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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Reddy, B. Sidda; Kumar, J. Suresh; Reddy, C. Eswara; Reddy, K. Vijaya Kumar;

    The prime aim of the present study is to present analytical formulations and solutions for the buckling analysis of simply supported functionally graded plates (FGPs) using higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) without enforcing zero transverse shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. It does not require shear correction factors and transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness. Material properties of the plate are assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived using the principle of virtual work. Solutions are obtained for FGPs in closed-form using Navier’s technique. Comparison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present results from which it can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling behavior of functionally graded plates. The effect of side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, modulus ratio, the volume fraction exponent, and the loading conditions on the critical buckling load of FGPs is also investigated and discussed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Composite...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Composites
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Composite...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Composites
      Article
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Biniam Kidane; Farouq Manji; Jennifer Lam; Brian M. Taylor;

    Background.Surgery for GI dysmotility is limited to those with severe refractory disease. Though effective, use of serotonergic promotility drugs has been restricted in Canada due to adverse events. We aimed to investigate utilization of promotility serotonergic drugs in patients under consideration for surgical management.Methods.A retrospective cohort study was conducted using prospectively collected data. The study population included consecutive patients referred to a motility clinic for consideration of bowel resection at a Canadian tertiary hospital (1996–2011). Univariable tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors of serotonergic drug use.Results.Of 128 patients, the majority (n=98, 76.6%) had constipation-dominant symptoms. Only 25% (n=32) had tried serotonergic promotility drugs. There was no association between use of these drugs and severity of constipation nor was there an association between serotonergic drug use and presence of diffuse dysmotility (allp>0.05). The majority of patients (n=97, 75.8%) underwent some type of surgical resection, which was associated with considerable morbidity (n=13, 13.4%).Conclusions.Surgical management of GI dysmotility results in serious morbidity. Serotonergic promotility drugs may allow patients to avoid surgery but disease severity does not predict use of these drugs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2016
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    Scientifica
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ-Articles
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scientifica
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Routray, Ashish; Osuri, Krishna K.; Kulkarni, Makarand A.;

    The present study focuses on the performance-based comparison of simulations carried out using nudging (NUD) technique and three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system (3DV) of a heavy rainfall event occurred during 25–28 June 2005 along the west coast of India. The Indian conventional and nonconventional observations are used in the 3DV experiment. Three numerical experiments are conducted using WRF modeling system, the model is integrated upto 54 hours from the initial time 0000 UTC of 25 June 2005. It is noticed that the meteorological parameters are improved in the resulting high-resolution analyses prepared by NUD and 3DV compared to without data assimilation experiment (i.e., called CNTL experiment). However, after the successful inclusion of observations using the 3DVAR data assimilation technique, the model is able to simulate better structure of the convective organization as well as prominent synoptic features associated with the mid-tropospheric cyclones (MTC) than the NUD experiment and well correlated with the observations. The simulated location and intensity of rainfall is also improved in 3DV simulation as compared with other experiments. Similar results are noticed in the root mean squar errors, correlation coefficients, and Equitable Threat Scores between TRMM and model simulated rainfall for all the three experiments.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ISRN Meteorologyarrow_drop_down
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    ISRN Meteorology
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    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ISRN Meteorologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ISRN Meteorology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Midwood, Jonathan; Rokitnicki-Wojcik, Daniel; Chow-Fraser, Patricia;

    Coastal wetlands of eastern Georgian Bay provide critical habitat for a variety of wildlife, especially spawning and nursery habitat for Great Lakes fishes. Although the eastern shoreline has been designated a World Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, a complete inventory is lacking. Prior effort by the Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) was unable to fully identify coastal wetland habitat in eastern Georgian Bay due to limited data coverage. Here we outline the methodology, analyses, and applications of the McMaster Coastal Wetland Inventory (MCWI) created from a comprehensive collection of satellite imagery from 2002–2008. Wetlands were manually delineated in a GIS as two broad habitat types: coastal marsh and upstream wetland. Coastal marsh was further subdivided into low marsh (LM; permanently inundated) and high marsh (HM; seasonally inundated) habitat. Within the coastal zone of eastern and northern Georgian Bay there are 12629 distinct wetland units comprised of 5376 ha of LM, 3298 ha of HM and 8676 ha of upstream habitat. The MCWI identifies greater total wetland area within the coastal zone than does the GLCWC inventory (17350 ha versus 3659 ha resp.). The MCWI provides the most current and comprehensive inventory of coastal wetlands in eastern Georgian Bay.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ISRN Ecology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ISRN Ecology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sara Ansaloni; Brian P. Leung; Neeraj P. Sebastian; Rohini Samudralwar; +2 Authors

    We report thatNTRK2, the gene encoding for the TrkB receptor, can regulate APP metabolism, specifically AICD levels. Using the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, we characterized the effect of three TrkB isoforms (FL, SHC, T) on APP metabolism by knockdown and overexpression. We found that TrkB FL increases AICD-mediated transcription and APP levels while it decreases sAPP levels. These effects were mainly mediated by the tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor and partially by the PLC-- and SHC-binding sites. The TrkB T truncated isoform did not have significant effects on APP metabolism when transfected by itself, while the TrkB SHC decreased AICD-mediated transcription. TrkB T abolished TrkB FL effects on APP metabolism when cotransfected with it while TrkB SHC cotransfected with TrkB FL still showed increased APP levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that TrkB isoforms have differential effects on APP metabolism.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2011
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2011
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: John T. Giblin; Janine Shertzer;

    We suggest that stable states of positronium might exist in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Electrons and positrons are created near the accretion disks of supermassive black holes at the centers of AGN and are accelerated along magnetic field lines while within the Alfvèn radius. The conditions in this region are ideal for the creation of bound states of positronium which are stable against annihilation. Traveling at relativistic speeds along the jet, the helical magnetic field enables the atoms to survive for great distances.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ISRN Astronomy and A...arrow_drop_down
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    ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2012
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      ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2012
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    Authors: Shi, Jiangtao; Zhang, Cui;

    LetGbe a finite group and𝒩𝒞(G)the set of the numbers of conjugates of noncyclic proper subgroups ofG. We prove that (1) if|𝒩𝒞(G)|≤2, thenGis solvable, and (2)Gis a nonsolvable group with|𝒩𝒞(G)|=3if and only ifG≅PSL(2,5)orPSL(2,13)orSL(2,5)orSL(2,13).

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2013
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    The Scientific World Journal
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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      The Scientific World Journal
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    Authors: Jeffrey M. Gimble; Bruce A. Bunnell; Louis Casteilla; Jin Sup Jung; +1 Authors

    Mesenchymal progenitor/stromal/stem cell (MSC) research has made substantial progress during the past decades. Investigators have published a wealth of basic science and preclinical data documenting the potential utility, efficacy, and safety of MSCs. The majority of this work has focused on the bone marrow- or adipose-derived MSCs. Since this body of evidence has set the stage for clinicians to advance from the bench to the bedside, Stem Cells International set out to publish a special issue devoted to the topic of Phases I–III Clinical Trials Using Adult Stem Cells. The result is a collection of ten outstanding articles submitted by investigators representing ten countries across Asia, Europe, and North America. In all cases, the methods section of each manuscript included a statement documenting that the clinical investigations were performed following institutional review board approval and/or that patient informed consent had been provided prior to the conduct of the study. Bieback et al. in Germany (Translating research into clinical scale manufacturing of mesenchymal stromal cells) and B. Philippe et al. in France (in “Culture and Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Phase I and II Clinical Trials”) have focused on the process of MSC isolation and expansion with respect to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). These authors highlight the state of the art as well as the challenges facing the development of clinical grade cells for therapeutic applications. From a regulatory perspective, the simplest application of MSC is to use them in the context of their tissue of origin. S. Akita et al. in Japan (in “Noncultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Therapy for Chronic Radiation Injury”) have exploited adipose-derived stem cells for soft tissue regeneration. They describe their clinical experience using autologous adipose-derived stem cells in combination with growth factors and scaffold to treat ten patients suffering from dermal radiation lesions. A series of three review papers from Belgium (“Phase 1–3 Clinical Trials Using Adult Stem Cells in Osteonecrosis and Nonunion Fractures” by J. –P. Hauzeur and V. Gangji), the USA and China (“Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells and Their Orthopedic Applications: Forging a Path towards Clinical Trials” by D. S. Shenaq et al.), and the Netherlands (“Clinical Applications of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering” by Chatterjea et al.) have examined the use of bone marrow-derived MSC for orthopedic applications. Each work provides a unique perspective on the published clinical trials using MSC to treat cartilage and tendon repair, critical sized defects, metabolic bone diseases, nonunion fractures, and/or osteonecrosis. From a public health perspective, MSC applications for common cardiac and central nervous system disorders could have substantial health and societal benefits. R. Sanz-Ruiz et al. in Spain (in “Phases I–III Clinical Trials Using Adult Stem Cells”) have emphasized the critical importance of randomized clinical trials to assess the utility of MSCs as they focus on the clinical evidence supporting MSC-based treatment of cardiac disease. Furthermore, they review the guidance documents on future clinical trials provided by a task force convened by the European Society for Cardiology. P. A. Walker et al. in the USA (in “Progenitor Cell Therapy for The Treatment of Central Nervous System Injury: A Review of the State of Current Clinical Trials) provide a similar perspective relating to central nervous system disorders. They evaluate the use of bone marrow-derived MSCs for ischemic stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury and conclude that there remains a need for further evidence to support these clinical applications. There are potential MSC applications for metabolic disorders as well. A. C. Piscaglia et al. in Italy (in “Stem Cell Therapies for Liver Disease: State of the Art and New Perspectives) have reviewed the limited number of clinical trials using hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), MSC infusion, or cytokine (G-CSF) therapy to reverse hepatic injury due to cirrhosis, drug exposure, or other causes of end stage liver disease. Likewise, A. V. Vanikar et al. from India (in “Cotransplantation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Insulin Secreting Mesenchymal Stem Cells A Novel Therapy for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus”) describe their experience combining adipose- and bone marrow-derived MSC to treat a cohort of 11 diabetic subjects for a period of up to 23 months. They report improved hemoglobin A1C levels as well as decreased daily requirements for exogenous insulin. Uniformly, these authors highlight both the promise and the challenges faced by this emerging field of medicine. Their manuscripts identify the critical need for additional prospective, randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating all cell-based therapies, regardless of the underlying disorder. In summary, this special issue provides a snapshot of the current status of MSC-based clinical trials across the globe. Hopefully, this publication will provide a benchmark for future meta-analyses evaluating a far greater body of clinical evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of MSC therapies. Jeffrey M. Gimble Bruce A. Bunnell Louis Casteilla Jin Sup Jung Kotaro Yoshimura

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2011
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    Stem Cells International
    Article . 2010
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    Stem Cells International
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2011
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      Stem Cells International
      Article . 2010
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      Stem Cells International
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    Authors: Yongxia Zhou; Yvonne W. Lui;

    Background. Small-world network consists of networks with local specialization and global integration. Our objective is to detect small-world properties alteration based on cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) including stables and converters, and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to controls. Methods. MRI scans of 13 controls, 10 MCI, and 10 with early AD were retrospectively analyzed; 11 MCI converters, 11 MCI stables, and 10 controls from the ADNI website were also included. Results. There were significantly decreased local efficiencies in patients with MCI and AD compared to controls; and MCI patients showed increased global efficiency compared to AD and controls. The MCI converters experience the worst local efficiency during the converting period to AD; the stables, however, have highest local and global efficiency. Conclusions. The abnormal cortical thickness-based small-world properties in MCI and AD as well as the distinct patterns between two MCI subtypes suggest that small-world network analysis has the potential to better differentiate different stages of early dementia.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    ISRN Geriatrics
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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      ISRN Geriatrics
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    Authors: Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash;

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women’s daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    Scientifica
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    Article . 2016
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    Authors: Reddy, B. Sidda; Kumar, J. Suresh; Reddy, C. Eswara; Reddy, K. Vijaya Kumar;

    The prime aim of the present study is to present analytical formulations and solutions for the buckling analysis of simply supported functionally graded plates (FGPs) using higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) without enforcing zero transverse shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. It does not require shear correction factors and transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness. Material properties of the plate are assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived using the principle of virtual work. Solutions are obtained for FGPs in closed-form using Navier’s technique. Comparison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present results from which it can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling behavior of functionally graded plates. The effect of side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, modulus ratio, the volume fraction exponent, and the loading conditions on the critical buckling load of FGPs is also investigated and discussed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Composite...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Composites
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Biniam Kidane; Farouq Manji; Jennifer Lam; Brian M. Taylor;

    Background.Surgery for GI dysmotility is limited to those with severe refractory disease. Though effective, use of serotonergic promotility drugs has been restricted in Canada due to adverse events. We aimed to investigate utilization of promotility serotonergic drugs in patients under consideration for surgical management.Methods.A retrospective cohort study was conducted using prospectively collected data. The study population included consecutive patients referred to a motility clinic for consideration of bowel resection at a Canadian tertiary hospital (1996–2011). Univariable tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors of serotonergic drug use.Results.Of 128 patients, the majority (n=98, 76.6%) had constipation-dominant symptoms. Only 25% (n=32) had tried serotonergic promotility drugs. There was no association between use of these drugs and severity of constipation nor was there an association between serotonergic drug use and presence of diffuse dysmotility (allp>0.05). The majority of patients (n=97, 75.8%) underwent some type of surgical resection, which was associated with considerable morbidity (n=13, 13.4%).Conclusions.Surgical management of GI dysmotility results in serious morbidity. Serotonergic promotility drugs may allow patients to avoid surgery but disease severity does not predict use of these drugs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    Scientifica
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Routray, Ashish; Osuri, Krishna K.; Kulkarni, Makarand A.;

    The present study focuses on the performance-based comparison of simulations carried out using nudging (NUD) technique and three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system (3DV) of a heavy rainfall event occurred during 25–28 June 2005 along the west coast of India. The Indian conventional and nonconventional observations are used in the 3DV experiment. Three numerical experiments are conducted using WRF modeling system, the model is integrated upto 54 hours from the initial time 0000 UTC of 25 June 2005. It is noticed that the meteorological parameters are improved in the resulting high-resolution analyses prepared by NUD and 3DV compared to without data assimilation experiment (i.e., called CNTL experiment). However, after the successful inclusion of observations using the 3DVAR data assimilation technique, the model is able to simulate better structure of the convective organization as well as prominent synoptic features associated with the mid-tropospheric cyclones (MTC) than the NUD experiment and well correlated with the observations. The simulated location and intensity of rainfall is also improved in 3DV simulation as compared with other experiments. Similar results are noticed in the root mean squar errors, correlation coefficients, and Equitable Threat Scores between TRMM and model simulated rainfall for all the three experiments.

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    ISRN Meteorology
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