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  • Authors: 
    Jan Pisek; Jing M. Chen; Tiit Nilson;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | ESTSPACE (204727)

    The foliage clumping index quantifies the degree of the deviation of leaf spatial distribution in the canopy from the random case. It is of comparable importance for ecological models as the leaf area index for quantifying radiation interception and distribution in plant canopies. Previously, an improved angular index named normalized difference between hotspot and darkspot was proposed for retrieving the clumping index using multi-angle remote sensing data. Global maps of clumping index have been derived successfully from multi-angular Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectance (POLDER) data at ∼6 km resolution. In this article, we investigate whether it is feasible to derive the clumping index at 500 m resolution with the 16-day Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function model parameters product. The results are compared with an assembled set of field measurements from 63 different sites, covering five continents and diverse biomes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    L. T. Ellis; C. Ah-Peng; G. Aslan; V. A. Bakalin; A. Bergamini; D. A. Callaghan; P. Campisi; F. M. Raimondo; S. S. Choi; J. Csiky; +72 more
    Countries: France, France, Portugal, Poland, Croatia
    Project: EC | INTERACT (262693)

    Pseudoamblystegium subtile (Hedw.) Vanderp. & Hedenäs. CONTRIBUTORS: R. Gabriel, M. Kubová, C. Sérgio and I. Soares Albergaria. PORTUGAL, AZORES: Terceira Island, Angra do Heroísmo, municipal garden ‘Jardim Duque da Terceira’, 38° 39′ 24.0′′N, 27°13′ 05.99′′W, 31 m a.s.l, on the base of a shrub, in acidic conditions, 7 April 2017, leg. Michaela Kubová s.n. (AZU). A new understanding of the pleurocarpous moss species Pseudoamblystegium subtile was proposed by Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs (2009). The new genus is separated from the other Amblystegiaceae primarily due to its phylogenetic consistency and is characterised by the possession of leaves with a very short nerve, and erect capsules (Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs 2009). (excerpt) info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Atsushi Takagi; Francesco Usai; Gowrishankar Ganesh; Vittorio Sanguineti; Etienne Burdet;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Countries: United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, France
    Project: EC | SYMBITRON (611626), EC | BALANCE (601003), EC | VIACTORS (231554), EC | CogIMon (644727)

    Author summary Humans are talented at coordinating movements with one another through a multitude of objects such as a hard table or a soft mattress. Depending on the softness of the object, the force we perceive from the partner can be strong enough to sense directional cues, or could be too weak to understand the partner’s movement intention. How do we coordinate physical movements governed by such differing mechanics? Our task is inspired by a pair moving through a dancefloor during Tango dancing; we tested subjects in pairs who jointly chased a moving target with their right hands, which were banded together by either a strong, medium or weak elastic band. By measuring the change in each partner’s performance at the task, and the muscular effort they exerted, we characterized the changes in each partner’s behavior as a function of the strength of the elastic band that coupled them together. By employing a computational simulation of the task, we tested different coordination mechanisms to see what explained the data best. We found that, regardless of the coupling strength, each subject infers the movement intention of their partner, but this process deteriorates with softer coupling. To move a hard table together, humans may coordinate by following the dominant partner’s motion [1–4], but this strategy is unsuitable for a soft mattress where the perceived forces are small. How do partners readily coordinate in such differing interaction dynamics? To address this, we investigated how pairs tracked a target using flexion-extension of their wrists, which were coupled by a hard, medium or soft virtual elastic band. Tracking performance monotonically increased with a stiffer band for the worse partner, who had higher tracking error, at the cost of the skilled partner’s muscular effort. This suggests that the worse partner followed the skilled one’s lead, but simulations show that the results are better explained by a model where partners share movement goals through the forces, whilst the coupling dynamics determine the capacity of communicable information. This model elucidates the versatile mechanism by which humans can coordinate during both hard and soft physical interactions to ensure maximum performance with minimal effort.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin L. Chazdon; Eben N. Broadbent; Danaë M. A. Rozendaal; Frans Bongers; Angelica M. Almeyda Zambrano; T. Mitchell Aide; Patricia Balvanera; Justin M. Becknell; Vanessa K. Boukili; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; +50 more
    Publisher: Science Advances
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639114), NSF | CNH-RCN: Tropical Refores... (1313788), NSF | COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: M... (1050957), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147429), EC | ROBIN (283093), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147434), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639393), NSF | CAREER: Ecosystem process... (1053237), NSF | Controls on the Storage a... (0129104), NSF | CAREER: Land Use and Envi... (1349952)

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Models reveal the high carbon mitigation potential of tropical forest regeneration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudius Marondedze; Xinyun Liu; Shihui Huang; Cindy Wong; Xuan Zhou; Xutong Pan; Huiting An; Nuo Xu; Xuechen Tian; Aloysius Wong;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PFIMDULA (752418)

    As indoor horticulture gathers momentum, electric (also termed artificial) lighting systems with the ability to generate specific and tunable wavelengths have been developed and applied. While the effects of light quality on plant growth and development have been studied, authoritative and reliable sets of light formulae tailored for the cultivation of economically important plants and plant traits are lacking as light qualities employed across laboratories are inconsistent. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of molecular data for plants examined under electric lights in indoor environments. It has hampered progress in the field of indoor horticulture, in particular, the transition from small-scale indoor farming to commercial plant factories. Here, we review the effects of light quality on model and crop plants studied from a physiological, physical and biochemical perspective, and explain how functional genomics can be employed in tandem to generate a wealth of molecular data specific for plants cultivated under indoor lighting. We also review the current state of lighting technologies in indoor horticulture specifically discussing how recent narrow-bandwidth lighting technologies can be tailored to cultivate economically valuable plant species and traits. Knowledge gained from a complementary phenotypic and functional genomics approach can be harvested not only for economical gains but also for sustainable food production. We believe that this review serves as a platform that guides future light-related plant research. Indoor horticulture: Lighting the way to sustainability Tailored multidisciplinary approaches to hone sustainable indoor horticulture could significantly improve plant yields and crop quality. Advances in artificial lighting systems could transform commercial-scale indoor horticulture, but the current technology is limited by a lack of molecular data for plants grown under such lighting schemes. Aloysius Wong at Wenzhou-Kean University in Wenzhou, China, and co-workers reviewed research into the effects of light quality and differing wavelengths on plant growth. The team advocate the use of plant type-specific and functional genomics studies to examine light-determined molecular traits and associated gene expression. These could be used to build an extensive catalog of light qualities that enhance indoor crop yields and quality. Combining LED lights of different colors and wavelengths shows promise, and the researchers highlight the potential of tunable narrow wavelength lights, such as lasers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sabine Barthlott; Matthias Schneider; Frank Hase; A. Wiegele; Emanuel Christner; Yenny González; Thomas Blumenstock; S. Dohe; Omaira García; Eliezer Sepúlveda; +17 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Project: EC | MUSICA (256961)

    Abstract. Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these NDACC data records. Our XCO2 retrieval setup is kept simple so that it can easily be adopted for any NDACC/FTIR-like measurement made since the late 1950s. By a comparison to coincident TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements, we empirically demonstrate the useful quality of this suggested NDACC XCO2 product (empirically obtained scatter between TCCON and NDACC is about 4‰ for daily mean as well as monthly mean comparisons, and the bias is 25‰). Our XCO2 model is a simple regression model fitted to CarbonTracker results and the Mauna Loa CO2 in situ records. A comparison to TCCON data suggests an uncertainty of the model for monthly mean data of below 3‰. We apply the method to the NDACC/FTIR spectra that are used within the project MUSICA (multi-platform remote sensing of isotopologues for investigating the cycle of atmospheric water) and demonstrate that there is a good consistency for these globally representative set of spectra measured since 1996: the scatter between the modelled and measured XCO2 on a yearly time scale is only 3‰.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.; Falvella, M.C.; Bartlett, J.G.; Smoot, G.F.; Stompor, R.; Bonavera, L.; +174 more
    Countries: Finland, Spain, Italy, France, Spain, Italy, Italy, Denmark, France, Finland ...
    Project: EC | DEISA2 (222919), AKA | Cosmology and the Planck ... (121703), AKA | Planck-satelliitin datan ... (121962)

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation induced by the motion of the spacecraft. Noise properties are estimated from TOD from which the sky signal has been removed using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. Measured 1/f noise knee-frequencies range from ~100 mHz at 30 GHz to a few tens of mHz at 70GHz. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈−10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. This work was supported by the Academy of Finland grants 121703 and 121962. 19 páginas, 18 figuras, 3 tablas.-- et al. Peer reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simon L. Lewis; Bonaventure Sonké; Terry Sunderland; Serge K. Begne; Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez; Geertje M. F. van der Heijden; Oliver L. Phillips; Kofi Affum-Baffoe; Timothy R. Baker; Lindsay F. Banin; +53 more
    Publisher: Royal Society, The
    Countries: Belgium, France, Netherlands, Netherlands, Belgium, Belgium, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | GEOCARBON (283080)

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stemdensity and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha-1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha-1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- comparedwithneotropical forests.However, mean stem density is low(426±11 stems ha-1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationshipswith C:Nratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus- AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. © 2013 The Authors. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j 0

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bo Jiang; Yi Zhang; Shunlin Liang; Georg Wohlfahrt; Altaf Arain; Alessandro Cescatti; Teodoro Georgiadis; Kun Jia; Gerard Kiely; Magnus Lund; +7 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | ICOS (211574), NSERC , EC | GHG EUROPE (244122)

    Abstract All-wave net surface radiation is greatly needed in various scientific research and applications. Satellite data have been used to estimate incident shortwave radiation, but hardly to estimate all-wave net radiation due to the inference of clouds on longwave radiation. A practical solution is to estimate all-wave net radiation empirically from shortwave radiation and other ancillary information. Since existing models were developed using a limited number of ground observations, a comprehensive evaluation of these models using a global network of representative measurements is urgently required. In this study, we developed a new day-time net radiation estimation model and evaluated it against seven commonly used existing models using radiation measurements obtained from 326 sites around the world from 1991 to 2010. MERRA re-analysis products from which the meteorological data were derived and remotely sensed products during the same period were also used. Model evaluations were performed in both global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets based on the surface albedo and vegetation index, and the models were fitted separately). Besides, the factors (i.e., albedo, air temperature, and NDVI) that may impact the estimation of all-wave net radiation were also extensively explored. Based on these evaluations, the fitting RMSE of the new developed model was approximately 40.0 Wm −2 in the global mode and varied between 18.2 and 54.0 Wm −2 in the conditional mode. We found that it is better to use net shortwave radiation (including surface albedo) than the incident shortwave radiation nearly in all models. Overall, the new model performed better than other existing linear models.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Moritz Geilinger; David Hahn; Jonas Zehnder; Moritz Bächer; Bernhard Thomaszewski; Stelian Coros;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | 3DPBio (866480)

    We present a differentiable dynamics solver that is able to handle frictional contact for rigid and deformable objects within a unified framework. Through a principled mollification of normal and tangential contact forces, our method circumvents the main difficulties inherent to the non-smooth nature of frictional contact. We combine this new contact model with fully-implicit time integration to obtain a robust and efficient dynamics solver that is analytically differentiable. In conjunction with adjoint sensitivity analysis, our formulation enables gradient-based optimization with adaptive trade-offs between simulation accuracy and smoothness of objective function landscapes. We thoroughly analyse our approach on a set of simulation examples involving rigid bodies, visco-elastic materials, and coupled multi-body systems. We furthermore showcase applications of our differentiable simulator to parameter estimation for deformable objects, motion planning for robotic manipulation, trajectory optimization for compliant walking robots, as well as efficient self-supervised learning of control policies. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 39 (6) ISSN:0730-0301 ISSN:1557-7368

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Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
312 Research products, page 1 of 32
  • Authors: 
    Jan Pisek; Jing M. Chen; Tiit Nilson;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | ESTSPACE (204727)

    The foliage clumping index quantifies the degree of the deviation of leaf spatial distribution in the canopy from the random case. It is of comparable importance for ecological models as the leaf area index for quantifying radiation interception and distribution in plant canopies. Previously, an improved angular index named normalized difference between hotspot and darkspot was proposed for retrieving the clumping index using multi-angle remote sensing data. Global maps of clumping index have been derived successfully from multi-angular Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectance (POLDER) data at ∼6 km resolution. In this article, we investigate whether it is feasible to derive the clumping index at 500 m resolution with the 16-day Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function model parameters product. The results are compared with an assembled set of field measurements from 63 different sites, covering five continents and diverse biomes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    L. T. Ellis; C. Ah-Peng; G. Aslan; V. A. Bakalin; A. Bergamini; D. A. Callaghan; P. Campisi; F. M. Raimondo; S. S. Choi; J. Csiky; +72 more
    Countries: France, France, Portugal, Poland, Croatia
    Project: EC | INTERACT (262693)

    Pseudoamblystegium subtile (Hedw.) Vanderp. & Hedenäs. CONTRIBUTORS: R. Gabriel, M. Kubová, C. Sérgio and I. Soares Albergaria. PORTUGAL, AZORES: Terceira Island, Angra do Heroísmo, municipal garden ‘Jardim Duque da Terceira’, 38° 39′ 24.0′′N, 27°13′ 05.99′′W, 31 m a.s.l, on the base of a shrub, in acidic conditions, 7 April 2017, leg. Michaela Kubová s.n. (AZU). A new understanding of the pleurocarpous moss species Pseudoamblystegium subtile was proposed by Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs (2009). The new genus is separated from the other Amblystegiaceae primarily due to its phylogenetic consistency and is characterised by the possession of leaves with a very short nerve, and erect capsules (Vanderpoorten and Hedenäs 2009). (excerpt) info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Atsushi Takagi; Francesco Usai; Gowrishankar Ganesh; Vittorio Sanguineti; Etienne Burdet;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Countries: United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, France
    Project: EC | SYMBITRON (611626), EC | BALANCE (601003), EC | VIACTORS (231554), EC | CogIMon (644727)

    Author summary Humans are talented at coordinating movements with one another through a multitude of objects such as a hard table or a soft mattress. Depending on the softness of the object, the force we perceive from the partner can be strong enough to sense directional cues, or could be too weak to understand the partner’s movement intention. How do we coordinate physical movements governed by such differing mechanics? Our task is inspired by a pair moving through a dancefloor during Tango dancing; we tested subjects in pairs who jointly chased a moving target with their right hands, which were banded together by either a strong, medium or weak elastic band. By measuring the change in each partner’s performance at the task, and the muscular effort they exerted, we characterized the changes in each partner’s behavior as a function of the strength of the elastic band that coupled them together. By employing a computational simulation of the task, we tested different coordination mechanisms to see what explained the data best. We found that, regardless of the coupling strength, each subject infers the movement intention of their partner, but this process deteriorates with softer coupling. To move a hard table together, humans may coordinate by following the dominant partner’s motion [1–4], but this strategy is unsuitable for a soft mattress where the perceived forces are small. How do partners readily coordinate in such differing interaction dynamics? To address this, we investigated how pairs tracked a target using flexion-extension of their wrists, which were coupled by a hard, medium or soft virtual elastic band. Tracking performance monotonically increased with a stiffer band for the worse partner, who had higher tracking error, at the cost of the skilled partner’s muscular effort. This suggests that the worse partner followed the skilled one’s lead, but simulations show that the results are better explained by a model where partners share movement goals through the forces, whilst the coupling dynamics determine the capacity of communicable information. This model elucidates the versatile mechanism by which humans can coordinate during both hard and soft physical interactions to ensure maximum performance with minimal effort.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robin L. Chazdon; Eben N. Broadbent; Danaë M. A. Rozendaal; Frans Bongers; Angelica M. Almeyda Zambrano; T. Mitchell Aide; Patricia Balvanera; Justin M. Becknell; Vanessa K. Boukili; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; +50 more
    Publisher: Science Advances
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639114), NSF | CNH-RCN: Tropical Refores... (1313788), NSF | COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: M... (1050957), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147429), EC | ROBIN (283093), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (1147434), NSF | Collaborative Research/LT... (0639393), NSF | CAREER: Ecosystem process... (1053237), NSF | Controls on the Storage a... (0129104), NSF | CAREER: Land Use and Envi... (1349952)

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Models reveal the high carbon mitigation potential of tropical forest regeneration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudius Marondedze; Xinyun Liu; Shihui Huang; Cindy Wong; Xuan Zhou; Xutong Pan; Huiting An; Nuo Xu; Xuechen Tian; Aloysius Wong;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PFIMDULA (752418)

    As indoor horticulture gathers momentum, electric (also termed artificial) lighting systems with the ability to generate specific and tunable wavelengths have been developed and applied. While the effects of light quality on plant growth and development have been studied, authoritative and reliable sets of light formulae tailored for the cultivation of economically important plants and plant traits are lacking as light qualities employed across laboratories are inconsistent. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of molecular data for plants examined under electric lights in indoor environments. It has hampered progress in the field of indoor horticulture, in particular, the transition from small-scale indoor farming to commercial plant factories. Here, we review the effects of light quality on model and crop plants studied from a physiological, physical and biochemical perspective, and explain how functional genomics can be employed in tandem to generate a wealth of molecular data specific for plants cultivated under indoor lighting. We also review the current state of lighting technologies in indoor horticulture specifically discussing how recent narrow-bandwidth lighting technologies can be tailored to cultivate economically valuable plant species and traits. Knowledge gained from a complementary phenotypic and functional genomics approach can be harvested not only for economical gains but also for sustainable food production. We believe that this review serves as a platform that guides future light-related plant research. Indoor horticulture: Lighting the way to sustainability Tailored multidisciplinary approaches to hone sustainable indoor horticulture could significantly improve plant yields and crop quality. Advances in artificial lighting systems could transform commercial-scale indoor horticulture, but the current technology is limited by a lack of molecular data for plants grown under such lighting schemes. Aloysius Wong at Wenzhou-Kean University in Wenzhou, China, and co-workers reviewed research into the effects of light quality and differing wavelengths on plant growth. The team advocate the use of plant type-specific and functional genomics studies to examine light-determined molecular traits and associated gene expression. These could be used to build an extensive catalog of light qualities that enhance indoor crop yields and quality. Combining LED lights of different colors and wavelengths shows promise, and the researchers highlight the potential of tunable narrow wavelength lights, such as lasers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sabine Barthlott; Matthias Schneider; Frank Hase; A. Wiegele; Emanuel Christner; Yenny González; Thomas Blumenstock; S. Dohe; Omaira García; Eliezer Sepúlveda; +17 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Project: EC | MUSICA (256961)

    Abstract. Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these NDACC data records. Our XCO2 retrieval setup is kept simple so that it can easily be adopted for any NDACC/FTIR-like measurement made since the late 1950s. By a comparison to coincident TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements, we empirically demonstrate the useful quality of this suggested NDACC XCO2 product (empirically obtained scatter between TCCON and NDACC is about 4‰ for daily mean as well as monthly mean comparisons, and the bias is 25‰). Our XCO2 model is a simple regression model fitted to CarbonTracker results and the Mauna Loa CO2 in situ records. A comparison to TCCON data suggests an uncertainty of the model for monthly mean data of below 3‰. We apply the method to the NDACC/FTIR spectra that are used within the project MUSICA (multi-platform remote sensing of isotopologues for investigating the cycle of atmospheric water) and demonstrate that there is a good consistency for these globally representative set of spectra measured since 1996: the scatter between the modelled and measured XCO2 on a yearly time scale is only 3‰.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.; Falvella, M.C.; Bartlett, J.G.; Smoot, G.F.; Stompor, R.; Bonavera, L.; +174 more
    Countries: Finland, Spain, Italy, France, Spain, Italy, Italy, Denmark, France, Finland ...
    Project: EC | DEISA2 (222919), AKA | Cosmology and the Planck ... (121703), AKA | Planck-satelliitin datan ... (121962)

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation induced by the motion of the spacecraft. Noise properties are estimated from TOD from which the sky signal has been removed using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. Measured 1/f noise knee-frequencies range from ~100 mHz at 30 GHz to a few tens of mHz at 70GHz. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈−10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. This work was supported by the Academy of Finland grants 121703 and 121962. 19 páginas, 18 figuras, 3 tablas.-- et al. Peer reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simon L. Lewis; Bonaventure Sonké; Terry Sunderland; Serge K. Begne; Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez; Geertje M. F. van der Heijden; Oliver L. Phillips; Kofi Affum-Baffoe; Timothy R. Baker; Lindsay F. Banin; +53 more
    Publisher: Royal Society, The
    Countries: Belgium, France, Netherlands, Netherlands, Belgium, Belgium, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | GEOCARBON (283080)

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stemdensity and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha-1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha-1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- comparedwithneotropical forests.However, mean stem density is low(426±11 stems ha-1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationshipswith C:Nratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus- AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. © 2013 The Authors. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j 0

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bo Jiang; Yi Zhang; Shunlin Liang; Georg Wohlfahrt; Altaf Arain; Alessandro Cescatti; Teodoro Georgiadis; Kun Jia; Gerard Kiely; Magnus Lund; +7 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | ICOS (211574), NSERC , EC | GHG EUROPE (244122)

    Abstract All-wave net surface radiation is greatly needed in various scientific research and applications. Satellite data have been used to estimate incident shortwave radiation, but hardly to estimate all-wave net radiation due to the inference of clouds on longwave radiation. A practical solution is to estimate all-wave net radiation empirically from shortwave radiation and other ancillary information. Since existing models were developed using a limited number of ground observations, a comprehensive evaluation of these models using a global network of representative measurements is urgently required. In this study, we developed a new day-time net radiation estimation model and evaluated it against seven commonly used existing models using radiation measurements obtained from 326 sites around the world from 1991 to 2010. MERRA re-analysis products from which the meteorological data were derived and remotely sensed products during the same period were also used. Model evaluations were performed in both global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets based on the surface albedo and vegetation index, and the models were fitted separately). Besides, the factors (i.e., albedo, air temperature, and NDVI) that may impact the estimation of all-wave net radiation were also extensively explored. Based on these evaluations, the fitting RMSE of the new developed model was approximately 40.0 Wm −2 in the global mode and varied between 18.2 and 54.0 Wm −2 in the conditional mode. We found that it is better to use net shortwave radiation (including surface albedo) than the incident shortwave radiation nearly in all models. Overall, the new model performed better than other existing linear models.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Moritz Geilinger; David Hahn; Jonas Zehnder; Moritz Bächer; Bernhard Thomaszewski; Stelian Coros;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | 3DPBio (866480)

    We present a differentiable dynamics solver that is able to handle frictional contact for rigid and deformable objects within a unified framework. Through a principled mollification of normal and tangential contact forces, our method circumvents the main difficulties inherent to the non-smooth nature of frictional contact. We combine this new contact model with fully-implicit time integration to obtain a robust and efficient dynamics solver that is analytically differentiable. In conjunction with adjoint sensitivity analysis, our formulation enables gradient-based optimization with adaptive trade-offs between simulation accuracy and smoothness of objective function landscapes. We thoroughly analyse our approach on a set of simulation examples involving rigid bodies, visco-elastic materials, and coupled multi-body systems. We furthermore showcase applications of our differentiable simulator to parameter estimation for deformable objects, motion planning for robotic manipulation, trajectory optimization for compliant walking robots, as well as efficient self-supervised learning of control policies. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 39 (6) ISSN:0730-0301 ISSN:1557-7368