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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gorczynski, Reginald M.;

    The type 1 membrane glycoprotein CD200, widely expressed on multiple cells/tissues, uses a structurally similar receptor (CD200R1), whose expression is more restricted to cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, to transmit signals affecting responses in multiple physiological systems. Thus CD200 expression is reported to exert effects on cancer growth, autoimmune and allergic disorders, infection, transplantation, bone development and homeostasis, and reproductive biology. It was initially thought, based on the idea that CD200R1 was mostly expressed on cells of myeloid origin, that CD200:CD200R1 interactions were primarily dedicated to controlling myeloid cell function. However additional members of the CD200R family have now also been identified, although their function(s) remain unclear, and CD200R1 itself is now known to be expressed by subsets of T cells and other cells. Together these observations add layers of complexity to our understanding of CD200-related regulation. In common with a number of physiological systems, the mechanism(s) of CD200-induced signaling seem to fit within a similar framework of opposing actions of kinases and phosphatases. This paper highlights the advances in our knowledge of immunoregulation achieved following CD200:CD200R interaction and the potential clinical applicability of that information.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wainberg, Mark A.;

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) involves combinations of drugs to achieve maximal virological response and reduce the potential for the emergence of antiviral resistance. There are two broad classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Since the first classes of such compounds were developed, viral resistance against them has necessitated the continuous development of novel compounds within each class. This paper considers the NRTIs and NNRTIs currently in both preclinical and clinical development or approved for second line therapy and describes the patterns of resistance associated with their use, as well as the underlying mechanisms that have been described. Due to reasons of both affordability and availability, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors with low genetic barrier are more commonly used in resource-limited settings. Their use results to the emergence of specific patterns of antiviral resistance and so may require specific actions to preserve therapeutic options for patients in such settings. More recently, the advent of integrase strand transfer inhibitors represents another major step forward toward control of HIV infection, but these compounds are also susceptible to problems of HIV drug resistance.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ferentzy, Peter; Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.;

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research.

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    Authors: Caballero, Julieta; Frenette, Gilles; Sullivan, Robert;

    After spermatogenesis, testicular spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an oocyte, they must undergo sequential maturational processes. Part of these essential processes occurs during the transit of the spermatozoa through the male reproductive tract. Since the sperm become silent in terms of translation and transcription at the testicular level, all the maturational changes that take place on them are dependent on the interaction of spermatozoa with epididymal and accessory gland fluids. During the last decades, reproductive biotechnologies applied to bovine species have advanced significantly. The knowledge of the bull reproductive physiology is really important for the improvement of these techniques and the development of new ones. This paper focuses on the importance of the sperm interaction with the male reproductive fluids to acquire the fertilizing ability, with special attention to the role of the membranous vesicles present in those fluids and the recent mechanisms of protein acquisition during sperm maturation.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gibson, Eric S.; Cairo, Alexis; Räisänen, Anu M.; Kuntze, Colleen; +2 Authors

    Background. Youth around the globe place their shoulders at risk for injury when participating in sports. Shoulder injuries may vary in severity, produce the potential for time-loss from sport, and result in functional disability. We sought to explore sport-related shoulder injuries in youth by identifying injury rates, risk factors, injury mechanisms, and injury prevention strategies. Methods. All relevant full-text articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sport Discus, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry. No date restrictions were used. All full-text studies reporting original research describing sport-related shoulder injury among female and/or male youth from 5 to 18 years old were included. Results. Of 3,889 studies screened, 97 described shoulder injury in youth sports. Shoulder injuries were identified in 24 unique sports. The median seasonal prevalence of shoulder injury was 10.9% (range 1.2–28.2%). The most common injury mechanisms identified were contacted with another player, contact with the playing environment, and falling to the ground. Risk factors for shoulder injury identified were side-to-side strength imbalances, weak external rotator muscles, and scapular dyskinesia. One study evaluated a successful training strategy to prevent shoulder injuries, but two other interventions demonstrated no effect. Conclusions. Sport-related shoulder injuries are prevalent among youth athletes. Injury risk factors identified included modifiable intrinsic factors such as strength, range of motion, and training load. The most common injury mechanism was direct contact with either another person or an object in the playing environment. Innovative shoulder-specific strategies are needed to reduce shoulder injuries in this population. Trial Registration: PROSPERO ID: CRD42020189142.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: McLeod, Katherine M.; Johnson, C. Shanthi;

    Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES) evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6) and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8). Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

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    Authors: Mohamed, Amany; Posse de Chaves, Elena;

    In the brain, the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) exists extracellularly and inside neurons. The intracellular accumulation of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease brain has been questioned for a long time. However, there is now sufficient strong evidence indicating that accumulation of Aβ inside neurons plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Intraneuronal Aβ originates from intracellular cleavage of APP and from Aβ internalization from the extracellular milieu. We discuss here the different molecular mechanisms that are responsible for Aβ internalization in neurons and the links between Aβ internalization and neuronal dysfunction and death. A brief description of Aβ uptake by glia is also presented.

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    Authors: Choi, Bernard C. K.;

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance.

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    Authors: Sears, Margaret E.;

    Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease.

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    Authors: Wu, Yue; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Biaobiao; Du, K.-L.;

    The radial basis function (RBF) network has its foundation in the conventional approximation theory. It has the capability of universal approximation. The RBF network is a popular alternative to the well-known multilayer perceptron (MLP), since it has a simpler structure and a much faster training process. In this paper, we give a comprehensive survey on the RBF network and its learning. Many aspects associated with the RBF network, such as network structure, universal approimation capability, radial basis functions, RBF network learning, structure optimization, normalized RBF networks, application to dynamic system modeling, and nonlinear complex-valued signal processing, are described. We also compare the features and capability of the two models.

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55 Research products
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    Authors: Gorczynski, Reginald M.;

    The type 1 membrane glycoprotein CD200, widely expressed on multiple cells/tissues, uses a structurally similar receptor (CD200R1), whose expression is more restricted to cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, to transmit signals affecting responses in multiple physiological systems. Thus CD200 expression is reported to exert effects on cancer growth, autoimmune and allergic disorders, infection, transplantation, bone development and homeostasis, and reproductive biology. It was initially thought, based on the idea that CD200R1 was mostly expressed on cells of myeloid origin, that CD200:CD200R1 interactions were primarily dedicated to controlling myeloid cell function. However additional members of the CD200R family have now also been identified, although their function(s) remain unclear, and CD200R1 itself is now known to be expressed by subsets of T cells and other cells. Together these observations add layers of complexity to our understanding of CD200-related regulation. In common with a number of physiological systems, the mechanism(s) of CD200-induced signaling seem to fit within a similar framework of opposing actions of kinases and phosphatases. This paper highlights the advances in our knowledge of immunoregulation achieved following CD200:CD200R interaction and the potential clinical applicability of that information.

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    Authors: Wainberg, Mark A.;

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) involves combinations of drugs to achieve maximal virological response and reduce the potential for the emergence of antiviral resistance. There are two broad classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Since the first classes of such compounds were developed, viral resistance against them has necessitated the continuous development of novel compounds within each class. This paper considers the NRTIs and NNRTIs currently in both preclinical and clinical development or approved for second line therapy and describes the patterns of resistance associated with their use, as well as the underlying mechanisms that have been described. Due to reasons of both affordability and availability, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors with low genetic barrier are more commonly used in resource-limited settings. Their use results to the emergence of specific patterns of antiviral resistance and so may require specific actions to preserve therapeutic options for patients in such settings. More recently, the advent of integrase strand transfer inhibitors represents another major step forward toward control of HIV infection, but these compounds are also susceptible to problems of HIV drug resistance.

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    Authors: Ferentzy, Peter; Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.;

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research.

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    Authors: Caballero, Julieta; Frenette, Gilles; Sullivan, Robert;

    After spermatogenesis, testicular spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an oocyte, they must undergo sequential maturational processes. Part of these essential processes occurs during the transit of the spermatozoa through the male reproductive tract. Since the sperm become silent in terms of translation and transcription at the testicular level, all the maturational changes that take place on them are dependent on the interaction of spermatozoa with epididymal and accessory gland fluids. During the last decades, reproductive biotechnologies applied to bovine species have advanced significantly. The knowledge of the bull reproductive physiology is really important for the improvement of these techniques and the development of new ones. This paper focuses on the importance of the sperm interaction with the male reproductive fluids to acquire the fertilizing ability, with special attention to the role of the membranous vesicles present in those fluids and the recent mechanisms of protein acquisition during sperm maturation.

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    Authors: Gibson, Eric S.; Cairo, Alexis; Räisänen, Anu M.; Kuntze, Colleen; +2 Authors

    Background. Youth around the globe place their shoulders at risk for injury when participating in sports. Shoulder injuries may vary in severity, produce the potential for time-loss from sport, and result in functional disability. We sought to explore sport-related shoulder injuries in youth by identifying injury rates, risk factors, injury mechanisms, and injury prevention strategies. Methods. All relevant full-text articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sport Discus, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry. No date restrictions were used. All full-text studies reporting original research describing sport-related shoulder injury among female and/or male youth from 5 to 18 years old were included. Results. Of 3,889 studies screened, 97 described shoulder injury in youth sports. Shoulder injuries were identified in 24 unique sports. The median seasonal prevalence of shoulder injury was 10.9% (range 1.2–28.2%). The most common injury mechanisms identified were contacted with another player, contact with the playing environment, and falling to the ground. Risk factors for shoulder injury identified were side-to-side strength imbalances, weak external rotator muscles, and scapular dyskinesia. One study evaluated a successful training strategy to prevent shoulder injuries, but two other interventions demonstrated no effect. Conclusions. Sport-related shoulder injuries are prevalent among youth athletes. Injury risk factors identified included modifiable intrinsic factors such as strength, range of motion, and training load. The most common injury mechanism was direct contact with either another person or an object in the playing environment. Innovative shoulder-specific strategies are needed to reduce shoulder injuries in this population. Trial Registration: PROSPERO ID: CRD42020189142.

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    Authors: McLeod, Katherine M.; Johnson, C. Shanthi;

    Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES) evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6) and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8). Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

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    Authors: Mohamed, Amany; Posse de Chaves, Elena;

    In the brain, the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) exists extracellularly and inside neurons. The intracellular accumulation of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease brain has been questioned for a long time. However, there is now sufficient strong evidence indicating that accumulation of Aβ inside neurons plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Intraneuronal Aβ originates from intracellular cleavage of APP and from Aβ internalization from the extracellular milieu. We discuss here the different molecular mechanisms that are responsible for Aβ internalization in neurons and the links between Aβ internalization and neuronal dysfunction and death. A brief description of Aβ uptake by glia is also presented.

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    Authors: Choi, Bernard C. K.;

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance.

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    Authors: Sears, Margaret E.;

    Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease.

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    Authors: Wu, Yue; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Biaobiao; Du, K.-L.;

    The radial basis function (RBF) network has its foundation in the conventional approximation theory. It has the capability of universal approximation. The RBF network is a popular alternative to the well-known multilayer perceptron (MLP), since it has a simpler structure and a much faster training process. In this paper, we give a comprehensive survey on the RBF network and its learning. Many aspects associated with the RBF network, such as network structure, universal approimation capability, radial basis functions, RBF network learning, structure optimization, normalized RBF networks, application to dynamic system modeling, and nonlinear complex-valued signal processing, are described. We also compare the features and capability of the two models.

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