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  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Trisha Greenhalgh; Ellen Annandale; Richard Ashcroft; James Barlow; Nick Black; Alan Bleakley; Ruth Boaden; Jeffrey Braithwaite; Nicky Britten; Franco A. Carnevale; +65 more
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Australia, United Kingdom, United Kingdom

    Seventy six senior academics from 11 countries invite The BMJ ’s editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority. They challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly, and pluralist approach to research that aligns with its stated mission

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frédéric Guay; Julien Chanal; Catherine F. Ratelle; Herbert W. Marsh; Simon Larose; Michel Boivin;
    Publisher: British Psychological Society
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Switzerland

    Background: There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. Aims: This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Sample: Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results: Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heather L. Petrick; Henver Simionato Brunetta; Chris Pignanelli; Everson Araújo Nunes; Luc J. C. van Loon; Jamie F. Burr; Graham P. Holloway;
    Countries: Belgium, Australia, Netherlands
    Project: NSERC

    Key points Ketone bodies are proposed to represent an alternative fuel source driving energy production, particularly during exercise. Biologically, the extent to which mitochondria utilize ketone bodies compared to other substrates remains unknown. We demonstratein vitrothat maximal mitochondrial respiration supported by ketone bodies is low when compared to carbohydrate-derived substrates in the left ventricle and red gastrocnemius muscle from rodents, and in human skeletal muscle. When considering intramuscular concentrations of ketone bodies and the presence of other carbohydrate and lipid substrates, biological rates of mitochondrial respiration supported by ketone bodies are predicted to be minimal. At the mitochondrial level, it is therefore unlikely that ketone bodies are an important source for energy production in cardiac and skeletal muscle, particularly when other substrates are readily available. Ketone bodies (KB) have recently gained popularity as an alternative fuel source to support mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhance exercise performance. However, given the low activity of ketolytic enzymes and potential inhibition from carbohydrate oxidation, it remains unknown if KBs can contribute to energy production. We therefore determined the ability of KBs (sodiumdl-beta-hydroxybutyrate, beta-HB; lithium acetoacetate, AcAc) to stimulatein vitromitochondrial respiration in the left ventricle (LV) and red gastrocnemius (RG) of rats, and in human vastus lateralis. Compared to pyruvate, the ability of KBs to maximally drive respiration was low in isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibres (PmFb) from the LV (similar to 30-35% of pyruvate), RG (similar to 10-30%), and human vastus lateralis (similar to 2-10%). In PmFb, the concentration of KBs required to half-maximally drive respiration (LV: 889 mu m beta-HB, 801 mu mAcAc; RG: 782 mu m beta-HB, 267 mu mAcAc) were greater than KB content representative of the muscle microenvironment (similar to 100 mu m). This would predict low rates (similar to 1-4% of pyruvate) of biological KB-supported respiration in the LV (8-14 pmol s(-1) mg(-1)) and RG (3-6 pmol s(-1) mg(-1)) at rest and following exercise. Moreover, KBs did not increase respiration in the presence of saturating pyruvate, submaximal pyruvate (100 mu m) reduced the ability of physiological beta-HB to drive respiration, and addition of other intracellular substrates (succinate + palmitoylcarnitine) decreased maximal KB-supported respiration. As a result, product inhibition is likely to limit KB oxidation. Altogether, the ability of KBs to drive mitochondrial respiration is minimal and they are likely to be outcompeted by other substrates, compromising their use as an important energy source.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin J. Gibala; Jonathan P. Little; Maureen J. MacDonald; John A. Hawley;
    Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
    Country: Australia

    Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the letter submitted by Gayda and colleagues in response to our recent review published in The Journal of Physiology (Gibala et al. 2012). With regards to their first comment regarding our new ‘practical’ high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocol, we disagree with the assertion that ‘exercise intensity at 60% of peak power cannot be considered high intensity.’ In our efforts to develop a low-volume HIIE protocol that can be applied across different cohorts including clinical populations, we devised a model comprising 10 × 60 s work bouts at an intensity eliciting ∼85–90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax; averaged over the 10 intervals), interspersed by 60 s of recovery. We have found that the percentage of peak power output (PPO; determined using a standard ramp test to volitional fatigue which does not always elicit peak O2 uptake) that approximates the desired target heart rate (i.e. the % of HRmax) varies considerably between subjects and is exercise-mode specific. For example, in the study by Hood et al. (2011) which was conducted on sedentary healthy adults, a workload equivalent to 60% of PPO during upright cycling was sufficient to elicit a training intensity of ∼90% HRmax. However, in our recent study conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes, the intensity required to elicit ∼90% HRmax was ∼95% of PPO determined during recumbent cycling (Little et al. 2011). We agree with the assertion by Gayda and colleagues that ‘acute physiological responses during different HIIE protocols as well as patient's safety, tolerance and comfort should be tested before their implementation into training programs’. Ongoing protocol optimization work in our laboratory reveal that when interval exercise was prescribed as 80% of PPO in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients – most of whom were taking beta-blocker medication – the 10 × 60 s protocol resulted in peak heart rates during the exercise that averaged ∼85% of age-predicted HRmax. Further, the 10 × 60 s protocol was best tolerated and rated as most preferred by CAD patients in comparison with a modified Wingate protocol (repeated 30 s efforts at 100% PPO with 4 min unloaded cycling for recovery), the standard aerobic interval training protocol used by Wisloff and colleagues (2007), or a moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) protocol. It is likely that high-intensity interval training (HIT) does not conform to a ‘one size fits all’ approach and the interval training stimulus needs to be tailored to individuals depending on their initial level of fitness, exercise tolerance, use of prescription medications and other factors. We also concur with the other main comment by Gayda and colleagues that ‘the superiority of this HIIE protocol [our 10 × 60 s ‘hard’/60 s ‘easy’ model]… needs to be demonstrated.’ Indeed, our review concluded ‘One aspect that is unclear from the present literature is the precise intensity and minimal volume of training that is needed to potentiate the effect of the stimulus-adaptation on outcomes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and relevant health markers. To answer such questions, a complex series of studies needs to be undertaken that systematically ‘titrate’ levels of the ‘training impulse’ and determine subsequent cellular, performance and clinical responses after divergent training interventions.’ Specifically with respect to the use of HIIE in patients with cardiovascular risk or cardiovascular disease, the letter by Gayda and colleagues highlights four references from their laboratory that were not cited in our review. Given the relatively broad scope of our review and the fact that Journal guidelines restricted the number of references to 50, it was obviously not possible to cite all relevant work. Moreover, two of the citations listed by Gayda et al. were acute exercise studies (whereas the focus of our review was training adaptations) and the other two citations were a journal abstract and a recent paper published in February 2012 (neither of which we had access to at the time of submission of our original manuscript). We are also aware of the pioneering research conducted by Meyer and colleagues (e.g. Meyer et al. 1998) and have acknowledged this work in a previous commentary (MacDonald & Currie, 2009). We apologize to all authors whose work on interval training we could not cite due to the broad focus of our review and referencing limitations imposed by The Journal.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hiroko Tanaka; Jessica M. Black; Charles Hulme; Leanne M. Stanley; Shelli R. Kesler; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; Allan L. Reiss; John D. E. Gabrieli; Fumiko Hoeft;
    Country: Australia

    Although the role of IQ in developmental dyslexia remains ambiguous, the dominant clinical and research approaches rely on a definition of dyslexia that requires reading skill to be significantly below the level expected given an individual’s IQ. In the study reported here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine whether differences in brain activation during phonological processing that are characteristic of dyslexia were similar or dissimilar in children with poor reading ability who had high IQ scores (discrepant readers) and in children with poor reading ability who had low IQ scores (nondiscrepant readers). In two independent samples including a total of 131 children, using univariate and multivariate pattern analyses, we found that discrepant and nondiscrepant poor readers exhibited similar patterns of reduced activation in brain areas such as left parietotemporal and occipitotemporal regions. These results converge with behavioral evidence indicating that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have similar kinds of reading difficulties in relation to phonological processing.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yvonne Bombard; JoAnne L Palin; Jan M. Friedman; Gerry Veenstra; S Creighton; Jane S. Paulsen; Joan L. Bottorff; Michael R. Hayden;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Australia

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are associated with experiencing genetic discrimination (GD) among individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with experiencing GD in data from a cross-sectional, self-report survey of 293 individuals at risk for HD. The study sample comprised 167 genetically tested respondents, and 66 who were not tested (80% response rate). Overall, individuals who learn they are at risk for HD at a younger age (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5–6.2; P = 0.002), are mutation-positive (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4–6.0; P = 0.006), or are highly educated (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.1; P = 0.002) are more likely to experience GD, particularly in insurance, family, and social settings. Further, younger age was associated with discrimination in insurance (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–1.00; P = 0.038). This study provides evidence that some people who are at risk for HD were more likely to experience GD than others. Individuals who learned they are at risk for HD at a younger age and those who are mutation-positive were more likely to experience GD, particularly in insurance, family, and social settings. Younger individuals were more likely to experience discrimination in the insurance setting. Overall, highly educated individuals were also more likely to report discrimination. These results provide direction for clinical and family discussions, counseling practice, and policy aimed at mitigating experiences of GD. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Turner, Michelle C; Vineis, Paolo; Seleiro, Eduardo; Dijmarescu, Michaela; Balshaw, David M; Bertollini, Roberto; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Gant, Timothy W; Gulliver, John; Jeong, Ayoung; +15 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Australia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, Netherlands, Spain, Spain
    Project: EC | EXPOSOMICS (308610)

    The final meeting of the EXPOsOMICS project "Final Policy Workshop and Stakeholder Consultation" took place 28-29 March 2017 to present the main results of the project and discuss their implications both for future research and for regulatory and policy activities. This paper summarizes presentations and discussions at the meeting related with the main results and advances in exposome research achieved through the EXPOsOMICS project; on other parallel research initiatives on the study of the exposome in Europe and in the United States and their complementarity to EXPOsOMICS; lessons learned from these early studies on the exposome and how they may shape the future of research on environmental exposure assessment; and finally the broader implications of exposome research for risk assessment and policy development on environmental exposures. The main results of EXPOsOMICS in relation to studies of the external exposome and internal exposome in relation to both air pollution and water contaminants were presented as well as new technologies for environmental health research (adductomics) and advances in statistical methods. Although exposome research strengthens the scientific basis for policy development, there is a need in terms of showing added value for public health to: improve communication of research results to non-scientific audiences; target research to the broader landscape of societal challenges; and draw applicable conclusions. Priorities for future work include the development and standardization of methodologies and technologies for assessing the external and internal exposome, improved data sharing and integration, and the demonstration of the added value of exposome science over conventional approaches in answering priority policy questions. This work has been supported by the Exposomics EC FP7 grant (Grant agreement no: 308610) to PV. MCT is supported by the Departament de Salut, Generalitat de Catalunya. ISGlobal is a member of the CERCA Programme, Generalitat de Catalunya

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adam L. Bujak; Justin D. Crane; James S. V. Lally; Rebecca J. Ford; Sally J. Kang; Irena A. Rebalka; Alex E. Green; Bruce E. Kemp; Thomas J. Hawke; Jonathan D. Schertzer; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Australia
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    SummaryThe AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activates autophagy, but its role in aging and fasting-induced muscle function has not been defined. Here we report that fasting mice lacking skeletal muscle AMPK (AMPK-MKO) results in hypoglycemia and hyperketosis. This is not due to defective fatty acid oxidation, but instead is related to a block in muscle proteolysis that leads to reduced circulating levels of alanine, an essential amino acid required for gluconeogenesis. Markers of muscle autophagy including phosphorylation of Ulk1 Ser555 and Ser757 and aggregation of RFP-LC3 puncta are impaired. Consistent with impaired autophagy, aged AMPK-MKO mice possess a significant myopathy characterized by reduced muscle function, mitochondrial disease, and accumulation of the autophagy/mitophagy proteins p62 and Parkin. These findings establish an essential requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK-mediated autophagy in preserving blood glucose levels during prolonged fasting as well as maintaining muscle integrity and mitochondrial function during aging.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Naomi M. Cermak; Martin J. Gibala; Luc J. C. van Loon;
    Publisher: Human Kinetics
    Countries: Belgium, Netherlands, Australia

    Six days of dietary nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice (~0.5 L/d) has been reported to reduce pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) during submaximal exercise and increase tolerance of high-intensity work rates, suggesting that nitrate can be a potent ergogenic aid. Limited data are available regarding the effect of nitrate ingestion on athletic performance, and no study has investigated the potential ergogenic effects of a small-volume, concentrated dose of beetroot juice. The authors tested the hypothesis that 6 d of nitrate ingestion would improve time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures crossover design, 12 male cyclists (31 ± 3 yr, VO2peak = 58 ± 2 ml · kg−1 · min−1, maximal power [Wmax] = 342 ± 10 W) ingested 140 ml/d of concentrated beetroot (~8 mmol/d nitrate) juice (BEET) or a placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice; PLAC) for 6 d, separated by a 14-d washout. After supplementation on Day 6, subjects performed 60 min of submaximal cycling (2 × 30 min at 45% and 65% Wmax, respectively), followed by a 10-km time trial. Time-trial performance (953 ± 18 vs. 965 ± 18 s, p < .005) and power output (294 ± 12 vs. 288 ± 12 W, p < .05) improved after BEET compared with PLAC supplementation. Submaximal VO2 was lower after BEET (45% Wmax = 1.92 ± 0.06 vs. 2.02 ± 0.09 L/min, 65% Wmax 2.94 ± 0.12 vs. 3.11 ± 0.12 L/min) than with PLAC (main effect, p < .05). Wholebody fuel selection and plasma lactate, glucose, and insulin concentrations did not differ between treatments. Six days of nitrate supplementation reduced VO2 during submaximal exercise and improved time-trial performance in trained cyclists.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Steven C. Hayes; Rhonda M. Merwin; Louise McHugh; Emily K. Sandoz; Jacqueline A-Tjak; Francisco J. Ruiz; Dermot Barnes-Holmes; Jonathan B. Bricker; Joseph Ciarrochi; Mark R. Dixon; +9 more
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi
    Countries: Switzerland, Sweden, Australia

    Abstract Throughout its history the strategy and tactics of contextual behavioral science (CBS) research have had distinctive features as compared to traditional behavioral science approaches. Continued progress in CBS research can be facilitated by greater clarity about how its strategy and tactics can be brought to bear on current challenges. The present white paper is the result of a 2 1/2-year long process designed to foster consensus among representative producers and consumers of CBS research about the best strategic pathway forward. The Task Force agreed that CBS research should be multilevel, process-based, multidimensional, prosocial, and pragmatic, and provided 33 recommendations to the CBS community arranged across these characteristics. In effect, this report provides a detailed research agenda designed to maximize the impact of CBS as a field. Scientists and practitioners are encouraged to mount this ambitious agenda.

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276 Research products, page 1 of 28
  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Trisha Greenhalgh; Ellen Annandale; Richard Ashcroft; James Barlow; Nick Black; Alan Bleakley; Ruth Boaden; Jeffrey Braithwaite; Nicky Britten; Franco A. Carnevale; +65 more
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Australia, United Kingdom, United Kingdom

    Seventy six senior academics from 11 countries invite The BMJ ’s editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority. They challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly, and pluralist approach to research that aligns with its stated mission

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frédéric Guay; Julien Chanal; Catherine F. Ratelle; Herbert W. Marsh; Simon Larose; Michel Boivin;
    Publisher: British Psychological Society
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Switzerland

    Background: There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. Aims: This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Sample: Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results: Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heather L. Petrick; Henver Simionato Brunetta; Chris Pignanelli; Everson Araújo Nunes; Luc J. C. van Loon; Jamie F. Burr; Graham P. Holloway;
    Countries: Belgium, Australia, Netherlands
    Project: NSERC

    Key points Ketone bodies are proposed to represent an alternative fuel source driving energy production, particularly during exercise. Biologically, the extent to which mitochondria utilize ketone bodies compared to other substrates remains unknown. We demonstratein vitrothat maximal mitochondrial respiration supported by ketone bodies is low when compared to carbohydrate-derived substrates in the left ventricle and red gastrocnemius muscle from rodents, and in human skeletal muscle. When considering intramuscular concentrations of ketone bodies and the presence of other carbohydrate and lipid substrates, biological rates of mitochondrial respiration supported by ketone bodies are predicted to be minimal. At the mitochondrial level, it is therefore unlikely that ketone bodies are an important source for energy production in cardiac and skeletal muscle, particularly when other substrates are readily available. Ketone bodies (KB) have recently gained popularity as an alternative fuel source to support mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhance exercise performance. However, given the low activity of ketolytic enzymes and potential inhibition from carbohydrate oxidation, it remains unknown if KBs can contribute to energy production. We therefore determined the ability of KBs (sodiumdl-beta-hydroxybutyrate, beta-HB; lithium acetoacetate, AcAc) to stimulatein vitromitochondrial respiration in the left ventricle (LV) and red gastrocnemius (RG) of rats, and in human vastus lateralis. Compared to pyruvate, the ability of KBs to maximally drive respiration was low in isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibres (PmFb) from the LV (similar to 30-35% of pyruvate), RG (similar to 10-30%), and human vastus lateralis (similar to 2-10%). In PmFb, the concentration of KBs required to half-maximally drive respiration (LV: 889 mu m beta-HB, 801 mu mAcAc; RG: 782 mu m beta-HB, 267 mu mAcAc) were greater than KB content representative of the muscle microenvironment (similar to 100 mu m). This would predict low rates (similar to 1-4% of pyruvate) of biological KB-supported respiration in the LV (8-14 pmol s(-1) mg(-1)) and RG (3-6 pmol s(-1) mg(-1)) at rest and following exercise. Moreover, KBs did not increase respiration in the presence of saturating pyruvate, submaximal pyruvate (100 mu m) reduced the ability of physiological beta-HB to drive respiration, and addition of other intracellular substrates (succinate + palmitoylcarnitine) decreased maximal KB-supported respiration. As a result, product inhibition is likely to limit KB oxidation. Altogether, the ability of KBs to drive mitochondrial respiration is minimal and they are likely to be outcompeted by other substrates, compromising their use as an important energy source.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin J. Gibala; Jonathan P. Little; Maureen J. MacDonald; John A. Hawley;
    Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
    Country: Australia

    Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the letter submitted by Gayda and colleagues in response to our recent review published in The Journal of Physiology (Gibala et al. 2012). With regards to their first comment regarding our new ‘practical’ high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocol, we disagree with the assertion that ‘exercise intensity at 60% of peak power cannot be considered high intensity.’ In our efforts to develop a low-volume HIIE protocol that can be applied across different cohorts including clinical populations, we devised a model comprising 10 × 60 s work bouts at an intensity eliciting ∼85–90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax; averaged over the 10 intervals), interspersed by 60 s of recovery. We have found that the percentage of peak power output (PPO; determined using a standard ramp test to volitional fatigue which does not always elicit peak O2 uptake) that approximates the desired target heart rate (i.e. the % of HRmax) varies considerably between subjects and is exercise-mode specific. For example, in the study by Hood et al. (2011) which was conducted on sedentary healthy adults, a workload equivalent to 60% of PPO during upright cycling was sufficient to elicit a training intensity of ∼90% HRmax. However, in our recent study conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes, the intensity required to elicit ∼90% HRmax was ∼95% of PPO determined during recumbent cycling (Little et al. 2011). We agree with the assertion by Gayda and colleagues that ‘acute physiological responses during different HIIE protocols as well as patient's safety, tolerance and comfort should be tested before their implementation into training programs’. Ongoing protocol optimization work in our laboratory reveal that when interval exercise was prescribed as 80% of PPO in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients – most of whom were taking beta-blocker medication – the 10 × 60 s protocol resulted in peak heart rates during the exercise that averaged ∼85% of age-predicted HRmax. Further, the 10 × 60 s protocol was best tolerated and rated as most preferred by CAD patients in comparison with a modified Wingate protocol (repeated 30 s efforts at 100% PPO with 4 min unloaded cycling for recovery), the standard aerobic interval training protocol used by Wisloff and colleagues (2007), or a moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) protocol. It is likely that high-intensity interval training (HIT) does not conform to a ‘one size fits all’ approach and the interval training stimulus needs to be tailored to individuals depending on their initial level of fitness, exercise tolerance, use of prescription medications and other factors. We also concur with the other main comment by Gayda and colleagues that ‘the superiority of this HIIE protocol [our 10 × 60 s ‘hard’/60 s ‘easy’ model]… needs to be demonstrated.’ Indeed, our review concluded ‘One aspect that is unclear from the present literature is the precise intensity and minimal volume of training that is needed to potentiate the effect of the stimulus-adaptation on outcomes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and relevant health markers. To answer such questions, a complex series of studies needs to be undertaken that systematically ‘titrate’ levels of the ‘training impulse’ and determine subsequent cellular, performance and clinical responses after divergent training interventions.’ Specifically with respect to the use of HIIE in patients with cardiovascular risk or cardiovascular disease, the letter by Gayda and colleagues highlights four references from their laboratory that were not cited in our review. Given the relatively broad scope of our review and the fact that Journal guidelines restricted the number of references to 50, it was obviously not possible to cite all relevant work. Moreover, two of the citations listed by Gayda et al. were acute exercise studies (whereas the focus of our review was training adaptations) and the other two citations were a journal abstract and a recent paper published in February 2012 (neither of which we had access to at the time of submission of our original manuscript). We are also aware of the pioneering research conducted by Meyer and colleagues (e.g. Meyer et al. 1998) and have acknowledged this work in a previous commentary (MacDonald & Currie, 2009). We apologize to all authors whose work on interval training we could not cite due to the broad focus of our review and referencing limitations imposed by The Journal.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hiroko Tanaka; Jessica M. Black; Charles Hulme; Leanne M. Stanley; Shelli R. Kesler; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; Allan L. Reiss; John D. E. Gabrieli; Fumiko Hoeft;
    Country: Australia

    Although the role of IQ in developmental dyslexia remains ambiguous, the dominant clinical and research approaches rely on a definition of dyslexia that requires reading skill to be significantly below the level expected given an individual’s IQ. In the study reported here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to examine whether differences in brain activation during phonological processing that are characteristic of dyslexia were similar or dissimilar in children with poor reading ability who had high IQ scores (discrepant readers) and in children with poor reading ability who had low IQ scores (nondiscrepant readers). In two independent samples including a total of 131 children, using univariate and multivariate pattern analyses, we found that discrepant and nondiscrepant poor readers exhibited similar patterns of reduced activation in brain areas such as left parietotemporal and occipitotemporal regions. These results converge with behavioral evidence indicating that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have similar kinds of reading difficulties in relation to phonological processing.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yvonne Bombard; JoAnne L Palin; Jan M. Friedman; Gerry Veenstra; S Creighton; Jane S. Paulsen; Joan L. Bottorff; Michael R. Hayden;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Australia

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are associated with experiencing genetic discrimination (GD) among individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with experiencing GD in data from a cross-sectional, self-report survey of 293 individuals at risk for HD. The study sample comprised 167 genetically tested respondents, and 66 who were not tested (80% response rate). Overall, individuals who learn they are at risk for HD at a younger age (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5–6.2; P = 0.002), are mutation-positive (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4–6.0; P = 0.006), or are highly educated (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.1; P = 0.002) are more likely to experience GD, particularly in insurance, family, and social settings. Further, younger age was associated with discrimination in insurance (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–1.00; P = 0.038). This study provides evidence that some people who are at risk for HD were more likely to experience GD than others. Individuals who learned they are at risk for HD at a younger age and those who are mutation-positive were more likely to experience GD, particularly in insurance, family, and social settings. Younger individuals were more likely to experience discrimination in the insurance setting. Overall, highly educated individuals were also more likely to report discrimination. These results provide direction for clinical and family discussions, counseling practice, and policy aimed at mitigating experiences of GD. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Turner, Michelle C; Vineis, Paolo; Seleiro, Eduardo; Dijmarescu, Michaela; Balshaw, David M; Bertollini, Roberto; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Gant, Timothy W; Gulliver, John; Jeong, Ayoung; +15 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Australia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, Netherlands, Spain, Spain
    Project: EC | EXPOSOMICS (308610)

    The final meeting of the EXPOsOMICS project "Final Policy Workshop and Stakeholder Consultation" took place 28-29 March 2017 to present the main results of the project and discuss their implications both for future research and for regulatory and policy activities. This paper summarizes presentations and discussions at the meeting related with the main results and advances in exposome research achieved through the EXPOsOMICS project; on other parallel research initiatives on the study of the exposome in Europe and in the United States and their complementarity to EXPOsOMICS; lessons learned from these early studies on the exposome and how they may shape the future of research on environmental exposure assessment; and finally the broader implications of exposome research for risk assessment and policy development on environmental exposures. The main results of EXPOsOMICS in relation to studies of the external exposome and internal exposome in relation to both air pollution and water contaminants were presented as well as new technologies for environmental health research (adductomics) and advances in statistical methods. Although exposome research strengthens the scientific basis for policy development, there is a need in terms of showing added value for public health to: improve communication of research results to non-scientific audiences; target research to the broader landscape of societal challenges; and draw applicable conclusions. Priorities for future work include the development and standardization of methodologies and technologies for assessing the external and internal exposome, improved data sharing and integration, and the demonstration of the added value of exposome science over conventional approaches in answering priority policy questions. This work has been supported by the Exposomics EC FP7 grant (Grant agreement no: 308610) to PV. MCT is supported by the Departament de Salut, Generalitat de Catalunya. ISGlobal is a member of the CERCA Programme, Generalitat de Catalunya

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adam L. Bujak; Justin D. Crane; James S. V. Lally; Rebecca J. Ford; Sally J. Kang; Irena A. Rebalka; Alex E. Green; Bruce E. Kemp; Thomas J. Hawke; Jonathan D. Schertzer; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Australia
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    SummaryThe AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activates autophagy, but its role in aging and fasting-induced muscle function has not been defined. Here we report that fasting mice lacking skeletal muscle AMPK (AMPK-MKO) results in hypoglycemia and hyperketosis. This is not due to defective fatty acid oxidation, but instead is related to a block in muscle proteolysis that leads to reduced circulating levels of alanine, an essential amino acid required for gluconeogenesis. Markers of muscle autophagy including phosphorylation of Ulk1 Ser555 and Ser757 and aggregation of RFP-LC3 puncta are impaired. Consistent with impaired autophagy, aged AMPK-MKO mice possess a significant myopathy characterized by reduced muscle function, mitochondrial disease, and accumulation of the autophagy/mitophagy proteins p62 and Parkin. These findings establish an essential requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK-mediated autophagy in preserving blood glucose levels during prolonged fasting as well as maintaining muscle integrity and mitochondrial function during aging.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Naomi M. Cermak; Martin J. Gibala; Luc J. C. van Loon;
    Publisher: Human Kinetics
    Countries: Belgium, Netherlands, Australia

    Six days of dietary nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice (~0.5 L/d) has been reported to reduce pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) during submaximal exercise and increase tolerance of high-intensity work rates, suggesting that nitrate can be a potent ergogenic aid. Limited data are available regarding the effect of nitrate ingestion on athletic performance, and no study has investigated the potential ergogenic effects of a small-volume, concentrated dose of beetroot juice. The authors tested the hypothesis that 6 d of nitrate ingestion would improve time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures crossover design, 12 male cyclists (31 ± 3 yr, VO2peak = 58 ± 2 ml · kg−1 · min−1, maximal power [Wmax] = 342 ± 10 W) ingested 140 ml/d of concentrated beetroot (~8 mmol/d nitrate) juice (BEET) or a placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice; PLAC) for 6 d, separated by a 14-d washout. After supplementation on Day 6, subjects performed 60 min of submaximal cycling (2 × 30 min at 45% and 65% Wmax, respectively), followed by a 10-km time trial. Time-trial performance (953 ± 18 vs. 965 ± 18 s, p < .005) and power output (294 ± 12 vs. 288 ± 12 W, p < .05) improved after BEET compared with PLAC supplementation. Submaximal VO2 was lower after BEET (45% Wmax = 1.92 ± 0.06 vs. 2.02 ± 0.09 L/min, 65% Wmax 2.94 ± 0.12 vs. 3.11 ± 0.12 L/min) than with PLAC (main effect, p < .05). Wholebody fuel selection and plasma lactate, glucose, and insulin concentrations did not differ between treatments. Six days of nitrate supplementation reduced VO2 during submaximal exercise and improved time-trial performance in trained cyclists.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Steven C. Hayes; Rhonda M. Merwin; Louise McHugh; Emily K. Sandoz; Jacqueline A-Tjak; Francisco J. Ruiz; Dermot Barnes-Holmes; Jonathan B. Bricker; Joseph Ciarrochi; Mark R. Dixon; +9 more
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi
    Countries: Switzerland, Sweden, Australia

    Abstract Throughout its history the strategy and tactics of contextual behavioral science (CBS) research have had distinctive features as compared to traditional behavioral science approaches. Continued progress in CBS research can be facilitated by greater clarity about how its strategy and tactics can be brought to bear on current challenges. The present white paper is the result of a 2 1/2-year long process designed to foster consensus among representative producers and consumers of CBS research about the best strategic pathway forward. The Task Force agreed that CBS research should be multilevel, process-based, multidimensional, prosocial, and pragmatic, and provided 33 recommendations to the CBS community arranged across these characteristics. In effect, this report provides a detailed research agenda designed to maximize the impact of CBS as a field. Scientists and practitioners are encouraged to mount this ambitious agenda.