition, genes and gene-products associated with a variety of cellulosome and non-cellulosome associated CAZymes were found to be differentially expressed. Specifically, genes for cellulosomal enzymes and components were highly expressed on α–cellulose, while xylanases and glucosidases were up-regulated on 5 carbon sugars with respect to cellobiose. Chitinase and cellobiophosphorylases were the predominant CAZymes expressed on cellobiose. In addition to growth on xylan, the simultaneous consumption of two important lignocellulose constituents, cellobiose and xylose was also demonstrated. Conclusion There are little changes in core-metabolic pathways under the different carbon sources compared. The most significant differences were found to be associated with the CAZymes, as well as specific up regulation of some key components of the pentose phosphate pathway in the presence of xylose and xylan. This study has enhanced our understanding of the physiology and metabolism of C. termitidis, and provides a foundation for future studies on metabolic engineering to optimize biofuel production from natural biomass. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-016-0711-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lees, Kevin;
    Country: Canada

    Ice is a prominent characteristic of water bodies in cold regions. For rivers regulated for hydropower operations, the production of ice particles can result in obstructions and subsequent performance issues during energy production. Rough and thickened ice covers resulting from high flow conditions can also lead to substantial hydraulic losses. While ice formations impact hydropower operations, a river’s flow hydrograph also influences ice processes from freeze-up through break-up. Research investigations into the influence of regulation on ice processes benefits not only hydropower practioners, but also those who are impacted by hydropower operations. Further, understanding these cause-and-affect relationships supports design of innovative tools to quantify the impact of ice on river hydraulics. In this study, a detailed characterization of ice processes is presented for the regulated Upper Nelson River region located at the outlet of Lake Winnipeg in Northern Manitoba, Canada. With a focus on freeze-up and mid-winter processes, this characterization informed design of a 2D numerical modelling methodology to simulate ice-affected winter hydraulics. Model development included simulation of both thermal and dynamic ice phenomenon, which relied on derivation of numerous site-specific hydraulic functions. The presence of significant skim ice runs in this region inspired development of a novel treatment to simulate freeze-up jamming of skim ice floes on very mild-sloped rivers. The modelling methodology shows strong performance in simulating both freeze-up and mid-winter hydraulics, which is a signficiant contribution considering the complexity of this lake-outlet system. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of climate change on river ice hydraulics is included, with future projection of shorter and warmer winters leading to greater cumulative discharge from Lake Winnipeg. While discharge increases may lead to increased power production in future years, concurrent projections of increased inter-annual variability may present new operational challenges. Findings from this original research can be applied not only to the Nelson River, but also other regulated regions that are impacted by river ice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pihooja, Katherine;
    Country: Canada

    Coastal cities are grappling with how to shift their approach in designing the built environment to respond to global warming and sea level rise. With the potential increase of sea level rise by 1 metre by the year 2100, and climate change projecting more intense and frequent storms to British Columbia’s coasts, Vancouver will need to consider more resilient approaches to address flood risk along its shores. One area that will be exposed to flood risks includes the False Creek Flats, a historic tidal flat converted to rail and industrial hub in the core of the city, and on the cusp of transforming into the city’s next employment hub. At present, it is indiscernible that the False Creek Flats at one time was a historic tidal flat with a rich ecology supporting a variety of plants and wildlife, providing food and sustenance to the Indigenous people whose traditional territory included this land. The emergence of the rail and industry erased this history, the connection to the water, and the dynamic coastal processes that shaped the landscape. With the False Creek Flats undergoing a significant transformation over the next number of years, there is a window of opportunity to reconnect False Creek Flats to the coastal landscape, while also making room for flood waters and shifting perspectives on how we live with and build with water. This practicum seeks to develop a resilient design approach for False Creek Flats through three lenses: robustness, ensuring people are safe; adaptive, making room for the water; and transformative, shifting perspectives through design interventions. Leveraging the opportunity to make False Creek Flats resilient to climate change and flooding will benefit Vancouver by creating opportunities to shift public perspectives on how the city should adapt to sea level rise and climate change, while also bolstering public policy that will make the city and its residents more adaptive and resilient to change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Turcotte-van de Rydt, Christophe;
    Country: Canada

    Rapidly changing environments impact avian populations greatly. Indeed, variable weather affects the timing of crucial resource availability and behaviours of breeding birds. Migratory birds are particularly threatened by advancing springs and must adjust their migration timing to remain synchronized with spring phenology. Environmental factors such as weather variability are known to influence bird timing both during breeding and migratory periods but have rarely been investigated for their impact across migration routes. Once birds are at their breeding locations, how environmental factors influence local timing and movements has also been little examined. In this study, in a declining long-distance migrant, the purple martin (Progne subis), I first investigate how extrinsic (environmental), and intrinsic (morphological, migration destination) factors impact migration timing and rate. Second, I investigate the timing of parental roosting during active parental care, and how environmental and nest conditions influence this behaviour. I found that variation in destination and timing are the main influence on spring arrival date and migration rate, while to a lesser extent favourable weather promotes faster migration. The great influence of spring departure on migration rate and arrival suggests selective pressure on migration timing across routes to match with conditions at the breeding grounds. I also found that summer roosting is prominent in purple martins with colder evenings and increased parental investment increasing the odds of parents remaining at their colony at night. Overall, my findings indicate that the influence of environmental factors on movement behaviour may vary by season, with spring migration being mostly driven by intrinsic factors, while summer roosting may be most influenced by local temperature. Future research on the effects of environmental factors on migratory stopover duration and the seasonality of roosting would further our understanding of these timing behaviours and how they may interact with advancing climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Choy, Emily Sarah;
    Publisher: Marine Biology
    Country: Canada

    Arctic ecosystems are changing at an alarming rate, with the Arctic Ocean predicted to be summer sea ice free within the next few decades. Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are the most abundant Arctic odontocete, exhibiting a circumpolar distribution and a strong association to sea ice, and are thus a sentinel species for the effects of climate change. The vulnerability of belugas to changing environmental conditions will depend on their adaptive capacity and resilience to changes in the prey base. The overall objective of my thesis was to examine the potential effects of prey shifts due to changing environmental conditions on Beaufort Sea beluga whales by examining relationships among body condition, dietary tracers, and physiology. Differences in lipid content and carbonates in the tissues of beluga and their potential prey affected both carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios, which could lead to incorrect ecological interpretations. Inter-annual variation in blubber fatty acid signatures and liver δ13C and δ15N values in beluga whales may be related to annual differences in environmental conditions and abundances of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). To establish an effective approach for identifying prey, I used Bayesian mixing model Fatty Acid Source Tracking Algorithm in R (FASTAR) to reconstruct the known diets of two captive beluga whales using fatty acid signatures. FASTAR was then used to reconstruct the offshore diets of Beaufort Sea belugas. Although diets varied annually, Arctic cod and capelin (Mallotus villosus) were identified as the main prey of belugas. Finally, I examined physiological limits and the relationships between body condition and physiological parameters pertaining to oxygen storage capacity in belugas. Males had higher oxygen stores than females due to larger body size and higher hemoglobin concentrations. Body condition indices positively correlated with myoglobin and hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit, resulting in lower calculated aerobic dive limits in whales with lower body condition. Overall, prey shifts that reduce fitness will lead to lower oxygen stores, a positive feedback mechanism. The interconnectedness of diet, body condition, and physiology should be a conservation priority to monitor the long-term effects of climate change on belugas and other Arctic marine mammals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Campbell, Karley;
    Country: Canada

    The spring bloom of microalgae within the bottom of sea ice provides a significant contribution to primary production in the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this research was to improve observations of the ice algae bloom using a transmitted irradiance technique to remotely estimate biomass, and to examine the influence of physical processes on biomass throughout the sea ice melt season. Results indicate that bottom ice temperature is highly influential in controlling biomass variability and bloom termination. Snow depth is also significant as it buffers ice temperature from the atmosphere and largely controls transmission of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The relationship between snow depth and biomass can change over the spring however, limiting biomass accumulation early on while promoting it later. Brine drainage, under-ice current velocity, and surface PAR in the absence of snow cover are also important factors. Overall this research helps to characterize the spring ice algae bloom in the Arctic by improving in situ biomass estimates and identifying primary factors controlling it.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ghera, Gurmeet;
    Country: Canada

    The purpose of this research was to find out how local communities in the Himalayan region of India are benefiting when given the responsibility of managing village-based micro-hydro projects. In this research, a total of 7 cases were studied where the local communities were involved in management and other phases of micro hydro development. Data were collected using interviews with local community members, government officials, NGO officials and local experts in the micro-hydro sector. Results were categorized under social, economic, health and environmental factors. Results show that, although limited, these projects do produce local benefits. Electricity stays within the village, and villagers, especially children, women and the elderly, are benefited in various aspects of life. Although some local employment is generated and environmental considerations related to river flow are observed, these projects often run into financial difficulties, and with no financial backup the possibility of permanent project shutdown is always present.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Desjardins, Danielle;
    Country: Canada

    Historic and future extreme precipitation and wind events over southern Baffin Island, more specifically Iqaluit, Kimmirut, Pangnirtung and Cape Dorset are examined. Two sets of modeled re-analysis data, the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Regional Analysis 40 (ERA40) and the other the North American Regional Re-analysis (NARR) dataset were used to characterize the atmosphere during historic events. Two sets of CRCM data forced with Canadian Global Climate Model (CGCM) data, one from 1961-1990 and the other from 2041-2070, are compared to assess the changes in extreme events in the future. Extreme events were defined by daily precipitation and sustained wind thresholds. Based on the CRCM future projection, events were inferred to increase in intensity for all communities and increase in frequency for 3 of the 4 communities. A shift in the Arctic storm season was also inferred in the future projection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hosseinpour, Arash;
    Country: Canada

    Design is one of the most important stages in product development. Product design has experienced significant changes from concentrating on cost and performance to combining economic, environmental and societal considerations in design process. Sustainability is a new concept to balance economic, social and environmental aspects in product design. This research focuses on sustainable product design. The main challenging problem in the sustainable design is how the sustainable criteria can be used as quantitative metrics to evaluate products. This research integrates Axiomatic Design and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) concepts with Eco-design tools, such as Life cycle Assessment (LCA), to establish the quantitative metrics for sustainable product design. A novel wheelchair is designed as a case study in this research. Modularity is conducted to improve the wheelchair for the end of life cycle management

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aveiro Talavera, Juan Jose;
    Country: Canada

    Paraguay has 35% of its territory covered by wetlands. One of the most important is the Ñeembucú wetland, situated mostly in the Department of Ñeembucú. Human activity in sectors such as agriculture, industry, transportation (roads), and energy (hydroelectric dams), exercise pressure on the environment and natural resources. Wetland conservation in particular needs to be prioritized, and this cannot happen without the involvement of the local community (Local Residents or Campesinos and Ranchers), which currently does not take place. Consequently, implementation of an ecosystem management approach is crucial to maintaining social, economic, and environmental wellbeing. The overall objective of this research project is to promote sustainability of human livelihoods in the Ñeembucú ecoregion, Paraguay, working in partnership with stakeholders in order to balance production with environmental priorities. The principal findings of this research study are presented according to each specific objective it addressed. (1) Determine the socio-economic situation in the Ñeembucú. Campesinos live in a very precarious situation. (2) Assess changes in areas of water bodies and other land cover. Human activities such as drainage, burning and deforestation, are causing a change in the water distribution and the vegetation complexity of the area. (3) Identify general changes in wildlife abundance in the Ñeembucú region with particular emphasis on indicators of ecosystem health. There is a decrease in the wildlife population in the Ñeembucú region. (4) Establish how these changes are associated with cattle and crop production in the San Juan del Ñeembucú District. Ranchers were the main builders of channels and roads. (5) Identify and establish further socioeconomic initiatives with ranchers and farmers that balance production and environmental priorities. There is a lack of networking and joint work among stakeholders. (6) Recommend approaches to enhance sustainability of the ecoregion. The main recommendations are: • Develop an adaptive management plan • Stimulate environmental education to create awareness • Encourage public participation • Create protected areas for wildlife • Support research • Motivate local tourism and create work alternatives • Create a sustainable and regional water management plan for the Ñeembucú Department • Offer government technical support to local producers

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
220 Research products, page 1 of 22
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Riffat I. Munir; Victor Spicer; Oleg V. Krokhin; Dmitry Shamshurin; Xiangli Zhang; Marcel Taillefer; Warren Blunt; Nazim Cicek; Richard Sparling; David B. Levin;
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: Canada

    Background Clostridium termitidis CT1112 is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, mesophilic, spore-forming, cellulolytic bacterium, originally isolated from the gut of a wood feeding termite Nasusitermes lujae. It has the ability to hydrolyze both cellulose and hemicellulose, and ferment the degradation products to acetate, formate, ethanol, lactate, H2, and CO2. It is therefore ges in gene and gene product expression during growth of C. termitidis on cellobiose, xylose, xylan, and α–cellulose. Results Correlation of transcriptome and proteome data with growth and fermentation profiles identified putative carbon-catabolism pathways in C. termitidis. The majority of the proteins associated with central metabolism were detected in high abundance. While major differences were not observed in gene and gene-product expression for enzymes associated with metabolic pathways under the different substrate conditions, xylulokinase and xylose isomerase of the pentose phosphate pathway were found to be highly up-regulated on five carbon sugars compared to hexoses. In addition, genes and gene-products associated with a variety of cellulosome and non-cellulosome associated CAZymes were found to be differentially expressed. Specifically, genes for cellulosomal enzymes and components were highly expressed on α–cellulose, while xylanases and glucosidases were up-regulated on 5 carbon sugars with respect to cellobiose. Chitinase and cellobiophosphorylases were the predominant CAZymes expressed on cellobiose. In addition to growth on xylan, the simultaneous consumption of two important lignocellulose constituents, cellobiose and xylose was also demonstrated. Conclusion There are little changes in core-metabolic pathways under the different carbon sources compared. The most significant differences were found to be associated with the CAZymes, as well as specific up regulation of some key components of the pentose phosphate pathway in the presence of xylose and xylan. This study has enhanced our understanding of the physiology and metabolism of C. termitidis, and provides a foundation for future studies on metabolic engineering to optimize biofuel production from natural biomass. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-016-0711-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lees, Kevin;
    Country: Canada

    Ice is a prominent characteristic of water bodies in cold regions. For rivers regulated for hydropower operations, the production of ice particles can result in obstructions and subsequent performance issues during energy production. Rough and thickened ice covers resulting from high flow conditions can also lead to substantial hydraulic losses. While ice formations impact hydropower operations, a river’s flow hydrograph also influences ice processes from freeze-up through break-up. Research investigations into the influence of regulation on ice processes benefits not only hydropower practioners, but also those who are impacted by hydropower operations. Further, understanding these cause-and-affect relationships supports design of innovative tools to quantify the impact of ice on river hydraulics. In this study, a detailed characterization of ice processes is presented for the regulated Upper Nelson River region located at the outlet of Lake Winnipeg in Northern Manitoba, Canada. With a focus on freeze-up and mid-winter processes, this characterization informed design of a 2D numerical modelling methodology to simulate ice-affected winter hydraulics. Model development included simulation of both thermal and dynamic ice phenomenon, which relied on derivation of numerous site-specific hydraulic functions. The presence of significant skim ice runs in this region inspired development of a novel treatment to simulate freeze-up jamming of skim ice floes on very mild-sloped rivers. The modelling methodology shows strong performance in simulating both freeze-up and mid-winter hydraulics, which is a signficiant contribution considering the complexity of this lake-outlet system. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of climate change on river ice hydraulics is included, with future projection of shorter and warmer winters leading to greater cumulative discharge from Lake Winnipeg. While discharge increases may lead to increased power production in future years, concurrent projections of increased inter-annual variability may present new operational challenges. Findings from this original research can be applied not only to the Nelson River, but also other regulated regions that are impacted by river ice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pihooja, Katherine;
    Country: Canada

    Coastal cities are grappling with how to shift their approach in designing the built environment to respond to global warming and sea level rise. With the potential increase of sea level rise by 1 metre by the year 2100, and climate change projecting more intense and frequent storms to British Columbia’s coasts, Vancouver will need to consider more resilient approaches to address flood risk along its shores. One area that will be exposed to flood risks includes the False Creek Flats, a historic tidal flat converted to rail and industrial hub in the core of the city, and on the cusp of transforming into the city’s next employment hub. At present, it is indiscernible that the False Creek Flats at one time was a historic tidal flat with a rich ecology supporting a variety of plants and wildlife, providing food and sustenance to the Indigenous people whose traditional territory included this land. The emergence of the rail and industry erased this history, the connection to the water, and the dynamic coastal processes that shaped the landscape. With the False Creek Flats undergoing a significant transformation over the next number of years, there is a window of opportunity to reconnect False Creek Flats to the coastal landscape, while also making room for flood waters and shifting perspectives on how we live with and build with water. This practicum seeks to develop a resilient design approach for False Creek Flats through three lenses: robustness, ensuring people are safe; adaptive, making room for the water; and transformative, shifting perspectives through design interventions. Leveraging the opportunity to make False Creek Flats resilient to climate change and flooding will benefit Vancouver by creating opportunities to shift public perspectives on how the city should adapt to sea level rise and climate change, while also bolstering public policy that will make the city and its residents more adaptive and resilient to change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Turcotte-van de Rydt, Christophe;
    Country: Canada

    Rapidly changing environments impact avian populations greatly. Indeed, variable weather affects the timing of crucial resource availability and behaviours of breeding birds. Migratory birds are particularly threatened by advancing springs and must adjust their migration timing to remain synchronized with spring phenology. Environmental factors such as weather variability are known to influence bird timing both during breeding and migratory periods but have rarely been investigated for their impact across migration routes. Once birds are at their breeding locations, how environmental factors influence local timing and movements has also been little examined. In this study, in a declining long-distance migrant, the purple martin (Progne subis), I first investigate how extrinsic (environmental), and intrinsic (morphological, migration destination) factors impact migration timing and rate. Second, I investigate the timing of parental roosting during active parental care, and how environmental and nest conditions influence this behaviour. I found that variation in destination and timing are the main influence on spring arrival date and migration rate, while to a lesser extent favourable weather promotes faster migration. The great influence of spring departure on migration rate and arrival suggests selective pressure on migration timing across routes to match with conditions at the breeding grounds. I also found that summer roosting is prominent in purple martins with colder evenings and increased parental investment increasing the odds of parents remaining at their colony at night. Overall, my findings indicate that the influence of environmental factors on movement behaviour may vary by season, with spring migration being mostly driven by intrinsic factors, while summer roosting may be most influenced by local temperature. Future research on the effects of environmental factors on migratory stopover duration and the seasonality of roosting would further our understanding of these timing behaviours and how they may interact with advancing climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Choy, Emily Sarah;
    Publisher: Marine Biology
    Country: Canada

    Arctic ecosystems are changing at an alarming rate, with the Arctic Ocean predicted to be summer sea ice free within the next few decades. Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are the most abundant Arctic odontocete, exhibiting a circumpolar distribution and a strong association to sea ice, and are thus a sentinel species for the effects of climate change. The vulnerability of belugas to changing environmental conditions will depend on their adaptive capacity and resilience to changes in the prey base. The overall objective of my thesis was to examine the potential effects of prey shifts due to changing environmental conditions on Beaufort Sea beluga whales by examining relationships among body condition, dietary tracers, and physiology. Differences in lipid content and carbonates in the tissues of beluga and their potential prey affected both carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios, which could lead to incorrect ecological interpretations. Inter-annual variation in blubber fatty acid signatures and liver δ13C and δ15N values in beluga whales may be related to annual differences in environmental conditions and abundances of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). To establish an effective approach for identifying prey, I used Bayesian mixing model Fatty Acid Source Tracking Algorithm in R (FASTAR) to reconstruct the known diets of two captive beluga whales using fatty acid signatures. FASTAR was then used to reconstruct the offshore diets of Beaufort Sea belugas. Although diets varied annually, Arctic cod and capelin (Mallotus villosus) were identified as the main prey of belugas. Finally, I examined physiological limits and the relationships between body condition and physiological parameters pertaining to oxygen storage capacity in belugas. Males had higher oxygen stores than females due to larger body size and higher hemoglobin concentrations. Body condition indices positively correlated with myoglobin and hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit, resulting in lower calculated aerobic dive limits in whales with lower body condition. Overall, prey shifts that reduce fitness will lead to lower oxygen stores, a positive feedback mechanism. The interconnectedness of diet, body condition, and physiology should be a conservation priority to monitor the long-term effects of climate change on belugas and other Arctic marine mammals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Campbell, Karley;
    Country: Canada

    The spring bloom of microalgae within the bottom of sea ice provides a significant contribution to primary production in the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this research was to improve observations of the ice algae bloom using a transmitted irradiance technique to remotely estimate biomass, and to examine the influence of physical processes on biomass throughout the sea ice melt season. Results indicate that bottom ice temperature is highly influential in controlling biomass variability and bloom termination. Snow depth is also significant as it buffers ice temperature from the atmosphere and largely controls transmission of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The relationship between snow depth and biomass can change over the spring however, limiting biomass accumulation early on while promoting it later. Brine drainage, under-ice current velocity, and surface PAR in the absence of snow cover are also important factors. Overall this research helps to characterize the spring ice algae bloom in the Arctic by improving in situ biomass estimates and identifying primary factors controlling it.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ghera, Gurmeet;
    Country: Canada

    The purpose of this research was to find out how local communities in the Himalayan region of India are benefiting when given the responsibility of managing village-based micro-hydro projects. In this research, a total of 7 cases were studied where the local communities were involved in management and other phases of micro hydro development. Data were collected using interviews with local community members, government officials, NGO officials and local experts in the micro-hydro sector. Results were categorized under social, economic, health and environmental factors. Results show that, although limited, these projects do produce local benefits. Electricity stays within the village, and villagers, especially children, women and the elderly, are benefited in various aspects of life. Although some local employment is generated and environmental considerations related to river flow are observed, these projects often run into financial difficulties, and with no financial backup the possibility of permanent project shutdown is always present.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Desjardins, Danielle;
    Country: Canada

    Historic and future extreme precipitation and wind events over southern Baffin Island, more specifically Iqaluit, Kimmirut, Pangnirtung and Cape Dorset are examined. Two sets of modeled re-analysis data, the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Regional Analysis 40 (ERA40) and the other the North American Regional Re-analysis (NARR) dataset were used to characterize the atmosphere during historic events. Two sets of CRCM data forced with Canadian Global Climate Model (CGCM) data, one from 1961-1990 and the other from 2041-2070, are compared to assess the changes in extreme events in the future. Extreme events were defined by daily precipitation and sustained wind thresholds. Based on the CRCM future projection, events were inferred to increase in intensity for all communities and increase in frequency for 3 of the 4 communities. A shift in the Arctic storm season was also inferred in the future projection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hosseinpour, Arash;
    Country: Canada

    Design is one of the most important stages in product development. Product design has experienced significant changes from concentrating on cost and performance to combining economic, environmental and societal considerations in design process. Sustainability is a new concept to balance economic, social and environmental aspects in product design. This research focuses on sustainable product design. The main challenging problem in the sustainable design is how the sustainable criteria can be used as quantitative metrics to evaluate products. This research integrates Axiomatic Design and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) concepts with Eco-design tools, such as Life cycle Assessment (LCA), to establish the quantitative metrics for sustainable product design. A novel wheelchair is designed as a case study in this research. Modularity is conducted to improve the wheelchair for the end of life cycle management

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aveiro Talavera, Juan Jose;
    Country: Canada

    Paraguay has 35% of its territory covered by wetlands. One of the most important is the Ñeembucú wetland, situated mostly in the Department of Ñeembucú. Human activity in sectors such as agriculture, industry, transportation (roads), and energy (hydroelectric dams), exercise pressure on the environment and natural resources. Wetland conservation in particular needs to be prioritized, and this cannot happen without the involvement of the local community (Local Residents or Campesinos and Ranchers), which currently does not take place. Consequently, implementation of an ecosystem management approach is crucial to maintaining social, economic, and environmental wellbeing. The overall objective of this research project is to promote sustainability of human livelihoods in the Ñeembucú ecoregion, Paraguay, working in partnership with stakeholders in order to balance production with environmental priorities. The principal findings of this research study are presented according to each specific objective it addressed. (1) Determine the socio-economic situation in the Ñeembucú. Campesinos live in a very precarious situation. (2) Assess changes in areas of water bodies and other land cover. Human activities such as drainage, burning and deforestation, are causing a change in the water distribution and the vegetation complexity of the area. (3) Identify general changes in wildlife abundance in the Ñeembucú region with particular emphasis on indicators of ecosystem health. There is a decrease in the wildlife population in the Ñeembucú region. (4) Establish how these changes are associated with cattle and crop production in the San Juan del Ñeembucú District. Ranchers were the main builders of channels and roads. (5) Identify and establish further socioeconomic initiatives with ranchers and farmers that balance production and environmental priorities. There is a lack of networking and joint work among stakeholders. (6) Recommend approaches to enhance sustainability of the ecoregion. The main recommendations are: • Develop an adaptive management plan • Stimulate environmental education to create awareness • Encourage public participation • Create protected areas for wildlife • Support research • Motivate local tourism and create work alternatives • Create a sustainable and regional water management plan for the Ñeembucú Department • Offer government technical support to local producers