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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ayuso García, María Dolores; Ayuso Sánchez, María José;

    Este artículo pretende analizar las tendencias, los proyectos y las iniciativas actuales que conducen a un modelo de acceso abierto a la literatura científica. Se muestran las distintas experiencias y modelos llevados a cabo en torno a los procesos de evaluación por expertos Peer-review en el ámbito de los procesos editoriales de instituciones de reconocido prestigio: Nature, The Lancet, Pub Med Central, American Educational Research Association, Elsevier y un amplio etcétera. De la misma forma se revisa el impacto de las revistas digitales en los modelos de comunicación OA. Para conseguir los objetivos propuestos se analizan los indicadores: procesos de evaluación y nivel de acceso. Se concluye reconociendo la influencia de tres modelos, proceso de evaluación tradicional, proceso de evaluación abierto a la información científica y un modelo mixto de evaluación Peer-review que apuesta por una mayor transparencia en el proceso de evaluación. Además se observa un modelo alternativo autor-pays- model. This article wants to analyze the tendencies, the projects and the initiatives, that leads to a model open to the scientific literature. We show the different experiences and models done around the evaluation process by Peer-review experts in the field of the editorial processes of well-known institutions: Nature, The Lancet, Pub Med Central, American Educational Research Association, Elsevier, etc. In the same way we review the digital journals impact in the communication models OA. To reach the proposed objectives we analized the indicators: evaluation processes and access level. We finished recognizing the influence of three models, open to science information evaluation process and a mixed model Peer-review that leads to a bigger transparency in the evaluation process. Also we note an alternative model: autor-pays- model.

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    Authors: Gómez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Benjumea, Ángela-María;

    Resumen Introducción: el Cortisol salival ha sido frecuentemente utilizado como un marcador de estrés. El cortisol tiene un importante ritmo diurno con elevaciones pico en las horas de madrugada, denominada respuesta del cortisol al despertar (RCD) con una caída durante el día. Los cambios al envejecer en el eje hipotálamo-pituitaria-adrenal (HPA) son contradictorios. Objetivo: este estudio examina la variación diurna de los niveles de cortisol salival en sujetos ancianos que viven en la comunidad. Diseño: estudio trasversal descriptivo. Medio: Poblacional. Participantes del estudio IMIAS (International Mobility in Aging Study). Participantes: cuatrocientos cincuenta personas mayores de 65 años, hombres y mujeres con una submuestra (100) para la toma de cortisol salival. Mediciones: los participantes recolectaron diez muestras de saliva, cinco por día, durante dos días así: al levantarse, 30 minutos (media hora) después de despertarse, una hora después de despertarse, en la tarde a las 3 pm y al acostarse. El cortisol fue evaluado mediante radioinmunoanálisis enzimático. Se evaluaron RCD, el área bajo la curva y la curva de patrón diurno. Resultados: se encontró una RCD amputada con un perfil diurno aplanado y con los niveles más bajos en la noche. El patrón de curva encontrado se considera como un patrón "normal" de ritmo circadiano de cortisol al envejecer, que se caracteriza por tener una baja RCD y con una caída lenta a través del día. Conclusiones: los ancianos muestran una menor respuesta del cortisol al despertar con un ritmo diurno reducido probablemente implicando una regulación alterada del eje HPA con el envejecimiento. (Acta Med Colomb 2016; 41:130-137). Abstract Introduction: salivary cortisol has been frequently used as a marker of stress. Cortisol has an important diurnal rhythm with peak elevations at the dawn hours, called cortisol awakening response (CAR) with a drop during the day. Aging changes in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis are contradictory. Objective: this study examines the diurnal variation of salivary cortisol levels in elderly subjects living in the community. Design: a descriptive cross-sectional study. Medium: populational. Participants of IMIAS study (International Mobility in Aging Study). Participants: four hundred and fifty people over 65, men and women with a subsample (100) for the sampling of salivary cortisol. Measurements: participants collected ten saliva samples, five per day, for two days in this way: when getting up, 30 minutes (half an hour) after waking up, an hour after waking up, in the afternoon at 3 pm and at bedtime. Cortisol was assessed by enzyme radioimmunoassay. CAR, the area under the curve and the curve of diurnal pattern were evaluated. Results: an amputee CAR with a flattened diurnal profile and lower levels at night was found. Curve pattern found is considered a "normal" pattern of circadian rhythm of cortisol aging, characterized by having a low CAR and a slow fall throughout the day. Conclusions: The elderly have a lower cortisol response to awakening with a reduced diurnal rhythm probably involving an altered HPA axis regulation with aging. (Acta Med Colomb 2016; 41: 130-137).

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    Authors: Torales, Santiago Blas; Lago, Manuel; Ianovsky, Oscar Gabriel;

    RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN La revisión por pares de propuestas de investigación es el “estándar de oro” utilizado por la mayoría de las agencias que financian investigación en salud para juzgar su calidad. Sin embargo, este proceso ha recibido numerosas críticas de la comunidad internacional. La Dirección de Investigación en Salud financia propuestas de investigación mediante la convocatoria a becas Salud Investiga, utilizando para la asignación de mérito el procedimiento de revisión por pares. En línea con lo ocurrido con otras agencias financiadoras públicas, el proceso ha sido blanco de objeciones informales por parte de la comunidad de investigación local. Hasta la fecha no se ha relevado de manera formal la opinión respecto del proceso de evaluación. El objetivo fue evaluar, en los postulantes a la Convocatoria 2020, la opinión sobre la experiencia con los revisores, la constructividad, claridad y lenguaje de los comentarios, la satisfacción global con la revisión y la confiabilidad de las puntuaciones. MÉTODOS: Encuesta electrónica voluntaria autoadministrada RESULTADOS La tasa de respuesta fue del 39%. Se observó mayoría de acuerdo con aquellos ítems que expresaban opiniones/percepciones positivas respecto del proceso de revisión por pares y mayoría de desacuerdo con los ítems que reflejaban opiniones/percepciones negativas DISCUSIÓN Predominó la satisfacción con el proceso de revisión, aunque su grado difirió marcadamente entre los que obtuvieron una beca y aquellos que no. ^s+ ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Peer review of research proposals is the “gold standard” used by most agencies that fund health research to judge its quality. However, this process has received much criticism from the international research community. The “Dirección de Investigación en Salud” funds research proposals through calls for “Salud Investiga” grants, using the peer review procedure for the assignment of merit. In line with other public funding agencies, the process has received informal objections from the local research community. To date, the opinion regarding the evaluation process has not been formally evaluated. The objective was to evaluate the opinion of applicants for 2020 call about the experience with reviewers, the constructiveness, clarity and language of the comments, the overall satisfaction with the review and the reliability of the scores METHODS Self-administered voluntary electronic survey RESULTS The response rate was 39%. A majority of agreement was observed with those items that reflected positive perceptions/opinions regarding the peer review process, as well as a majority of disagreement with items that reflected negative perceptions/opinions DISCUSSION Overall, satisfaction with the process prevailed, although the degree varied significantly between those who obtained the scholarship and those who did not.

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    Authors: Martínez-Cajas, Jorge L; Mueses-Marín, Héctor F; Galindo-Orrego, Pablo; Agudelo, Juan F; +1 Authors

    Introducción. En Colombia se ha publicado poco sobre farmacorresistencia del VIH en pacientes que reciben tratamiento antirretroviral. Las guías de VIH de Colombia de 2006, no recomiendan el uso de los estudios de genotipo de resistencia en pacientes nunca expuestos a medicamentos antirretrovirales ni después del primer fracaso terapéutico. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de mutaciones de resistencia y el grado de sensibilidad/resistencia del VIH a los antirretrovirales en pacientes que han recibido tratamiento antirretroviral. Materiales y métodos. Se reclutó una muestra no probabilística de 170 pacientes con infección por VIH que recibían tratamiento antirretroviral, experimentaban fracaso virológico y que tenían estudios de genotipo de resistencia. Se estudió la farmacorresistencia del VIH en dos grupos: estudios de genotipo de resistencia tempranos Vs . tardíos. Resultados. El tipo de resistencia más frecuente en pacientes bajo tratamiento antirretroviral, afectó a los inhibidores no nucleosídicos (76 %). El grupo de estudio tardío tuvo mayor riesgo de resistencia a inhibidores nucleosídicos y a los inhibidores de proteasa, mayor número de mutaciones de resistencia y mayor complejidad de las resistencias, que el grupo de estudio temprano. También, se encontró un alto grado (30 %) de resistencia cruzada a los inhibidores nucleosídicos en el grupo de estudio tardío. Los medicamentos menos afectados fueron tenofovir y darunavir. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que practicar estudios de genotipo de resistencia tardíos se asocia con altos niveles de resistencia, lo cual puede restringir el uso de un gran número de antirretrovirales esenciales en esquemas subsiguientes. Es necesario revisar las actuales recomendaciones sobre el uso de dichos exámenes en las guías colombianas de manejo de VIH. Introduction: Little has been published in Colombia on HIV drug resistance in patients taking antiretroviral treatment (ART). Currently, the Colombian guidelines do not recommend the use of genotypic antiretroviral resistance tests (GART) for treatment-naive patients or for those experiencing a first therapeutic failure. Objective: To determine the frequency of relevant resistance mutations and the degree of susceptibility/ resistance of HIV to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in ART-experienced patients. Materials and methods: A non-random sample of 170 ART-experienced HIV patients with virologic failure and who underwent GART was recruited. A study of HIV drug resistance was carried out in two groups of patients: one group that underwent early GART and the other group that received late GART testing. Results: The most frequent type of resistance affected the non-nucleoside class (76%). The late-GART group had higher risk of nucleoside analog and protease inhibitor drug resistance, a higher number of resistance mutations and more complex mutational profiles than the early-GART group. A high cross resistance level (30%) was found in the nucleoside analog class. The least affected medications were tenofovir and darunavir. Conclusions: Our results suggest that performing GART late is associated with levels of ARV resistance that could restrict the use of an important number of essential ARV in subsequent regimens. There is a need to revise the current recommendations to include GART prior to start of treatment and after the first virologic failure.

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    Authors: Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Kingsbury, Paul;
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    Authors: Esparza Olcina, Mª Jesús; Jullien, Sophie;

    Conclusiones de los autores del estudio: no hubo asociación entre la duración del ayuno y ningún tipo de evento adverso, lo que indica que retrasar la sedación para cumplir con las pautas de ayuno establecidas por guías clínicas no mejora los resultados de la sedación en niños en el servicio de urgencia. Comentario de los revisores: es prudente mantener rígidamente los protocolos en casos de riesgo como enfermedad grave, hiperémesis, obstrucción intestinal, endoscopia o broncoscopia, pero en otros casos esta práctica carece de evidencia de beneficio, por lo que sería adecuada una revisión de los protocolos de ayuno de preparación para la sedación. Authors’ conclusions: there was no association between fasting duration and any type of adverse event, indicating that delaying sedation to meet established fasting guidelines does not improve sedation outcomes for children in the emergency department. Reviewers’ commentary: it seems wise to follow strictly the protocols in risky cases such as serious illness, hyperemesis, bowel obstruction, endoscopy or bronchoscopy, but in other situations this practice does not show evidence of benefit, so an appropriate review of protocols on pre-sedation fasting is advisable.

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    Authors: Recuero Linares, Mikel;

    Resumen El presente artículo ambiciona defender la necesidad y la virtualidad de emprender una acción colectiva, primero, paneuropea y luego, internacional para hacer frente con la mayor celeridad, eficiencia y eficacia posibles a la emergencia sanitaria suscitada por la COVID-19, abordando, específicamente, la problemática ética y legal de la compartición internacional de datos personales. Todo ello con la firme pretensión de lograr una mayor y mejor cooperación internacional en materia de investigación médico-científica con datos de carácter personal. Abstract This article aims to defend the need of taking a pan-European and international collective action to tackle as rapidly, efficiently and effectively as possible the public health emergency caused by the COVID-19, addressing, specifically, the ethical and legal issues of the international sharing of personal data. On the whole, intending to improve international cooperation in medical and scientific research with personal data. Resum El present article ambiciona defensar la necessitat i la virtualitat d'emprendre una acció col·lectiva, primer, paneuropea i després, internacional per fer front amb la major celeritat, eficiència i eficàcia possibles a l'emergència sanitària suscitada per la COVID-19, abordant, específicament, la problemàtica ètica i legal de la compartició internacional de dades personals. Tot això amb la ferma pretensió d'aconseguir una major i millor cooperació internacional en matèria d'investigació medico-científica amb dades de caràcter personal.

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    Authors: Correa-Rodríguez, Fernanda; Tepichin-Valle, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Barba, Blanca Estela;

    Para medir la brecha de género en la investigación de mares y costas, este artículo realizó un estudio bibliométrico que analizó 929 publicaciones y encontró que 59.82% de los autores fueron hombres y 36.81% mujeres, mientras que 59.30% hombres y 38.9% mujeres ocuparon la posición de primera autoría, y 62.72% hombres y 35.71% mujeres ocuparon la posición de correspondencia. También evidenció el principio de homofilia, que fue más fuerte entre los investigadores; y que los autores presentan mayor movilidad académica en comparación con las autoras. Se corroboró que la brecha de género en las publicaciones de mares y costas persiste.

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    Authors: Manterola, Carlos; Otzen, Tamara; Lorenzini, Nicolas; Díaz, Andrés; +2 Authors

    La calidad del reporte de los resultados de una investigación no es óptima, razón por la cual, se han desarrollado numerosas iniciativas tendientes a mejorar este aspecto a lo largo de los años. El objetivo de este artículo es mencionar y describir las iniciativas existentes para el reporte de resultados de investigación biomédica en diversos escenarios de investigación clínica y situaciones especiales. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos THE COCHRANE LIBRARY, MEDLINE, SciELO y Redalyc; y en los buscadores Clinical Evidence, TRIP database, Fisterra, Rafabravo, EQUATOR Network, portal de BIREME y Programa HINARI; para obtener las listas de verificación existentes. Los documentos recuperados fueron agrupados de la siguiente forma: relacionados con escenarios de terapia, diagnóstico, pronóstico, evaluaciones económicas y misceláneas. La búsqueda generó un total de 31 documentos. Doce para escenarios de terapia (CONSORT, QUOROM, MOOSE, STRICTA, TREND, MINCIR-Terapia, RedHot, REHBaR, PRISMA, REFLECT, Ottawa y SPIRIT), 5 para diagnóstico (STARD, QUADAS, QAREL, GRRAS y MINCIR-Diagnóstico), 3 para pronóstico (REMARK, MINCIR-Pronóstico y GRIPS), 4 para evaluaciones económicas (NHS-HTA, CHEERS, ISPOR RCT-CEA y NICE-STA,); y 7 misceláneos (STROBE, COREQ, GRADE, SQUIRE, STREGA, ORION y MINCIR-EOD). Existen diversas iniciativas y declaraciones. Estas deben ser conocidas y utilizadas por escritores, revisores y editores de revistas biomédicas; de forma tal de incrementar la calidad del reporte de resultados de la investigación biomédica. Quality of results reporting is not perfect, many initiatives tending to improve this aspect of clinical research have been developed in the last decade. The aim of this manuscript is to mention and describe the existent initiatives for reporting biomedical research results in different scenarios and special situations. To obtain check-lists, a search in THE COCHRANE LIBRARY, MEDLINE, SciELO y Redalyc; Clinical Evidence, TRIP database, Fisterra, Rafabravo, EQUATOR Network, BIREME and HINARI Program was developed. Identified documents were grouped in relation with clinical research scenarios (therapy, diagnosis, prognosis and economic evaluations) and miscellaneous. The search allows finding 31 documents. Twelve for therapy (CONSORT, QUOROM, MOOSE,STRICTA, TREND, MINCIR-Therapy, RedHot, REHBaR, PRISMA,REFLECT, Ottawa and SPIRIT), 5 for diagnosis (STARD, QUADAS, QAREL, GRRAS and MINCIR-Diagnosis), 3 for prognosis (REMARK, MINCIR-Prognosis and GRIPS), 4 for economic evaluations (NHS-HTA, CHEERS, ISPOR RCT-CEA and NICE-STA,) and 7 miscellaneous (STROBE, COREQ, GRADE, SQUIRE, STREGA, ORION and MINCIR-EOD). Different initiatives and statements were found. These must be noted and used by writers, reviewers and editors of biomedical journals, in order to improve the quality of reporting results.

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    Authors: Ayuso García, María Dolores; Ayuso Sánchez, María José;

    Este artículo pretende analizar las tendencias, los proyectos y las iniciativas actuales que conducen a un modelo de acceso abierto a la literatura científica. Se muestran las distintas experiencias y modelos llevados a cabo en torno a los procesos de evaluación por expertos Peer-review en el ámbito de los procesos editoriales de instituciones de reconocido prestigio: Nature, The Lancet, Pub Med Central, American Educational Research Association, Elsevier y un amplio etcétera. De la misma forma se revisa el impacto de las revistas digitales en los modelos de comunicación OA. Para conseguir los objetivos propuestos se analizan los indicadores: procesos de evaluación y nivel de acceso. Se concluye reconociendo la influencia de tres modelos, proceso de evaluación tradicional, proceso de evaluación abierto a la información científica y un modelo mixto de evaluación Peer-review que apuesta por una mayor transparencia en el proceso de evaluación. Además se observa un modelo alternativo autor-pays- model. This article wants to analyze the tendencies, the projects and the initiatives, that leads to a model open to the scientific literature. We show the different experiences and models done around the evaluation process by Peer-review experts in the field of the editorial processes of well-known institutions: Nature, The Lancet, Pub Med Central, American Educational Research Association, Elsevier, etc. In the same way we review the digital journals impact in the communication models OA. To reach the proposed objectives we analized the indicators: evaluation processes and access level. We finished recognizing the influence of three models, open to science information evaluation process and a mixed model Peer-review that leads to a bigger transparency in the evaluation process. Also we note an alternative model: autor-pays- model.

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    Authors: Gómez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Benjumea, Ángela-María;

    Resumen Introducción: el Cortisol salival ha sido frecuentemente utilizado como un marcador de estrés. El cortisol tiene un importante ritmo diurno con elevaciones pico en las horas de madrugada, denominada respuesta del cortisol al despertar (RCD) con una caída durante el día. Los cambios al envejecer en el eje hipotálamo-pituitaria-adrenal (HPA) son contradictorios. Objetivo: este estudio examina la variación diurna de los niveles de cortisol salival en sujetos ancianos que viven en la comunidad. Diseño: estudio trasversal descriptivo. Medio: Poblacional. Participantes del estudio IMIAS (International Mobility in Aging Study). Participantes: cuatrocientos cincuenta personas mayores de 65 años, hombres y mujeres con una submuestra (100) para la toma de cortisol salival. Mediciones: los participantes recolectaron diez muestras de saliva, cinco por día, durante dos días así: al levantarse, 30 minutos (media hora) después de despertarse, una hora después de despertarse, en la tarde a las 3 pm y al acostarse. El cortisol fue evaluado mediante radioinmunoanálisis enzimático. Se evaluaron RCD, el área bajo la curva y la curva de patrón diurno. Resultados: se encontró una RCD amputada con un perfil diurno aplanado y con los niveles más bajos en la noche. El patrón de curva encontrado se considera como un patrón "normal" de ritmo circadiano de cortisol al envejecer, que se caracteriza por tener una baja RCD y con una caída lenta a través del día. Conclusiones: los ancianos muestran una menor respuesta del cortisol al despertar con un ritmo diurno reducido probablemente implicando una regulación alterada del eje HPA con el envejecimiento. (Acta Med Colomb 2016; 41:130-137). Abstract Introduction: salivary cortisol has been frequently used as a marker of stress. Cortisol has an important diurnal rhythm with peak elevations at the dawn hours, called cortisol awakening response (CAR) with a drop during the day. Aging changes in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis are contradictory. Objective: this study examines the diurnal variation of salivary cortisol levels in elderly subjects living in the community. Design: a descriptive cross-sectional study. Medium: populational. Participants of IMIAS study (International Mobility in Aging Study). Participants: four hundred and fifty people over 65, men and women with a subsample (100) for the sampling of salivary cortisol. Measurements: participants collected ten saliva samples, five per day, for two days in this way: when getting up, 30 minutes (half an hour) after waking up, an hour after waking up, in the afternoon at 3 pm and at bedtime. Cortisol was assessed by enzyme radioimmunoassay. CAR, the area under the curve and the curve of diurnal pattern were evaluated. Results: an amputee CAR with a flattened diurnal profile and lower levels at night was found. Curve pattern found is considered a "normal" pattern of circadian rhythm of cortisol aging, characterized by having a low CAR and a slow fall throughout the day. Conclusions: The elderly have a lower cortisol response to awakening with a reduced diurnal rhythm probably involving an altered HPA axis regulation with aging. (Acta Med Colomb 2016; 41: 130-137).

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    Authors: Torales, Santiago Blas; Lago, Manuel; Ianovsky, Oscar Gabriel;

    RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN La revisión por pares de propuestas de investigación es el “estándar de oro” utilizado por la mayoría de las agencias que financian investigación en salud para juzgar su calidad. Sin embargo, este proceso ha recibido numerosas críticas de la comunidad internacional. La Dirección de Investigación en Salud financia propuestas de investigación mediante la convocatoria a becas Salud Investiga, utilizando para la asignación de mérito el procedimiento de revisión por pares. En línea con lo ocurrido con otras agencias financiadoras públicas, el proceso ha sido blanco de objeciones informales por parte de la comunidad de investigación local. Hasta la fecha no se ha relevado de manera formal la opinión respecto del proceso de evaluación. El objetivo fue evaluar, en los postulantes a la Convocatoria 2020, la opinión sobre la experiencia con los revisores, la constructividad, claridad y lenguaje de los comentarios, la satisfacción global con la revisión y la confiabilidad de las puntuaciones. MÉTODOS: Encuesta electrónica voluntaria autoadministrada RESULTADOS La tasa de respuesta fue del 39%. Se observó mayoría de acuerdo con aquellos ítems que expresaban opiniones/percepciones positivas respecto del proceso de revisión por pares y mayoría de desacuerdo con los ítems que reflejaban opiniones/percepciones negativas DISCUSIÓN Predominó la satisfacción con el proceso de revisión, aunque su grado difirió marcadamente entre los que obtuvieron una beca y aquellos que no. ^s+ ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Peer review of research proposals is the “gold standard” used by most agencies that fund health research to judge its quality. However, this process has received much criticism from the international research community. The “Dirección de Investigación en Salud” funds research proposals through calls for “Salud Investiga” grants, using the peer review procedure for the assignment of merit. In line with other public funding agencies, the process has received informal objections from the local research community. To date, the opinion regarding the evaluation process has not been formally evaluated. The objective was to evaluate the opinion of applicants for 2020 call about the experience with reviewers, the constructiveness, clarity and language of the comments, the overall satisfaction with the review and the reliability of the scores METHODS Self-administered voluntary electronic survey RESULTS The response rate was 39%. A majority of agreement was observed with those items that reflected positive perceptions/opinions regarding the peer review process, as well as a majority of disagreement with items that reflected negative perceptions/opinions DISCUSSION Overall, satisfaction with the process prevailed, although the degree varied significantly between those who obtained the scholarship and those who did not.

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    Authors: Martínez-Cajas, Jorge L; Mueses-Marín, Héctor F; Galindo-Orrego, Pablo; Agudelo, Juan F; +1 Authors

    Introducción. En Colombia se ha publicado poco sobre farmacorresistencia del VIH en pacientes que reciben tratamiento antirretroviral. Las guías de VIH de Colombia de 2006, no recomiendan el uso de los estudios de genotipo de resistencia en pacientes nunca expuestos a medicamentos antirretrovirales ni después del primer fracaso terapéutico. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de mutaciones de resistencia y el grado de sensibilidad/resistencia del VIH a los antirretrovirales en pacientes que han recibido tratamiento antirretroviral. Materiales y métodos. Se reclutó una muestra no probabilística de 170 pacientes con infección por VIH que recibían tratamiento antirretroviral, experimentaban fracaso virológico y que tenían estudios de genotipo de resistencia. Se estudió la farmacorresistencia del VIH en dos grupos: estudios de genotipo de resistencia tempranos Vs . tardíos. Resultados. El tipo de resistencia más frecuente en pacientes bajo tratamiento antirretroviral, afectó a los inhibidores no nucleosídicos (76 %). El grupo de estudio tardío tuvo mayor riesgo de resistencia a inhibidores nucleosídicos y a los inhibidores de proteasa, mayor número de mutaciones de resistencia y mayor complejidad de las resistencias, que el grupo de estudio temprano. También, se encontró un alto grado (30 %) de resistencia cruzada a los inhibidores nucleosídicos en el grupo de estudio tardío. Los medicamentos menos afectados fueron tenofovir y darunavir. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que practicar estudios de genotipo de resistencia tardíos se asocia con altos niveles de resistencia, lo cual puede restringir el uso de un gran número de antirretrovirales esenciales en esquemas subsiguientes. Es necesario revisar las actuales recomendaciones sobre el uso de dichos exámenes en las guías colombianas de manejo de VIH. Introduction: Little has been published in Colombia on HIV drug resistance in patients taking antiretroviral treatment (ART). Currently, the Colombian guidelines do not recommend the use of genotypic antiretroviral resistance tests (GART) for treatment-naive patients or for those experiencing a first therapeutic failure. Objective: To determine the frequency of relevant resistance mutations and the degree of susceptibility/ resistance of HIV to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in ART-experienced patients. Materials and methods: A non-random sample of 170 ART-experienced HIV patients with virologic failure and who underwent GART was recruited. A study of HIV drug resistance was carried out in two groups of patients: one group that underwent early GART and the other group that received late GART testing. Results: The most frequent type of resistance affected the non-nucleoside class (76%). The late-GART group had higher risk of nucleoside analog and protease inhibitor drug resistance, a higher number of resistance mutations and more complex mutational profiles than the early-GART group. A high cross resistance level (30%) was found in the nucleoside analog class. The least affected medications were tenofovir and darunavir. Conclusions: Our results suggest that performing GART late is associated with levels of ARV resistance that could restrict the use of an important number of essential ARV in subsequent regimens. There is a need to revise the current recommendations to include GART prior to start of treatment and after the first virologic failure.

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    Authors: Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Kingsbury, Paul;
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    Authors: Esparza Olcina, Mª Jesús; Jullien, Sophie;

    Conclusiones de los autores del estudio: no hubo asociación entre la duración del ayuno y ningún tipo de evento adverso, lo que indica que retrasar la sedación para cumplir con las pautas de ayuno establecidas por guías clínicas no mejora los resultados de la sedación en niños en el servicio de urgencia. Comentario de los revisores: es prudente mantener rígidamente los protocolos en casos de riesgo como enfermedad grave, hiperémesis, obstrucción intestinal, endoscopia o broncoscopia, pero en otros casos esta práctica carece de evidencia de beneficio, por lo que sería adecuada una revisión de los protocolos de ayuno de preparación para la sedación. Authors’ conclusions: there was no association between fasting duration and any type of adverse event, indicating that delaying sedation to meet established fasting guidelines does not improve sedation outcomes for children in the emergency department. Reviewers’ commentary: it seems wise to follow strictly the protocols in risky cases such as serious illness, hyperemesis, bowel obstruction, endoscopy or bronchoscopy, but in other situations this practice does not show evidence of benefit, so an appropriate review of protocols on pre-sedation fasting is advisable.

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    Authors: Recuero Linares, Mikel;

    Resumen El presente artículo ambiciona defender la necesidad y la virtualidad de emprender una acción colectiva, primero, paneuropea y luego, internacional para hacer frente con la mayor celeridad, eficiencia y eficacia posibles a la emergencia sanitaria suscitada por la COVID-19, abordando, específicamente, la problemática ética y legal de la compartición internacional de datos personales. Todo ello con la firme pretensión de lograr una mayor y mejor cooperación internacional en materia de investigación médico-científica con datos de carácter personal. Abstract This article aims to defend the need of taking a pan-European and international collective action to tackle as rapidly, efficiently and effectively as possible the public health emergency caused by the COVID-19, addressing, specifically, the ethical and legal issues of the international sharing of personal data. On the whole, intending to improve international cooperation in medical and scientific research with personal data. Resum El present article ambiciona defensar la necessitat i la virtualitat d'emprendre una acció col·lectiva, primer, paneuropea i després, internacional per fer front amb la major celeritat, eficiència i eficàcia possibles a l'emergència sanitària suscitada per la COVID-19, abordant, específicament, la problemàtica ètica i legal de la compartició internacional de dades personals. Tot això amb la ferma pretensió d'aconseguir una major i millor cooperació internacional en matèria d'investigació medico-científica amb dades de caràcter personal.

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    Authors: Correa-Rodríguez, Fernanda; Tepichin-Valle, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Barba, Blanca Estela;

    Para medir la brecha de género en la investigación de mares y costas, este artículo realizó un estudio bibliométrico que analizó 929 publicaciones y encontró que 59.82% de los autores fueron hombres y 36.81% mujeres, mientras que 59.30% hombres y 38.9% mujeres ocuparon la posición de primera autoría, y 62.72% hombres y 35.71% mujeres ocuparon la posición de correspondencia. También evidenció el principio de homofilia, que fue más fuerte entre los investigadores; y que los autores presentan mayor movilidad académica en comparación con las autoras. Se corroboró que la brecha de género en las publicaciones de mares y costas persiste.

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    Authors: Manterola, Carlos; Otzen, Tamara; Lorenzini, Nicolas; Díaz, Andrés; +2 Authors

    La calidad del reporte de los resultados de una investigación no es óptima, razón por la cual, se han desarrollado numerosas iniciativas tendientes a mejorar este aspecto a lo largo de los años. El objetivo de este artículo es mencionar y describir las iniciativas existentes para el reporte de resultados de investigación biomédica en diversos escenarios de investigación clínica y situaciones especiales. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos THE COCHRANE LIBRARY, MEDLINE, SciELO y Redalyc; y en los buscadores Clinical Evidence, TRIP database, Fisterra, Rafabravo, EQUATOR Network, portal de BIREME y Programa HINARI; para obtener las listas de verificación existentes. Los documentos recuperados fueron agrupados de la siguiente forma: relacionados con escenarios de terapia, diagnóstico, pronóstico, evaluaciones económicas y misceláneas. La búsqueda generó un total de 31 documentos. Doce para escenarios de terapia (CONSORT, QUOROM, MOOSE, STRICTA, TREND, MINCIR-Terapia, RedHot, REHBaR, PRISMA, REFLECT, Ottawa y SPIRIT), 5 para diagnóstico (STARD, QUADAS, QAREL, GRRAS y MINCIR-Diagnóstico), 3 para pronóstico (REMARK, MINCIR-Pronóstico y GRIPS), 4 para evaluaciones económicas (NHS-HTA, CHEERS, ISPOR RCT-CEA y NICE-STA,); y 7 misceláneos (STROBE, COREQ, GRADE, SQUIRE, STREGA, ORION y MINCIR-EOD). Existen diversas iniciativas y declaraciones. Estas deben ser conocidas y utilizadas por escritores, revisores y editores de revistas biomédicas; de forma tal de incrementar la calidad del reporte de resultados de la investigación biomédica. Quality of results reporting is not perfect, many initiatives tending to improve this aspect of clinical research have been developed in the last decade. The aim of this manuscript is to mention and describe the existent initiatives for reporting biomedical research results in different scenarios and special situations. To obtain check-lists, a search in THE COCHRANE LIBRARY, MEDLINE, SciELO y Redalyc; Clinical Evidence, TRIP database, Fisterra, Rafabravo, EQUATOR Network, BIREME and HINARI Program was developed. Identified documents were grouped in relation with clinical research scenarios (therapy, diagnosis, prognosis and economic evaluations) and miscellaneous. The search allows finding 31 documents. Twelve for therapy (CONSORT, QUOROM, MOOSE,STRICTA, TREND, MINCIR-Therapy, RedHot, REHBaR, PRISMA,REFLECT, Ottawa and SPIRIT), 5 for diagnosis (STARD, QUADAS, QAREL, GRRAS and MINCIR-Diagnosis), 3 for prognosis (REMARK, MINCIR-Prognosis and GRIPS), 4 for economic evaluations (NHS-HTA, CHEERS, ISPOR RCT-CEA and NICE-STA,) and 7 miscellaneous (STROBE, COREQ, GRADE, SQUIRE, STREGA, ORION and MINCIR-EOD). Different initiatives and statements were found. These must be noted and used by writers, reviewers and editors of biomedical journals, in order to improve the quality of reporting results.

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