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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wally, Owen Stephen Donald;

    Genetic engineering is a promising strategy for creating agriculturally significant resistance in carrot. Several different transgenic strategies, in addition to conducting a detailed quantification of commonly used promoters to achieve disease resistance were investigated. Tissue-specific patterns and levels of protein expression were characterized in transgenic carrot plants transformed with the ?-glucuronidase gene driven by five promoters: Cauliflower moasaic virus 35S, double 35S (D35S), Arabidopsis ubiquitin (UBQ3), mannopine synthase (mas2) or rooting loci promoter (rolD). UBQ3 promoter provided the highest levels of expression in roots, while D35S and 35S promoters had high expression in leaves. rolD and Mas2 promoters had enhanced root expression; however levels were much lower compared to the constitutive promoters, which were subsequently used in this research. Genes encoding a rice peroxidase (POC1), wheat chitinase (383) and ?1,3- glucanase (638) were introduced into carrot. Lines expressing 638 alone had no enhanced resistance to B. cinerea or S. scleorotiorum, while 383 lines reduced disease symptoms by up to 40%. When 638 and 383 were co-expressed resistance levels were similar to 383 alone. High levels of disease resistance were seen in lines expressing POC1 with 70-90% reduction in symptoms to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum. POC1 lines had 20-30% increases in lignin levels in petioles and roots, which was enhanced with pathogen challenge. Several defence genes exhibited strong induction in POC1 expressing plants when induced with fungal cell wall elicitor. Additionally, POC1 lines had reduced H2O2 accumulation during oxidative burst response. POC1 derived resistance was effective towards necrotrophic pathogens. Over-expression of Arabidopsis Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related protein 1 was studied in carrot, with two independent lines successfully generated and analyzed. There was no detectable activation of the systemic acquire resistance (SAR) pathways in the absence of pathogens, however, the lines exhibited more intense and longer lasting activation of SAR when elicited with fungal cell walls or Salicylic acid. Both lines were highly resistant against biotrophic and necrotrophic foliar pathogens and the roots were resistant towards A. radicina, indicating broad-spectrum disease resistance. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of engineering disease resistance in carrot using several different approaches.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016
    License: IOP Copyright Policies
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
      Article . 2016
      License: IOP Copyright Policies
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Limic, Vlada; Sturm, Anja;

    This paper extends the notion of the $\la$-coalescent of Pitman (1999) to the spatial setting. The partition elements of the spatial $\Lambda$-coalescent migrate in a (finite) geographical space and may only coalesce if located at the same site of the space. We characterize the $\Lambda$-coalescents that come down from infinity, in an analogous way to Schweinsberg (2000). Surprisingly, all spatial coalescents that come down from infinity, also come down from infinity in a uniform way. This enables us to study space-time asymptotics of spatial $\Lambda$-coalescents on large tori in $d\ge 3$ dimensions. Our results generalize and strengthen those of Greven et al. (2005), who studied the spatial Kingman coalescent in this context. Comment: 29 pages

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Journal o...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Electronic Journal of Probability
    Other literature type . 2006
    Data sources: Project Euclid
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Journal o...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Electronic Journal of Probability
      Other literature type . 2006
      Data sources: Project Euclid
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Vahid Khorasani Ghassab; Kamal Maanicshah; Nizar Bouguila; Paul Green;

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework for replacing advertisement contents in soccer videos with an automatic way by using deep learning strategies. We begin by applying UNET (an image segmentation convolutional neural network technique) for content segmentation and detection. Subsequently, after reconstructing the segmented content in the video frames (considering the apparent loss in detection), we will replace the unwanted content by new one using a homography mapping procedure. Furthermore, the replacement key points in each frame will be tracked into the next frames considering the camera zoom-in and zoom-out controlling. Since the movement of objects in video can disrupt the alignment between frames and correspondingly make the homography matrix calculation erroneous, we use Mask R-CNN to mask and remove the moving objects from the scene. Such framework is denominated as REP-Model which stands for a replacing model.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1109/ism.20...
    Conference object . 2020
    License: IEEE Copyright
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1109/ism.20...
      Conference object . 2020
      License: IEEE Copyright
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Peter M. Huck; Bradley M. Coffey; Monica B. Emelko; Danielle D. Maurizio; +5 Authors
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao American Water Works...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    American Water Works Association
    Article . 2002
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao American Water Works...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      American Water Works Association
      Article . 2002
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tamiko Nishimura; Zoya Padamsi; Hana Fakim; Simon Milette; +3 Authors

    Summary Eukaryotic mRNA degradation often initiates with the recruitment of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex and decay factors to the mRNA 3′ terminus. How the 3′-proximal decay machinery interacts with the 5′-terminal cap structure in order to engender mRNA decapping and 5′–3′ degradation is unclear. Human 4E-T is an eIF4E-binding protein that has been reported to promote mRNA decay, albeit via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that 4E-T is a component of the mRNA decay machinery and interacts with factors including DDX6, LSM14, and the LSM1-7-PAT1 complex. We also provide evidence that 4E-T associates with, and enhances the decay of, mRNAs targeted by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, including microRNA targets. Importantly, we demonstrate that 4E-T must interact with eIF4E to engender mRNA decay. Taken together, our data support a model where 4E-T promotes mRNA turnover by physically linking the 3′-terminal mRNA decay machinery to the 5′ cap via its interaction with eIF4E.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cell Reportsarrow_drop_down
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    Cell Reports
    Article . 2015
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Cell Reports
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Cell Reports
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cell Reportsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Cell Reports
      Article . 2015
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Cell Reports
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Cell Reports
      Article
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    Authors: Villaverde, Tamara; Global Carex Group;

    Carex (Cyperaceae), with an estimated 2000 species, nearly cosmopolitan distribution and broad range of habitats, is one of the largest angiosperm genera and the largest in the temperate zone. In this article, we provide argument and evidence for a broader circumscription of Carex to add all species currently classified in Cymophyllus (monotypic), Kobresia (c. 60 species), Schoenoxiphium (c. 15 species) and Uncinia (c. 70 species) to those currently classified as Carex. Carex and these genera comprise tribe Cariceae (subfamily Cyperoideae, Cyperaceae) and form a wellsupported monophyletic group in all molecular phylogenetic studies to date. Carex as defined here in the broad sense currently comprises at least four clades. Three are strongly supported (Siderostictae, core Vignea and core Carex), whereas the caricoid clade, which includes all the segregate genera, receives only weak to moderate support. The caricoid clade is most commonly split into two clades, one including a monophyletic Schoenoxiphium and two small clades of species of Carex s.s., and the other comprising Kobresia, Uncinia and mostly unispicate species of Carex s.s. Morphological variation is high in all but the Vignea clade, making it extremely difficult to define consistent synapomorphies for most clades. However, Carex s.l. as newly circumscribed here is clearly differentiated from the sister groups in tribe Scirpeae by the transition from bisexual flowers with a bristle perianth in the sister group to unisexual flowers without a perianth in Carex. The naked female flowers of Carex s.l. are at least partially enclosed in a flask-shaped prophyll, termed a perigynium. Carex s.s. is not only by far the largest genus in the group, but also the earliest published name. As a result, only 72 new combinations and 58 replacement names are required to treat all of tribe Cariceae as a single genus Carex. We present the required transfers here, with synonymy, and we argue that this broader monophyletic circumscription of Carex reflects the close evolutionary relationships in the group and serves the goal of nomenclatural stability better than other possible treatments. We are grateful to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for funding of the Biodiversity Synthesis Group of the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) project, which funded our BioSynC Synthesis meeting at the Field Museum in Chicago in September 2011, when the Global Carex Group was formed. We also thank the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for funding our continuing international collaborative work on the phylogeny and classification of Carex under grants DEB 1255901 to ALH and MJW, and DEB 1256033 to EHR. We also acknowledge with thanks funding for nomenclatural research and for attendance at our second meeting during the Monocots V conference in New York in July, 2013, from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Canada (NSERC) to MJW and JRS; University of Mainz to BG; JSPS KAKENHI Grant no. 25840136 to OY; Korea National Arboretum to SK; CGL2012- 38744 project from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness to ML; project 30870178 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China to SRZ, and a University of Wisconsin-Madison Raper Travel Grant to DS. The figures were prepared with invaluable technical advice from H. C. Rimmer. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Alinaghi Salari; Jiang Xu; Michael C. Kolios; Scott S. H. Tsai;

    Different breakup regimes of bubbles and droplets caused by a sudden channel expansion in a microfluidic device are investigated. Without modifying the geometry and by only tuning several dimensionless parameters related to the fluid flow, a microchannel expansion region can produce mono-, bi-, or tri-disperse bubble or droplet populations.

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    Physical Review Fluids
    Article . 2020
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      Physical Review Fluids
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Jack A. Tuszynski; Douglas E. Friesen; Holly Freedman; Valery I. Sbitnev; +6 Authors

    AbstractMemristorsrepresent the fourth electrical circuit element complementing resistors, capacitors and inductors. Hallmarks of memristive behavior include pinched and frequency-dependent I–V hysteresis loops and most importantly a functional dependence of the magnetic flux passing through an ideal memristor on its electrical charge. Microtubules (MTs), cylindrical protein polymers composed of tubulin dimers are key components of the cytoskeleton. They have been shown to increase solution’s ionic conductance and re-orient in the presence of electric fields. It has been hypothesized that MTs also possess intrinsic capacitive and inductive properties, leading to transistor-like behavior. Here, we show a theoretical basis and experimental support for the assertion that MTs under specific circumstances behave consistently with the definition of a memristor. Their biophysical properties lead to pinched hysteretic current–voltage dependence as well a classic dependence of magnetic flux on electric charge. Based on the information about the structure of MTs we provide an estimate of their memristance. We discuss its significance for biology, especially neuroscience, and potential for nanotechnology applications.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
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    Authors: Kirk, Haltaufderhyde; Rana N, Ozdeslik; Nadine L, Wicks; Julia A, Najera; +1 Authors

    AbstractHuman skin is constantly exposed to solar light containing visible and ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a powerful skin carcinogen. UVR elicits cellular responses in epidermal cells via several mechanisms: direct absorption of short‐wavelength UVR photons by DNA, oxidative damage caused by long‐wavelength UVR, and, as we recently demonstrated, via a retinal‐dependent G protein‐coupled signaling pathway. Because the human epidermis is exposed to a wide range of light wavelengths, we investigated whether opsins, light‐activated receptors that mediate photoreception in the eye, are expressed in epidermal skin to potentially serve as photosensors. Here we show that four opsins—OPN1‐SW, OPN2, OPN3 and OPN5—are expressed in the two major human epidermal cell types, melanocytes and keratinocytes, and the mRNA expression profile of these opsins does not change in response to physiological UVR doses. We detected two OPN3 splice variants present in similar amounts in both cell types and three OPN5 splice isoforms, two of which encode truncated proteins. Notably, OPN2 and OPN3 mRNA were significantly more abundant than other opsins and encoded full‐length proteins. Our results demonstrate that opsins are expressed in epidermal skin cells and suggest that they might initiate light–induced signaling pathways, possibly contributing to UVR phototransduction.

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    Photochemistry and Photobiology
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    Photochemistry and Photobiology
    Article . 2014
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    Authors: Wally, Owen Stephen Donald;

    Genetic engineering is a promising strategy for creating agriculturally significant resistance in carrot. Several different transgenic strategies, in addition to conducting a detailed quantification of commonly used promoters to achieve disease resistance were investigated. Tissue-specific patterns and levels of protein expression were characterized in transgenic carrot plants transformed with the ?-glucuronidase gene driven by five promoters: Cauliflower moasaic virus 35S, double 35S (D35S), Arabidopsis ubiquitin (UBQ3), mannopine synthase (mas2) or rooting loci promoter (rolD). UBQ3 promoter provided the highest levels of expression in roots, while D35S and 35S promoters had high expression in leaves. rolD and Mas2 promoters had enhanced root expression; however levels were much lower compared to the constitutive promoters, which were subsequently used in this research. Genes encoding a rice peroxidase (POC1), wheat chitinase (383) and ?1,3- glucanase (638) were introduced into carrot. Lines expressing 638 alone had no enhanced resistance to B. cinerea or S. scleorotiorum, while 383 lines reduced disease symptoms by up to 40%. When 638 and 383 were co-expressed resistance levels were similar to 383 alone. High levels of disease resistance were seen in lines expressing POC1 with 70-90% reduction in symptoms to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum. POC1 lines had 20-30% increases in lignin levels in petioles and roots, which was enhanced with pathogen challenge. Several defence genes exhibited strong induction in POC1 expressing plants when induced with fungal cell wall elicitor. Additionally, POC1 lines had reduced H2O2 accumulation during oxidative burst response. POC1 derived resistance was effective towards necrotrophic pathogens. Over-expression of Arabidopsis Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related protein 1 was studied in carrot, with two independent lines successfully generated and analyzed. There was no detectable activation of the systemic acquire resistance (SAR) pathways in the absence of pathogens, however, the lines exhibited more intense and longer lasting activation of SAR when elicited with fungal cell walls or Salicylic acid. Both lines were highly resistant against biotrophic and necrotrophic foliar pathogens and the roots were resistant towards A. radicina, indicating broad-spectrum disease resistance. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of engineering disease resistance in carrot using several different approaches.

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    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

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    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
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      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Limic, Vlada; Sturm, Anja;

    This paper extends the notion of the $\la$-coalescent of Pitman (1999) to the spatial setting. The partition elements of the spatial $\Lambda$-coalescent migrate in a (finite) geographical space and may only coalesce if located at the same site of the space. We characterize the $\Lambda$-coalescents that come down from infinity, in an analogous way to Schweinsberg (2000). Surprisingly, all spatial coalescents that come down from infinity, also come down from infinity in a uniform way. This enables us to study space-time asymptotics of spatial $\Lambda$-coalescents on large tori in $d\ge 3$ dimensions. Our results generalize and strengthen those of Greven et al. (2005), who studied the spatial Kingman coalescent in this context. Comment: 29 pages

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Journal o...arrow_drop_down
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    Electronic Journal of Probability
    Other literature type . 2006
    Data sources: Project Euclid
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Journal o...arrow_drop_down
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      Electronic Journal of Probability
      Other literature type . 2006
      Data sources: Project Euclid
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Vahid Khorasani Ghassab; Kamal Maanicshah; Nizar Bouguila; Paul Green;

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework for replacing advertisement contents in soccer videos with an automatic way by using deep learning strategies. We begin by applying UNET (an image segmentation convolutional neural network technique) for content segmentation and detection. Subsequently, after reconstructing the segmented content in the video frames (considering the apparent loss in detection), we will replace the unwanted content by new one using a homography mapping procedure. Furthermore, the replacement key points in each frame will be tracked into the next frames considering the camera zoom-in and zoom-out controlling. Since the movement of objects in video can disrupt the alignment between frames and correspondingly make the homography matrix calculation erroneous, we use Mask R-CNN to mask and remove the moving objects from the scene. Such framework is denominated as REP-Model which stands for a replacing model.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1109/ism.20...
    Conference object . 2020
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1109/ism.20...
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