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  • Papyrus : Dépôt institutionnel - Université de Montréal

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    Authors: Vincent Mousseau; Simon Baechler; Frank Crispino;

    What do policing leaders think and know of forensic science? Beyond crime scene investigators or detectives, how do police senior managers perceive the role, utility and limitations of forensic science? Very few empirical studies have addressed the issue. Forensic scientsts should be concerned about the perception that law enforcement senior managers have of their discipline for two reasons. First, strategic and financial decision-makers are obviously key players in the overall administration and provision of forensic science, either as a supervisor, money provider or as a customer. Second, literature has highlighted that other actors involved in forensic science underestimate the scope and possibilities offered by forensic science, hence limiting its exploitation and potential. Following interviews with 18 police senior managers from Quebec (Canada), this study shows that they generally restrict forensic science to a reactive discipline whose role and utility is to identify offenders and support the Court. This understanding of forensic science, like that of many others including a significant share of forensic scientists, differs from the perception of other police activities in modern law enforcement agencies where proactive action is sought. Considering these findings and the growing body of literature which calls for forensic science to connect more tightly with policing and security, we advocate a more extensive education of police leaders regarding the scope of forensic science.

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    Authors: Cordero Guzmán, Gustavo Segundo;

    Les membres de la famille de protéines de maintenance structurelle des chromosomes (SMC) sont des régulateurs essentiels de la stabilité génomique. Le complexe Smc5-6 est indispensable pour la réparation de l'ADN, la maintenance des télomères et le redémarrage des fourches de réplication bloquées. La façon dont le complexe Smc5-6 remplit ses fonctions pour favoriser la stabilité du génome est encore incertaine. Ici, nous avons développé une nouvelle stratégie de purification pour isoler un complexe réassemblé fonctionnel. Cette approche nous a permis d'effectuer d'importantes analyses biochimiques et structurelles du complexe humain Smc5-6. Nous montrons que le complexe humain se lie avec une affinité plus faible aux substrats ADNdb par rapport à ADNsb. Ce complexe a également été caractérisé par une séparation zonale en gradient continu pour déterminer la masse moléculaire du complexe heteropentamerique après filtration sur gel. Nous avons utilisé la méthode "Gradient Fixation" (GraFix) pour stabiliser le complexe Smc5/6 afin de visualiser celui-ci par microscopie électronique (EM). En conclusion, nous avons identifié avec succès les conditions natives pour la purification d'un complexe Smc5-6 humain entièrement assemblé et fonctionnel. En outre, nous avons montré que ce complexe est biochimiquement actif et lie le ADNsb et le ADNdb avec différentes affinités. L'achèvement de notre analyse structurale éclairera le mécanisme d'action du complexe Smc5-6 lors de la réparation de l'ADN. Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins are essential regulators of genomic stability. The Smc5-6 complex is indispensable for DNA repair, telomere maintenance and restart of stalled replication forks. How the Smc5-6 complex performs its functions to promote genome stability is still unclear. Here, we developed a novel purification strategy to isolate a reassembled complex. This approach allowed us to perform extensive biochemical and structural analyses of the human Smc5-6 complex. We show that the human complex binds with lower affinity to dsDNA substrates relative to ssDNA. This complex was also characterized by rate-zonal centrifugation to determine the molecular mass of the heteropentameric complex after gel filtration. We took advantage of the “Gradient Fixation” (GraFix) method to stabilize macromolecular complexes for single particle electron microscopy (EM). In conclusion, we have successfully identified native conditions for the purification of a fully assembled and functional human Smc5-6 complex. In addition, we showed that this complex is biochemically active and binds ssDNA and dsDNA with different affinities. Completion of our structural analysis will shed light on the mechanism of action of the Smc5-6 complex during DNA repair.

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    Authors: Gebhard, Catherine S.;

    Introduction: Le récent échec des molécules destinées à faire augmenter les taux de lipoprotéines de haute densité (HDL) a mené à la conclusion que la fonctionnalité des HDL, plutôt que leur quantité, jouerait un rôle majeur dans les pathologies cardiovasculaires. L’augmentation de HDL fonctionnelles via l’administration de HDL reconstituées (rHDL) ou d’apolipoprotéine A-I (apoA-I) semble être une approche prometteuse dans les maladies coronariennes et la sténose de la valve aortique (SVA). Cependant, les biomarqueurs reflétant la fonctionnalité des HDL utilisables en clinique sont inexistants. De plus, peu d’information existe sur les mécanismes par lesquels les thérapies basées sur les HDL pourraient diminuer le risque cardiovasculaire, ainsi que sur la conversion possible de rHDL et de l’apoA-I en molécules dysfonctionnelles. Finalement, les données relatives aux effets secondaires possibles de telles thérapies sont rares. Ainsi, la présente étude a évalué l’utilité de l’estérification du cholestérol comme biomarqueur des effets cardioprotecteurs des HDL ; les effets bénéfiques des rHDL sur la réparation endothéliale ; les effets secondaires potentiels des thérapies basées sur les HDL ; et les stratégies visant la protection des HDL dans la SVA. Méthodes et résultats: L’utilité de l’estérification du cholestérol lors de la maturation des particules de HDL, en tant que biomarqueur des effets cardioprotecteurs des HDL, a été analysée chez 267 patients atteints d’une maladie coronarienne stable. De plus, les effets des rHDL sur le mécanisme de réparation vasculaire ont été évalués chez 33 patients ayant récemment souffert d’un syndrome coronarien aigu (SCA), et la contribution de différentes protéases plasmatiques à la dégradation de l’apoA-I a été comparée chez des patients atteints d’une SVA, ainsi que dans un modèle de SVA chez le lapin. L’impact potentiel de l’administration d’un peptide mimétique de l’apoA-I sur les anomalies hémorragiques a également été évalué dans la même population de patients et le même modèle expérimental. L’estérification du cholestérol s’est révélée être un prédicteur puissant et indépendant de la charge athéroscléreuse chez les patients souffrant d’une maladie coronarienne. L’administration de rHDL a prévenu la réduction des cellules endothéliales progénitrices (EPC) chez les patients ayant récemment souffert d’un SCA. Bien que l’administration d’apoA-I n’ait pas eu d’incidence négative sur les anomalies hémorragiques dans le cas de SVA, il a été trouvé que la protéase à cystéine cathepsine S est la protéase clé responsable de 70% de la dégradation de l’apoA-I chez les humains. Conclusion : Les présentes données indiquent que l’estérification du cholestérol est un bon marqueur de la sévérité de l’artériosclérose. Ainsi, cibler l’estérification du cholestérol pourrait s’avérer une approche prometteuse pour réduire le risque cardiovasculaire. De plus, nos résultats montrent qu’une amélioration des mécanismes de réparation cardiovasculaire, suite à une lésion myocardique, pourrait faire partie des mécanismes par lesquels des HDL exogènes exercent leurs effets cardioprotecteurs. Cette dernière constitue également une stratégie particulièrement prometteuse pour le traitement de la SVA, et son efficacité pourrait être encore améliorée par l’inhibition de la protéase à cystéine cathepsine S. Background: The recent failure of drugs targeted to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels has led to the conclusion that HDL function rather than HDL quantity is the key player in cardiovascular pathologies. The augmentation of functional HDL through administration of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) or apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) seems a promising strategy to in coronary artery disease (CAD) and aortic valve stenosis (AVS). However, clinically applicable biomarkers reflecting functionality of HDL are lacking. In addition, little is known on the mechanisms governing the cardioprotective effects of HDL-based approaches as well as rHDL and apoA-I possible conversion into dysfunctional molecules. Finally, data regarding potential secondary effects of such therapy are sparse. Thus, the present project explored the value of cholesterol esterification as biomarker for cardioprotective HDL effects, assessed whether rHDL exerts beneficial effects in endothelial repair, and investigated potential side-effects of HDL-based therapies as well as HDL-preserving strategies in AVS. Method and results: We explored the value of cholesterol esterification during maturation of HDL particles, as a biomarker for cardioprotective HDL effects in 267 patients with stable CAD. In addition, the effect of rHDL on vascular repair mechanism was assessed in 33 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the contribution of different plasma proteases to apoA-I degradation was compared in patients with AVS as well as in a rabbit model of AVS. Using the same population and experimental model, we also assessed possible impact of apoA-I administration on haemorrhagic disorders in patients with AVS. Cholesterol esterification was found to be a strong and independent predictor of atherosclerotic burden in patients with CAD. Administration of rHDL prevented endothelial progenitor cells decline in patients with a recent ACS. While apoA-I administration did not negatively affect haemorrhagic disorders in AVS, it was found that the cysteine protease cathepsin S is the key protease responsible for 70% of apoA-I degradation in humans. Conclusion: The present data indicate that cholesterol esterification is a useful biomarker mirroring severity of atherosclerotic disease. Thus, targeting cholesterol esterification might be a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. Our data further indicate that an improvement of cardiovascular repair mechanisms following myocardial injury might be amongst the mechanisms by which exogenous HDL exerts its cardioprotective actions. The latter is also a particularly promising strategy in the treatment of AVS and its efficacy could be further enhanced by inhibition of the cysteine protease cathepsin S.

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    Authors: Caron, Miryam;

    Une préoccupation quant au bien-être et à la qualité de vie des enfants en relation avec leur vécu scolaire grandit au cœur des politiques gouvernementales et lors du choix scolaire surtout à l’entrée au primaire. Les parents se tournent plus qu’avant vers des environnements éducationnels alternatifs correspondant à leurs valeurs. Puisque chaque environnement éducationnel modèle différemment le quotidien de l’élève et qu’il manquerait d’outils de mesure adaptés aux enfants pour évaluer leur effet sur la qualité de vie, nous posons cette question: quelles sont les dimensions de la qualité de vie liée au vécu scolaire de l’élève (QDV-vs) de six à huit ans et comment la mesurer? La littérature scientifique fait ressortir des dimensions du quotidien du jeune élève pouvant avoir un effet sur sa qualité de vie: heures de sommeil, périodes d’activité physique et de jeux libres à l’extérieur, capacité d’attention pour des tâches scolaires (de jour et de soir), engagement parental et déplacements pour l’école. En s’appuyant sur les différentes recommandations des chercheurs, nous avons modélisé le concept de la QDV-vs pour les enfants de ce groupe d’âge. Les objectifs spécifiques de cette recherche sont d’élaborer un outil d’évaluation, basé sur notre cadre conceptuel, puis de le valider sur les plans conceptuels et de la faisabilité. Des experts scientifiques et de terrain ont contribué à cette recherche-développement. Les premiers ont porté un regard critique sur le cadre conceptuel et sur l’outil; les seconds, sur les aspects pratiques de l’utilisation de l’outil révisé. La contribution de cette recherche est d’offrir un premier outil d’évaluation de la QDV-vs des enfants de 6 à 8 ans dans différents environnements éducationnels. Concern for the well-being and quality of life of children in relation to their school experience grows at the heart of government policies and during school choice, especially at the start of primary school. Parents are turning more than before to alternative educational environments that match their values. Since each educational environment models the student's daily life differently and there is a lack of measures adapted to children that would assess their effect on quality of life, we ask this question: what are the dimensions of the quality of life linked to the school experience (QDV-vs) of students aged six to eight and how to measure it? Scientific literature highlights the dimensions of the daily life of young students that can influence their quality of life: hours of sleep, periods of physical activity and free play outside, ability to concentrate on school tasks (from day and evening), parental involvement and school commutes. Based on the various recommendations of the researchers, we modeled the concept of QOL-vs for children in this age group. The specific objectives of this research are to develop an assessment tool, based on our conceptual framework, and then to validate it on the conceptual and feasibility levels. Scientific and field experts have contributed to this research and development. The first took a critical look at the conceptual framework and the tool; the second, on the practical aspects of using the revised tool. The contribution of this research is to provide a first tool for assessing the quality of life of children aged 6 to 8 in different educational environments.

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    Authors: Guimond, Jean-François;

    Introduction. La thérapie axée sur la répétition de tâches fonctionnelles est préconisée pour la réadaptation du membre supérieur à la suite d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Toutefois, aucun programme d’intervention n’opérationnalise l’ensemble des composantes clés du TOT en une démarche clinique valide de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie. Objectifs. 1) Établir la validité de contenu d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie et 2) proposer un modèle logique de l’intervention qui fait consensus auprès d’experts et d’usagers. Méthodes. Un modèle logique d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie a été développé, puis soumis à deux méthodes de recherche pour valider le contenu et obtenir un consensus d’experts et d’usagers : 1) Méthode Delphi : 14 experts ont examiné des capsules audiovisuelles illustrant le programme d’intervention et ont répondu à deux questionnaires pour valider les objectifs, la nature de l’intervention, les ressources, les activités et les extrants; 2) Technique de groupe nominal : six usagers ayant un vécu expérientiel de l’intervention ont généré les effets ciblés. L’indice de validité de contenu, deux indices d’accord interjuges et l’analyse de contenu ont été utilisés pour analyser les données. Résultats. Près de 93 % du contenu du programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie obtient un indice de validité satisfaisant, dont 82 % qui font consensus auprès d’experts et d’usagers dans un modèle logique révisé. Conclusion. Le modèle logique révisé propose une vision commune, quoiqu’incomplète, d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie basé sur le TOT. Les activités et les extrants de l’évaluation devront faire l’objet de validation lors d’une phase subséquente d’implantation. Un transfert de connaissances sur les moyens pour favoriser le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle est aussi à prévoir pour réévaluer son rôle dans le programme d’intervention. Background. Task-Oriented Training (TOT) is the recommended approach for upper extremity rehabilitation after a stroke. To date, no program have operationalized all the key components of TOT into a valid upper extremity clinical rehabilitation process post stroke in occupational therapy. Objectives. 1) To determine the content validity of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy and 2) to propose a logic model reaching consensus among experts and patients. Methods. A logic model of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy was developed and validated. Two research methods were used to validate the content and to achieve a consensus of experts and patients : 1) Delphi method : 14 experts examined audiovisual capsules of the intervention and completed two questionnaires to validate the objectives, the nature of the intervention, the resources, the activities and the outputs; 2) Nominal group technique : six patients with experience of the intervention generated the outcomes. The content validity index, two interrater agreement statistics and a content analysis were used for data analysis. Results. Almost 93 % of the content of the upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy obtained a satisfactory validity index, including 82 % reaching consensus among experts and patients in a revised logic model. Conclusion. The revised logic model now offers a common, albeit incomplete, vision of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke based on the TOT in occupational therapy. Activities and outputs of the evaluation should be validated during a subsequent implementation phase. Knowledge translation on the modalities to promote self-efficacy is also to be planned to reassess its role in the intervention program.

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    Authors: Routhier, Élisabeth;

    La disparition est-elle un événement? Une fin? Une figure? Chez l’écrivain français Patrick Modiano, il semble qu’elle prenne plutôt la forme d’une invitation, d’un point de départ pour une écriture-quête se faufilant dans les mailles de la médiation. Le lien inextricable entre la disparition et la médiation est effectivement à la base de cette analyse de « Dora Bruder », roman dont l’ouverture est particulièrement riche pour penser le geste d’écriture d’un point de vue intermédial. Après avoir présenté « Dora Bruder » comme l’espace d’une écriture-quête performative qui répond à un désir d’immédiateté, j’exposerai certains dispositifs traduisant une éthique de la remédiation. La question de la mémoire, inévitable, traverse à la fois l’écriture de Modiano et la mienne. Une mémoire protéiforme et dynamisée par l’auteur-narrateur. What exactly do we mean by “disappearance”? Is it an event? A figure? The end of an existence? For Patrick Modiano, disapearance is rather a starting point for an act of writing that slips through a sum of mediations. The inextricable link between disappearance and (re)mediation is in fact the basis upon which I build my analysis of “Dora Bruder”’s opening pages from an intermedial stance. Ethical remediation and performativity will be the core concepts to analyse Modiano’s writing through the lens of disappearance.

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    Authors: Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Aribisala, Benjamin S; de Zubicaray, Greig I; +244 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 144426.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Closed access) Contains fulltext : 144426pre.pdf (Author’s version preprint ) (Open Access) The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 x 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. 6 p.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Lara Gautier; Youssouf Karambé; Jean-Paul Dossou; Oumar Mallé Samb;

    There has been much talk about decolonizing global health lately. The movement, which has arisen in various communities around the world, suggests an interesting critique of the Western dominant model of representations. Building upon the ‘decolonial thinking’ movement from the perspective of Francophone African philosophers, we comment on its potential for inspiring the field of global healthinterventions. Using existing literature and personal reflections, we reflect on two widely known illustrations of global health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa – distribution of contraceptives and dissemination of Ebola virus prevention and treatment devices – featuring different temporal backdrops. We show how these solutions have most often targeted the superficial dimensions of global health problems, sidestepping the structures and mental models that shape the actions and reactions of African populations. Lastly, we question the ways through which the decolonial approach might indeed offer a credible positioning for rethinking global health interventions.

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    Global Public Health
    Article . 2020
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      Global Public Health
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Guillaume, Fontaine; Ivry, Zagury-Orly; Simon, de Denus; Marie, Lordkipanidzé; +5 Authors

    Objective To evaluate the effect of digital-based reading versus paper-based reading on reading comprehension among students, trainees, and residents participating in health professional education. Introduction Several reviews have examined the effects of reading media on reading comprehension; however, none have considered health professional education specifically. The growing use of electronic media in health professional education, as well as recent data on the consequences of digital-based reading on learning, justify the necessity to review the current literature to provide research and educational recommendations. Inclusion criteria Studies conducted with health professions students, trainees, and residents individually receiving educational material written in their first language in a paper-based or a digital-based format will be considered. Studies conducted among participants with cognitive impairment or reading difficulties will be excluded. Observational, experimental and quasi-experimental studies that assess reading comprehension measured by previously validated or researcher-generated tests will be considered. Methods Relevant studies will be sought from CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), without date or language restrictions. Two independent reviewers will perform title and abstract screening, full-text review, critical appraisal, and data extraction. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or with a third independent reviewer. Synthesis will occur at four levels (i.e., study, participant, intervention, and outcome levels) in a table format. Data will be synthesized descriptively and with meta-analyses if appropriate. Systematic review registration number CRD42020154519.

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    JBI Evidence Synthesis
    Article . 2020
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      JBI Evidence Synthesis
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Bélanger, Dominique;

    Introduction: La demande pour les services de réadaptation en déficience physique que ce soit auditive, du langage, motrice ou visuelle est croissante. Préoccupés par l’accès et l’efficience des services, les milieux de réadaptation sont appelés à augmenter l’offre d’interventions de groupe. Objectif: Le premier objectif de cette étude est d’examiner les facilitateurs et obstacles à l’utilisation d’interventions de groupe en réadaptation. Le second objectif est d’explorer la perception des cliniciens, gestionnaires et usagers face aux enjeux liés à la qualité des soins, aux coûts ainsi qu’à l’atteinte des objectifs lors de ces interventions. Méthodologie: Un devis d’étude de cas multiples a été utilisé. Des cliniciens et gestionnaires de cinq centres de réadaptation de la région de Montréal ont été consultés à l’aide d’un questionnaire en ligne (n=162) et de groupes de discussion (n=20). Des entrevues individuelles ont été réalisées auprès d’usagers (n=4) ayant participé à des interventions de groupe. Des statistiques descriptives et quantitatives ont été effectuées pour les résultats du questionnaire. Les données qualitatives ont été rassemblées par thèmes et triangulées avec les résultats du questionnaire. Résultats: Parmi les principaux facilitateurs figurent l’intérêt des usagers, le potentiel d’influence entre les participants et la reconnaissance de la valeur de ces interventions. Les principaux obstacles sont la gestion de l’horaire, le temps requis pour la réflexion et la préparation des interventions et la masse critique d’usagers qui est parfois insuffisante pour former des groupes. Concernant le deuxième objectif, les interventions de groupe sont perçues comme étant sécuritaires. Elles devraient être offertes pour les bénéfices que l’on en tire plutôt que pour des motifs financiers et être en lien avec l’atteinte des objectifs des usagers. Elles doivent aussi être offertes en complémentarité aux interventions individuelles. Conclusion: Les interventions de groupe comportent de nombreux bénéfices. De mieux comprendre les perceptions des acteurs-clés pourra faciliter leur mise en œuvre ainsi que leur maintien. Des avenues de recommandations sont proposées afin d’aider les gestionnaires et intervenants à planifier leur offre de service et ainsi potentialiser les gains pour les usagers. Introduction: The demand for physical rehabilitation services in auditory, language, motor or visual impairment is growing. Concerned about the access and the efficiency of the services, rehabilitation settings are called upon to increasingly offer group interventions. Objectives: The first objective of this study is to examine the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of group interventions in rehabilitation. The second objective is to explore the perception of clinicians, managers and patients of issues related to quality of care, costs and the achievement of goals during those interventions. Methodology: A multiple case study design was used. Clinicians and managers from five rehabilitation centres in the Montreal area were consulted using an online questionnaire (n = 162) and focus groups. Individual interviews were conducted with patients who participated in group interventions. Descriptive and quantitative statistics were performed for the results of the questionnaire. The qualitative data were grouped by themes and triangulated with the results of the questionnaire. Results: Key facilitators include patient’s interest, potential for influence among participants, and recognition of the value of these interventions. The main obstacles are schedule management, time required for reasonning and planning the interventions and having a critical mass of patients which is sometimes insufficient to form groups. Regarding the second objective, group interventions are perceived as safe. They should be offered for profit rather than for financial reasons and be linked to the achievement of patient goals. They must also be offered as a complement to individual interventions. Conclusion: Group interventions provide many benefits. A better understanding of the perceptions of key actors will facilitate their implementation as well as their sustainability. Recommendations are proposed to help managers and clinicians plan services and at thus maximize benefits for patients.

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    Authors: Vincent Mousseau; Simon Baechler; Frank Crispino;

    What do policing leaders think and know of forensic science? Beyond crime scene investigators or detectives, how do police senior managers perceive the role, utility and limitations of forensic science? Very few empirical studies have addressed the issue. Forensic scientsts should be concerned about the perception that law enforcement senior managers have of their discipline for two reasons. First, strategic and financial decision-makers are obviously key players in the overall administration and provision of forensic science, either as a supervisor, money provider or as a customer. Second, literature has highlighted that other actors involved in forensic science underestimate the scope and possibilities offered by forensic science, hence limiting its exploitation and potential. Following interviews with 18 police senior managers from Quebec (Canada), this study shows that they generally restrict forensic science to a reactive discipline whose role and utility is to identify offenders and support the Court. This understanding of forensic science, like that of many others including a significant share of forensic scientists, differs from the perception of other police activities in modern law enforcement agencies where proactive action is sought. Considering these findings and the growing body of literature which calls for forensic science to connect more tightly with policing and security, we advocate a more extensive education of police leaders regarding the scope of forensic science.

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    Authors: Cordero Guzmán, Gustavo Segundo;

    Les membres de la famille de protéines de maintenance structurelle des chromosomes (SMC) sont des régulateurs essentiels de la stabilité génomique. Le complexe Smc5-6 est indispensable pour la réparation de l'ADN, la maintenance des télomères et le redémarrage des fourches de réplication bloquées. La façon dont le complexe Smc5-6 remplit ses fonctions pour favoriser la stabilité du génome est encore incertaine. Ici, nous avons développé une nouvelle stratégie de purification pour isoler un complexe réassemblé fonctionnel. Cette approche nous a permis d'effectuer d'importantes analyses biochimiques et structurelles du complexe humain Smc5-6. Nous montrons que le complexe humain se lie avec une affinité plus faible aux substrats ADNdb par rapport à ADNsb. Ce complexe a également été caractérisé par une séparation zonale en gradient continu pour déterminer la masse moléculaire du complexe heteropentamerique après filtration sur gel. Nous avons utilisé la méthode "Gradient Fixation" (GraFix) pour stabiliser le complexe Smc5/6 afin de visualiser celui-ci par microscopie électronique (EM). En conclusion, nous avons identifié avec succès les conditions natives pour la purification d'un complexe Smc5-6 humain entièrement assemblé et fonctionnel. En outre, nous avons montré que ce complexe est biochimiquement actif et lie le ADNsb et le ADNdb avec différentes affinités. L'achèvement de notre analyse structurale éclairera le mécanisme d'action du complexe Smc5-6 lors de la réparation de l'ADN. Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins are essential regulators of genomic stability. The Smc5-6 complex is indispensable for DNA repair, telomere maintenance and restart of stalled replication forks. How the Smc5-6 complex performs its functions to promote genome stability is still u