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153 Research products, page 1 of 16

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Atsushi Takagi; Francesco Usai; Gowrishankar Ganesh; Vittorio Sanguineti; Etienne Burdet;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, Germany
    Project: EC | VIACTORS (231554), EC | SYMBITRON (611626), EC | CogIMon (644727), EC | BALANCE (601003)

    Author summary Humans are talented at coordinating movements with one another through a multitude of objects such as a hard table or a soft mattress. Depending on the softness of the object, the force we perceive from the partner can be strong enough to sense directional cues, or could be too weak to understand the partner’s movement intention. How do we coordinate physical movements governed by such differing mechanics? Our task is inspired by a pair moving through a dancefloor during Tango dancing; we tested subjects in pairs who jointly chased a moving target with their right hands, which were banded together by either a strong, medium or weak elastic band. By measuring the change in each partner’s performance at the task, and the muscular effort they exerted, we characterized the changes in each partner’s behavior as a function of the strength of the elastic band that coupled them together. By employing a computational simulation of the task, we tested different coordination mechanisms to see what explained the data best. We found that, regardless of the coupling strength, each subject infers the movement intention of their partner, but this process deteriorates with softer coupling. To move a hard table together, humans may coordinate by following the dominant partner’s motion [1–4], but this strategy is unsuitable for a soft mattress where the perceived forces are small. How do partners readily coordinate in such differing interaction dynamics? To address this, we investigated how pairs tracked a target using flexion-extension of their wrists, which were coupled by a hard, medium or soft virtual elastic band. Tracking performance monotonically increased with a stiffer band for the worse partner, who had higher tracking error, at the cost of the skilled partner’s muscular effort. This suggests that the worse partner followed the skilled one’s lead, but simulations show that the results are better explained by a model where partners share movement goals through the forces, whilst the coupling dynamics determine the capacity of communicable information. This model elucidates the versatile mechanism by which humans can coordinate during both hard and soft physical interactions to ensure maximum performance with minimal effort.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudius Marondedze; Xinyun Liu; Shihui Huang; Cindy Wong; Xuan Zhou; Xutong Pan; Huiting An; Nuo Xu; Xuechen Tian; Aloysius Wong;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PFIMDULA (752418)

    As indoor horticulture gathers momentum, electric (also termed artificial) lighting systems with the ability to generate specific and tunable wavelengths have been developed and applied. While the effects of light quality on plant growth and development have been studied, authoritative and reliable sets of light formulae tailored for the cultivation of economically important plants and plant traits are lacking as light qualities employed across laboratories are inconsistent. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of molecular data for plants examined under electric lights in indoor environments. It has hampered progress in the field of indoor horticulture, in particular, the transition from small-scale indoor farming to commercial plant factories. Here, we review the effects of light quality on model and crop plants studied from a physiological, physical and biochemical perspective, and explain how functional genomics can be employed in tandem to generate a wealth of molecular data specific for plants cultivated under indoor lighting. We also review the current state of lighting technologies in indoor horticulture specifically discussing how recent narrow-bandwidth lighting technologies can be tailored to cultivate economically valuable plant species and traits. Knowledge gained from a complementary phenotypic and functional genomics approach can be harvested not only for economical gains but also for sustainable food production. We believe that this review serves as a platform that guides future light-related plant research. Indoor horticulture: Lighting the way to sustainability Tailored multidisciplinary approaches to hone sustainable indoor horticulture could significantly improve plant yields and crop quality. Advances in artificial lighting systems could transform commercial-scale indoor horticulture, but the current technology is limited by a lack of molecular data for plants grown under such lighting schemes. Aloysius Wong at Wenzhou-Kean University in Wenzhou, China, and co-workers reviewed research into the effects of light quality and differing wavelengths on plant growth. The team advocate the use of plant type-specific and functional genomics studies to examine light-determined molecular traits and associated gene expression. These could be used to build an extensive catalog of light qualities that enhance indoor crop yields and quality. Combining LED lights of different colors and wavelengths shows promise, and the researchers highlight the potential of tunable narrow wavelength lights, such as lasers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adrian C. J. Weber; Sara Leckie; James P. Kimmins; Benjamin Gilbert; Juan A. Blanco; Yueh-Hsin Lo;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Project: EC | DENDRONUTRIENT (656810)

    Abstract We examined two measures of shade tolerance (survival and growth) of planted 1-year-old seedlings of western redcedar (Thuja plicata (Donn ex D. Don)), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla ([Raf.] Sarg.)) and amabilis fir (Abies amabilis ([Dougl. ex Loud] Dougl. ex Forbes)). Seedlings were planted at two different sites (forest interior: 4.5% mean above canopy photosynthetically active radiation [ACPAR], and forest edge: 41.5% mean ACPAR), in a 90-year-old, windthrow origin, unmanaged mesic western hemlock-amabilis fir stand. Seedlings were planted in 1997, and re-measured in 1998 and 2001 (after five growing seasons). To assess the effects of deer browsing on redcedar survival and growth, additional seedlings of this species were planted and protected with Vexar© tubes. To examine for nutrient-light interactions, half of these seedlings were fertilized with N-P-K and micronutrients at planting. Western redcedar had high levels of survival after 4 years (98% in edge plots and 93% in interior plots). Redcedar seedlings in edge plots were more vigorous but were browsed more heavily than in the interior plots. At edge sites, the negative effects of the Vexar© tubes may have been lower than their positive effects. Hemlock survival was about 50% in the stand interior but 80% in the edge plots. Amabilis fir in the interior plots had the lowest survival of the three species, with only 40% of initial seedlings surviving over the next four years, but had high survival in edge plots (95%). Height, biomass, and root collar diameter growth were significantly higher in edge plots for fir and hemlock. However, for redcedar, only biomass was significantly higher and no differences were detected for height and diameter. Our results show that shade tolerance cannot be assessed by simple measures of leaf/light relationships alone, but also requires consideration of light, nutrition, growth and browsing.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz Geilinger; David Hahn; Jonas Zehnder; Moritz Bächer; Bernhard Thomaszewski; Stelian Coros;
    Publisher: ETH Zurich
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | 3DPBio (866480)

    We present a differentiable dynamics solver that is able to handle frictional contact for rigid and deformable objects within a unified framework. Through a principled mollification of normal and tangential contact forces, our method circumvents the main difficulties inherent to the non-smooth nature of frictional contact. We combine this new contact model with fully-implicit time integration to obtain a robust and efficient dynamics solver that is analytically differentiable. In conjunction with adjoint sensitivity analysis, our formulation enables gradient-based optimization with adaptive trade-offs between simulation accuracy and smoothness of objective function landscapes. We thoroughly analyse our approach on a set of simulation examples involving rigid bodies, visco-elastic materials, and coupled multi-body systems. We furthermore showcase applications of our differentiable simulator to parameter estimation for deformable objects, motion planning for robotic manipulation, trajectory optimization for compliant walking robots, as well as efficient self-supervised learning of control policies. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 39 (6) ISSN:0730-0301 ISSN:1557-7368

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    F. Mattia; Anna Balenzano; G. Satalino; Francesco P. Lovergine; Jian Peng; U. Wegmuller; Oliver Cartus; Malcolm Davidson; Seung-Bum Kim; Joel T. Johnson; +7 more
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | SENSAGRI (730074)

    Soil moisture content is an essential climate variable that is operationally delivered at low resolution (e.g. 36-9 km) by earth observation missions, such as ESA/SMOS, NASA/SMAP and EUMETSAT/ASCAT. However numerous land applications would benefit from the availability of soil moisture maps at higher resolution. For this reason, there is a large research effort to develop soil moisture products at higher resolution using, for instance, data acquired by the new ESA's Sentinel missions. The objective of this study is twofold. First, it presents the validation status of a pre-operational soil moisture product derived from Sentinel-1 at 1 km resolution. Second, it assesses the possibility of integrating Sentinel-2 data and additional ancillary information, such as parcel borders and high resolution soil texture maps, in order to obtain soil moisture maps at "field scale" resolution, i.e. similar to 0.1 km Case studies concerning agricultural sites located in Europe are presented.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Seung Yeob Shin; Shiva Nejati; Mehrdad Sabetzadeh; Lionel C. Briand; Chetan Arora; Frank Zimmer;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Luxembourg
    Project: EC | TUNE (694277)

    The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the development of many complex and critical systems such as smart emergency management systems. IoT-enabled applications typically depend on a communication network for transmitting large volumes of data in unpredictable and changing environments. These networks are prone to congestion when there is a burst in demand, e.g., as an emergency situation is unfolding, and therefore rely on configurable software-defined networks (SDN). In this paper, we propose a dynamic adaptive SDN configuration approach for IoT systems. The approach enables resolving congestion in real time while minimizing network utilization, data transmission delays and adaptation costs. Our approach builds on existing work in dynamic adaptive search-based software engineering (SBSE) to reconfigure an SDN while simultaneously ensuring multiple quality of service criteria. We evaluate our approach on an industrial national emergency management system, which is aimed at detecting disasters and emergencies, and facilitating recovery and rescue operations by providing first responders with a reliable communication infrastructure. Our results indicate that (1) our approach is able to efficiently and effectively adapt an SDN to dynamically resolve congestion, and (2) compared to two baseline data forwarding algorithms that are static and non-adaptive, our approach increases data transmission rate by a factor of at least 3 and decreases data loss by at least 70%. Comment: This paper has been accepted at IEEE/ACM 15th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS 2020)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonardo J. Magnoni; Emilio Salas-Leiton; Maria João Peixoto; Luís F. Pereira; Francisca Silva-Brito; Filipa Fontinha; José Gonçalves; Jonathan M. Wilson; Johan W. Schrama; Rodrigo O. A. Ozório;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Portugal, Argentina, Netherlands
    Project: EC | BLUEandGREEN (692419)

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700 mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69 days. Fish fed the DEB 200 diet had 60–66% better growth performance than the DEB 700 group. Meagre consuming the DEB 200 diet were 90–96% more efficient than fish fed the DEB 700 diet at allocating energy from feed into somatic growth. The pH values in blood were significantly lower in the DEB 700 group 2 h after feeding when compared to DEB 200, indicating that acid-base balance in meagre was affected by electrolyte balance in diet. Osmolality, and Na+ and K+ concentrations in plasma did not vary with the dietary treatment. Gastric chyme in the DEB 700 group had higher pH values, dry matter, protein and energy contents, but lower lipid content than in the DEB 200 group. Twenty-four hours after feeding, amylase activity was higher in the gastrointestinal tract of DEB 700 group when compared to the DEB 200 group. DEB 700 group had lower routine metabolic (RMR) and standard metabolic (SMR) rates, indicating a decrease in maintenance energy expenditure 48 h after feeding the alkaline diet. The current study demonstrates that feeding meagre with an alkaline diet not only causes acid-base imbalance, but also negatively affects digestion and possibly nutrient assimilation, resulting in decreased growth performance. Fil: Magnoni, Leonardo Julián. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas "Dr. Raúl Alfonsín" (sede Chascomús). Universidad Nacional de San Martín. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas "Dr. Raúl Alfonsín" (sede Chascomús); Argentina. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Salas Leiton, Emilio. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. IFAPA; España Fil: Peixoto, Maria João. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal Fil: Pereira, Luis. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Silva Brito, Francisca. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Fontinha, Filipa. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Gonçalves, José F.M.. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal Fil: Wilson, Jonathan M.. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal. Wilfrid Laurier University; Canadá Fil: Schrama, Johan W.. University of Agriculture Wageningen; Países Bajos Fil: Ozório, Rodrigo O.A.. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Griet Neukermans; Georges R. Fournier;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Countries: France, Belgium
    Project: EC | WhiteShift (749949)

    International audience; In this study we develop an analytical model for spectral backscattering and ocean color remote sensing of blooms of the calcifying phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Blooms of this coccolithophore species are ubiquitous and particularly intense in temperate and subpolar ocean waters. We first present significant improvements to our previous analytical light backscattering model for E. huxleyi coccoliths and coccospheres by accounting for the elliptical shape of coccoliths and the multi-layered coccosphere architecture observed on detailed imagery of E. huxleyi liths and coccospheres. Our new model also includes a size distribution function that closely matches measured E. huxleyi size distributions. The model for spectral backscattering is then implemented in an analytical radiative transfer model to evaluate the variability of spectral remote sensing reflectance with respect to changes in the size distribution of the coccoliths and during a hypothetical E. huxleyi bloom decay event in which coccospheres shed their liths. Our modeled remote sensing reflectance spectra reproduced well the bright milky turquoise coloring of the open ocean typically associated with the final stages of E. huxleyi blooms, with peak reflectance at a wavelength of 0.49 mu m. Our results also show that the magnitude of backscattering from coccoliths when attached to or freed from the coccosphere does not differ much, contrary to what is commonly assumed, and that the spectral shape of backscattering is mainly controlled by the size and morphology of the coccoliths, suggesting that they may be estimated from spectral backscattering.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    W. Dorigo; I. Himmelbauer; D. Aberer; L. Schremmer; I. Petrakovic; L. Zappa; W. Preimesberger; A. Xaver; F. Annor; F. Annor; +62 more
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Countries: Denmark, Germany, France, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium
    Project: EC | EARTH2OBSERVE (603608), EC | GROW (690199)

    In 2009, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) was initiated as a community effort, funded by the European Space Agency, to serve as a centralised data hosting facility for globally available in situ soil moisture measurements (Dorigo et al., 2011b, a). The ISMN brings together in situ soil moisture measurements collected and freely shared by a multitude of organisations, harmonises them in terms of units and sampling rates, applies advanced quality control, and stores them in a database. Users can freely retrieve the data from this database through an online web portal (https://ismn.earth/en/, last access: 28 October 2021). Meanwhile, the ISMN has evolved into the primary in situ soil moisture reference database worldwide, as evidenced by more than 3000 active users and over 1000 scientific publications referencing the data sets provided by the network. As of July 2021, the ISMN now contains the data of 71 networks and 2842 stations located all over the globe, with a time period spanning from 1952 to the present. The number of networks and stations covered by the ISMN is still growing, and approximately 70 % of the data sets contained in the database continue to be updated on a regular or irregular basis. The main scope of this paper is to inform readers about the evolution of the ISMN over the past decade, including a description of network and data set updates and quality control procedures. A comprehensive review of the existing literature making use of ISMN data is also provided in order to identify current limitations in functionality and data usage and to shape priorities for the next decade of operations of this unique community-based data repository.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lindsay Beazley; Zeliang Wang; Ellen Kenchington; Igor Yashayaev; Hans Tore Rapp; Joana R. Xavier; F.J. Murillo; Derek Fenton; Susanna Fuller;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SponGES (679849)

    Emerald Basin on the Scotian Shelf off Nova Scotia, Canada, is home to a globally unique aggregation of the glass sponge Vazella pourtalesi, first documented in the region in 1889. In 2009, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) implemented two Sponge Conservation Areas to protect these sponge grounds from bottom fishing activities. Together, the two conservation areas encompass 259 km2. In order to ascertain the degree to which the sponge grounds remain unprotected, we modelled the presence probability and predicted range distribution of V. pourtalesi on the Scotian Shelf using random forest modelling on presence-absence records. With a high degree of accuracy the random forest model predicted the highest probability of occurrence of V. pourtalesi in the inner basins on the central Scotian Shelf, with lower probabilities at the shelf break and in the Fundian and Northeast Channels. Bottom temperature was the most important determinant of its distribution in the model. Although the two DFO Sponge Conservation Areas protect some of the more significant concentrations of V. pourtalesi, much of its predicted distribution remains unprotected (over 99%). Examination of the hydrographic conditions in Emerald Basin revealed that the V. pourtalesi sponge grounds are associated with a warmer and more saline water mass compared to the surrounding shelf. Reconstruction of historical bottom temperature and salinity in Emerald Basin revealed strong multi-decadal variability, with average bottom temperatures varying by 8 ̊C. We show that this species has persisted in the face of this climatic variability, possibly indicating how it will respond to future climate change.

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153 Research products, page 1 of 16
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Atsushi Takagi; Francesco Usai; Gowrishankar Ganesh; Vittorio Sanguineti; Etienne Burdet;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, Germany
    Project: EC | VIACTORS (231554), EC | SYMBITRON (611626), EC | CogIMon (644727), EC | BALANCE (601003)

    Author summary Humans are talented at coordinating movements with one another through a multitude of objects such as a hard table or a soft mattress. Depending on the softness of the object, the force we perceive from the partner can be strong enough to sense directional cues, or could be too weak to understand the partner’s movement intention. How do we coordinate physical movements governed by such differing mechanics? Our task is inspired by a pair moving through a dancefloor during Tango dancing; we tested subjects in pairs who jointly chased a moving target with their right hands, which were banded together by either a strong, medium or weak elastic band. By measuring the change in each partner’s performance at the task, and the muscular effort they exerted, we characterized the changes in each partner’s behavior as a function of the strength of the elastic band that coupled them together. By employing a computational simulation of the task, we tested different coordination mechanisms to see what explained the data best. We found that, regardless of the coupling strength, each subject infers the movement intention of their partner, but this process deteriorates with softer coupling. To move a hard table together, humans may coordinate by following the dominant partner’s motion [1–4], but this strategy is unsuitable for a soft mattress where the perceived forces are small. How do partners readily coordinate in such differing interaction dynamics? To address this, we investigated how pairs tracked a target using flexion-extension of their wrists, which were coupled by a hard, medium or soft virtual elastic band. Tracking performance monotonically increased with a stiffer band for the worse partner, who had higher tracking error, at the cost of the skilled partner’s muscular effort. This suggests that the worse partner followed the skilled one’s lead, but simulations show that the results are better explained by a model where partners share movement goals through the forces, whilst the coupling dynamics determine the capacity of communicable information. This model elucidates the versatile mechanism by which humans can coordinate during both hard and soft physical interactions to ensure maximum performance with minimal effort.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claudius Marondedze; Xinyun Liu; Shihui Huang; Cindy Wong; Xuan Zhou; Xutong Pan; Huiting An; Nuo Xu; Xuechen Tian; Aloysius Wong;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PFIMDULA (752418)

    As indoor horticulture gathers momentum, electric (also termed artificial) lighting systems with the ability to generate specific and tunable wavelengths have been developed and applied. While the effects of light quality on plant growth and development have been studied, authoritative and reliable sets of light formulae tailored for the cultivation of economically important plants and plant traits are lacking as light qualities employed across laboratories are inconsistent. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of molecular data for plants examined under electric lights in indoor environments. It has hampered progress in the field of indoor horticulture, in particular, the transition from small-scale indoor farming to commercial plant factories. Here, we review the effects of light quality on model and crop plants studied from a physiological, physical and biochemical perspective, and explain how functional genomics can be employed in tandem to generate a wealth of molecular data specific for plants cultivated under indoor lighting. We also review the current state of lighting technologies in indoor horticulture specifically discussing how recent narrow-bandwidth lighting technologies can be tailored to cultivate economically valuable plant species and traits. Knowledge gained from a complementary phenotypic and functional genomics approach can be harvested not only for economical gains but also for sustainable food production. We believe that this review serves as a platform that guides future light-related plant research. Indoor horticulture: Lighting the way to sustainability Tailored multidisciplinary approaches to hone sustainable indoor horticulture could significantly improve plant yields and crop quality. Advances in artificial lighting systems could transform commercial-scale indoor horticulture, but the current technology is limited by a lack of molecular data for plants grown under such lighting schemes. Aloysius Wong at Wenzhou-Kean University in Wenzhou, China, and co-workers reviewed research into the effects of light quality and differing wavelengths on plant growth. The team advocate the use of plant type-specific and functional genomics studies to examine light-determined molecular traits and associated gene expression. These could be used to build an extensive catalog of light qualities that enhance indoor crop yields and quality. Combining LED lights of different colors and wavelengths shows promise, and the researchers highlight the potential of tunable narrow wavelength lights, such as lasers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adrian C. J. Weber; Sara Leckie; James P. Kimmins; Benjamin Gilbert; Juan A. Blanco; Yueh-Hsin Lo;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Project: EC | DENDRONUTRIENT (656810)

    Abstract We examined two measures of shade tolerance (survival and growth) of planted 1-year-old seedlings of western redcedar (Thuja plicata (Donn ex D. Don)), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla ([Raf.] Sarg.)) and amabilis fir (Abies amabilis ([Dougl. ex Loud] Dougl. ex Forbes)). Seedlings were planted at two different sites (forest interior: 4.5% mean above canopy photosynthetically active radiation [ACPAR], and forest edge: 41.5% mean ACPAR), in a 90-year-old, windthrow origin, unmanaged mesic western hemlock-amabilis fir stand. Seedlings were planted in 1997, and re-measured in 1998 and 2001 (after five growing seasons). To assess the effects of deer browsing on redcedar survival and growth, additional seedlings of this species were planted and protected with Vexar© tubes. To examine for nutrient-light interactions, half of these seedlings were fertilized with N-P-K and micronutrients at planting. Western redcedar had high levels of survival after 4 years (98% in edge plots and 93% in interior plots). Redcedar seedlings in edge plots were more vigorous but were browsed more heavily than in the interior plots. At edge sites, the negative effects of the Vexar© tubes may have been lower than their positive effects. Hemlock survival was about 50% in the stand interior but 80% in the edge plots. Amabilis fir in the interior plots had the lowest survival of the three species, with only 40% of initial seedlings surviving over the next four years, but had high survival in edge plots (95%). Height, biomass, and root collar diameter growth were significantly higher in edge plots for fir and hemlock. However, for redcedar, only biomass was significantly higher and no differences were detected for height and diameter. Our results show that shade tolerance cannot be assessed by simple measures of leaf/light relationships alone, but also requires consideration of light, nutrition, growth and browsing.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz Geilinger; David Hahn; Jonas Zehnder; Moritz Bächer; Bernhard Thomaszewski; Stelian Coros;
    Publisher: ETH Zurich
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | 3DPBio (866480)

    We present a differentiable dynamics solver that is able to handle frictional contact for rigid and deformable objects within a unified framework. Through a principled mollification of normal and tangential contact forces, our method circumvents the main difficulties inherent to the non-smooth nature of frictional contact. We combine this new contact model with fully-implicit time integration to obtain a robust and efficient dynamics solver that is analytically differentiable. In conjunction with adjoint sensitivity analysis, our formulation enables gradient-based optimization with adaptive trade-offs between simulation accuracy and smoothness of objective function landscapes. We thoroughly analyse our approach on a set of simulation examples involving rigid bodies, visco-elastic materials, and coupled multi-body systems. We furthermore showcase applications of our differentiable simulator to parameter estimation for deformable objects, motion planning for robotic manipulation, trajectory optimization for compliant walking robots, as well as efficient self-supervised learning of control policies. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 39 (6) ISSN:0730-0301 ISSN:1557-7368

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    F. Mattia; Anna Balenzano; G. Satalino; Francesco P. Lovergine; Jian Peng; U. Wegmuller; Oliver Cartus; Malcolm Davidson; Seung-Bum Kim; Joel T. Johnson; +7 more
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | SENSAGRI (730074)

    Soil moisture content is an essential climate variable that is operationally delivered at low resolution (e.g. 36-9 km) by earth observation missions, such as ESA/SMOS, NASA/SMAP and EUMETSAT/ASCAT. However numerous land applications would benefit from the availability of soil moisture maps at higher resolution. For this reason, there is a large research effort to develop soil moisture products at higher resolution using, for instance, data acquired by the new ESA's Sentinel missions. The objective of this study is twofold. First, it presents the validation status of a pre-operational soil moisture product derived from Sentinel-1 at 1 km resolution. Second, it assesses the possibility of integrating Sentinel-2 data and additional ancillary information, such as parcel borders and high resolution soil texture maps, in order to obtain soil moisture maps at "field scale" resolution, i.e. similar to 0.1 km Case studies concerning agricultural sites located in Europe are presented.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Seung Yeob Shin; Shiva Nejati; Mehrdad Sabetzadeh; Lionel C. Briand; Chetan Arora; Frank Zimmer;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Luxembourg
    Project: EC | TUNE (694277)

    The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the development of many complex and critical systems such as smart emergency management systems. IoT-enabled applications typically depend on a communication network for transmitting large volumes of data in unpredictable and changing environments. These networks are prone to congestion when there is a burst in demand, e.g., as an emergency situation is unfolding, and therefore rely on configurable software-defined networks (SDN). In this paper, we propose a dynamic adaptive SDN configuration approach for IoT systems. The approach enables resolving congestion in real time while minimizing network utilization, data transmission delays and adaptation costs. Our approach builds on existing work in dynamic adaptive search-based software engineering (SBSE) to reconfigure an SDN while simultaneously ensuring multiple quality of service criteria. We evaluate our approach on an industrial national emergency management system, which is aimed at detecting disasters and emergencies, and facilitating recovery and rescue operations by providing first responders with a reliable communication infrastructure. Our results indicate that (1) our approach is able to efficiently and effectively adapt an SDN to dynamically resolve congestion, and (2) compared to two baseline data forwarding algorithms that are static and non-adaptive, our approach increases data transmission rate by a factor of at least 3 and decreases data loss by at least 70%. Comment: This paper has been accepted at IEEE/ACM 15th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS 2020)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonardo J. Magnoni; Emilio Salas-Leiton; Maria João Peixoto; Luís F. Pereira; Francisca Silva-Brito; Filipa Fontinha; José Gonçalves; Jonathan M. Wilson; Johan W. Schrama; Rodrigo O. A. Ozório;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Portugal, Argentina, Netherlands
    Project: EC | BLUEandGREEN (692419)

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700 mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69 days. Fish fed the DEB 200 diet had 60–66% better growth performance than the DEB 700 group. Meagre consuming the DEB 200 diet were 90–96% more efficient than fish fed the DEB 700 diet at allocating energy from feed into somatic growth. The pH values in blood were significantly lower in the DEB 700 group 2 h after feeding when compared to DEB 200, indicating that acid-base balance in meagre was affected by electrolyte balance in diet. Osmolality, and Na+ and K+ concentrations in plasma did not vary with the dietary treatment. Gastric chyme in the DEB 700 group had higher pH values, dry matter, protein and energy contents, but lower lipid content than in the DEB 200 group. Twenty-four hours after feeding, amylase activity was higher in the gastrointestinal tract of DEB 700 group when compared to the DEB 200 group. DEB 700 group had lower routine metabolic (RMR) and standard metabolic (SMR) rates, indicating a decrease in maintenance energy expenditure 48 h after feeding the alkaline diet. The current study demonstrates that feeding meagre with an alkaline diet not only causes acid-base imbalance, but also negatively affects digestion and possibly nutrient assimilation, resulting in decreased growth performance. Fil: Magnoni, Leonardo Julián. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas "Dr. Raúl Alfonsín" (sede Chascomús). Universidad Nacional de San Martín. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas "Dr. Raúl Alfonsín" (sede Chascomús); Argentina. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Salas Leiton, Emilio. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. IFAPA; España Fil: Peixoto, Maria João. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal Fil: Pereira, Luis. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Silva Brito, Francisca. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Fontinha, Filipa. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil Fil: Gonçalves, José F.M.. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal Fil: Wilson, Jonathan M.. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal. Wilfrid Laurier University; Canadá Fil: Schrama, Johan W.. University of Agriculture Wageningen; Países Bajos Fil: Ozório, Rodrigo O.A.. Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões; Brasil. Universidad de Porto; Portugal

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Griet Neukermans; Georges R. Fournier;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Countries: France, Belgium
    Project: EC | WhiteShift (749949)

    International audience; In this study we develop an analytical model for spectral backscattering and ocean color remote sensing of blooms of the calcifying phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Blooms of this coccolithophore species are ubiquitous and particularly intense in temperate and subpolar ocean waters. We first present significant improvements to our previous analytical light backscattering model for E. huxleyi coccoliths and coccospheres by accounting for the elliptical shape of coccoliths and the multi-layered coccosphere architecture observed on detailed imagery of E. huxleyi liths and coccospheres. Our new model also includes a size distribution function that closely matches measured E. huxleyi size distributions. The model for spectral backscattering is then implemented in an analytical radiative transfer model to evaluate the variability of spectral remote sensing reflectance with respect to changes in the size distribution of the coccoliths and during a hypothetical E. huxleyi bloom decay event in which coccospheres shed their liths. Our modeled remote sensing reflectance spectra reproduced well the bright milky turquoise coloring of the open ocean typically associated with the final stages of E. huxleyi blooms, with peak reflectance at a wavelength of 0.49 mu m. Our results also show that the magnitude of backscattering from coccoliths when attached to or freed from the coccosphere does not differ much, contrary to what is commonly assumed, and that the spectral shape of backscattering is mainly controlled by the size and morphology of the coccoliths, suggesting that they may be estimated from spectral backscattering.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    W. Dorigo; I. Himmelbauer; D. Aberer; L. Schremmer; I. Petrakovic; L. Zappa; W. Preimesberger; A. Xaver; F. Annor; F. Annor; +62 more
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Countries: Denmark, Germany, France, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium
    Project: EC | EARTH2OBSERVE (603608), EC | GROW (690199)

    In 2009, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) was initiated as a community effort, funded by the European Space Agency, to serve as a centralised data hosting facility for globally available in situ soil moisture measurements (Dorigo et al., 2011b, a). The ISMN brings together in situ soil moisture measurements collected and freely shared by a multitude of organisations, harmonises them in terms of units and sampling rates, applies advanced quality control, and stores them in a database. Users can freely retrieve the data from this database through an online web portal (https://ismn.earth/en/, last access: 28 October 2021). Meanwhile, the ISMN has evolved into the primary in situ soil moisture reference database worldwide, as evidenced by more than 3000 active users and over 1000 scientific publications referencing the data sets provided by the network. As of July 2021, the ISMN now contains the data of 71 networks and 2842 stations located all over the globe, with a time period spanning from 1952 to the present. The number of networks and stations covered by the ISMN is still growing, and approximately 70 % of the data sets contained in the database continue to be updated on a regular or irregular basis. The main scope of this paper is to inform readers about the evolution of the ISMN over the past decade, including a description of network and data set updates and quality control procedures. A comprehensive review of the existing literature making use of ISMN data is also provided in order to identify current limitations in functionality and data usage and to shape priorities for the next decade of operations of this unique community-based data repository.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lindsay Beazley; Zeliang Wang; Ellen Kenchington; Igor Yashayaev; Hans Tore Rapp; Joana R. Xavier; F.J. Murillo; Derek Fenton; Susanna Fuller;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SponGES (679849)

    Emerald Basin on the Scotian Shelf off Nova Scotia, Canada, is home to a globally unique aggregation of the glass sponge Vazella pourtalesi, first documented in the region in 1889. In 2009, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) implemented two Sponge Conservation Areas to protect these sponge grounds from bottom fishing activities. Together, the two conservation areas encompass 259 km2. In order to ascertain the degree to which the sponge grounds remain unprotected, we modelled the presence probability and predicted range distribution of V. pourtalesi on the Scotian Shelf using random forest modelling on presence-absence records. With a high degree of accuracy the random forest model predicted the highest probability of occurrence of V. pourtalesi in the inner basins on the central Scotian Shelf, with lower probabilities at the shelf break and in the Fundian and Northeast Channels. Bottom temperature was the most important determinant of its distribution in the model. Although the two DFO Sponge Conservation Areas protect some of the more significant concentrations of V. pourtalesi, much of its predicted distribution remains unprotected (over 99%). Examination of the hydrographic conditions in Emerald Basin revealed that the V. pourtalesi sponge grounds are associated with a warmer and more saline water mass compared to the surrounding shelf. Reconstruction of historical bottom temperature and salinity in Emerald Basin revealed strong multi-decadal variability, with average bottom temperatures varying by 8 ̊C. We show that this species has persisted in the face of this climatic variability, possibly indicating how it will respond to future climate change.