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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Marine Ecology Progr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Teulier, Loïc; Weber, Jean-Michel; Crevier, Julie; Darveau, Charles-A.;

    Bees are thought to be strict users of carbohydrates as metabolic fuel for flight. Many insects, however, have the ability to oxidize the amino acid proline at a high rate, which is a unique feature of this group of animals. The presence of proline in the haemolymph of bees and in the nectar of plants led to the hypothesis that plants may produce proline as a metabolic reward for pollinators. We investigated flight muscle metabolism of hymenopteran species using high-resolution respirometry performed on permeabilized muscle fibres. The muscle fibres of the honeybee,Apis mellifera, do not have a detectable capacity to oxidize proline, as those from the migratory locust,Locusta migratoria, used here as an outgroup representative. The closely related bumblebee,Bombus impatiens, can oxidize proline alone and more than doubles its respiratory capacity when proline is combined with carbohydrate-derived substrates. A distant wasp species,Vespula vulgaris, exhibits the same metabolic phenotype as the bumblebee, suggesting that proline oxidation is common in hymenopterans. Using a combination of mitochondrial substrates and inhibitors, we further show that inB. impatiens, proline oxidation provides reducing equivalents and electrons directly to the electron transport system. Together, these findings demonstrate that some bee and wasp species can greatly enhance the oxidation of carbohydrates using proline as fuel for flight.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Article . 2016
    License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
      Article . 2016
      License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Camille Abadie; Fabienne Maignan; Marine Remaud; Kukka-Maaria Kohonen; +8 Authors

    Gross primary production (GPP) by boreal forests is highly sensitive to environmental changes. However, GPP simulated by land surface models (LSMs) remains highly uncertain due to the lack of direct photosynthesis observations at large scales. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has emerged as a promising proxy to improve the representation of GPP in LSMs. Because COS is absorbed by vegetation following the same diffusion pathway as CO2 during photosynthesis and not emitted back to the atmosphere, incorporating a mechanistic representation of vegetation COS uptake in LSMs allows using COS observations to refine GPP representation. Here, we perform ecosystem COS flux and GPP data assimilations to constrain the COS- and GPP-related parameters in the ORCHIDEE LSM for boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (BorENF). Assimilating ecosystem COS fluxes at Hyytiälä forest increases the simulated net ecosystem COS uptake by 14%. This increase largely results from changes in the internal conductance to COS, highlighting the need to improve the representation of COS internal diffusion and consumption. Moreover, joint assimilation of ecosystem COS flux and GPP at Hyytiälä improves the simulated latent heat flux, contrary to the GPP-only data assimilation, which fails to do so. Finally, we scaled this assimilation framework up to the boreal region and find that the joint assimilation of COS at Hyytiälä and GPP fluxes at 10 BorENF sites increases the modeled vegetation COS uptake up to 18%, but not GPP. Therefore, this study encourages the use of COS flux observations to inform GPP and latent heat flux representations in LSMs. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 128 (7) ISSN:2169-8961 ISSN:0148-0227 ISSN:2169-8953

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research Collection
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Research@WUR
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research Collection
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Research@WUR
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fritz, Hervé; Loreau, Michel; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Valeix, Marion; +1 Authors

    International audience; The exceptional diversity of large mammals in African savannas provides an ideal opportunity to explore the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up controls of large terrestrial herbivore communities. Recent work has emphasized the role of herbivore and carnivore body size in shaping these trophic relationships. However, the lack of across-ecosystem comparisons using a common methodology prohibits general conclusions. Here we used published data on primary production, herbivore and carnivore densities and diets to estimate the consumption fluxes between three trophic levels in four African savanna ecosystems. Our food web approach suggests that the body size distribution within and across trophic levels has a strong influence on the strength of top-down control of herbivores by carnivores and on consumption fluxes within ecosystems, as predicted by theoretical food web models. We generalize findings from the Serengeti ecosystem that suggest herbivore species below 150 kg are more likely to be limited by predation. We also emphasize the key functional role played by the largest species at each trophic level. The abundance of the largest herbivore species largely governs the consumption of primary production in resident communities. Similarly, predator guilds in which the largest carnivore species represent a larger share of carnivore biomass are likely to exert a stronger top-down impact on herbivores. Our study shows how a food web approach allows integrating current knowledge and offers a powerful framework to better understand the functioning of ecosystems.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hal-Diderotarrow_drop_down
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2011
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600...
    Article . 2011
    License: Wiley TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hal-Diderotarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2011
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600...
      Article . 2011
      License: Wiley TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martins, F.; Herve, A.; Bouret, J. -C.; Marcolino, W.; +6 Authors

    The evolution of massive stars is still partly unconstrained. Mass, metallicity, mass loss and rotation are the main drivers of stellar evolution. Binarity and magnetic field may also significantly affect the fate of massive stars. Our goal is to investigate the evolution of single O stars in the Galaxy. For that, we use a sample of 74 objects comprising all luminosity classes and spectral types from O4 to O9.7. We rely on optical spectroscopy obtained in the context of the MiMeS survey of massive stars. We perform spectral modelling with the code CMFGEN. We determine the surface properties of the sample stars, with special emphasis on abundances of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Most of our sample stars have initial masses in the range 20 to 50 Msun. We show that nitrogen is more enriched and carbon/oxygen more depleted in supergiants than in dwarfs, with giants showing intermediate degrees of mixing. CNO abundances are observed in the range of values predicted by nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. More massive stars, within a given luminosity class, appear to be more chemically enriched than lower mass stars. We compare our results with predictions of three types of evolutionary models and show that, for two sets of models, 80% of our sample can be explained by stellar evolution including rotation. The effect of magnetism on surface abundances is unconstrained. Our study indicates that, in the 20-50 Msun mass range, the surface chemical abundances of most single O stars in the Galaxy are fairly well accounted for by stellar evolution of rotating stars. Comment: 15 pages, 12 figures. Accepted in Astronomy & Astrophysics

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Astronomy and Astrop...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Astronomy and Astrop...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2014
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sajina, Anna; Scott, Douglas; Dennefeld, Michel; Dole, Herve; +2 Authors

    We present preliminary results on a study of the 2--850 micron SEDs of a sample of 30 FIRBACK galaxies selected at 170 micron. These sources are representative of the brightest ~10% of the Cosmic Infrared Background. They are a mixture of mostly local (z<~0.3) starforming galaxies, and a tail of ULIGs that extend up to z~1, and are likely to be a similar population to faint SCUBA sources. We use archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS data to extend the spectral coverage to the mid-IR regime, resulting in an unprecended (for this redshift range) census of their infrared SEDs. This allows us to study in far greater detail this important population linking the near-IR stellar emission with PAH and thermal dust emission. We do this using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, which easily allows for the inclusion of ~6 free parameters, as well as an estimate of parameter uncertainties and correlations. Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. Proceeding for the conference "Starbursts: From 30 Doradus to Lyman Break Galaxies", held in Cambridge (UK) in September, 2004

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Fasina, Oluwadamilola; Huguet, Guillaume; Tong, Alexander; Zhang, Yanlei; +4 Authors

    Although data diffusion embeddings are ubiquitous in unsupervised learning and have proven to be a viable technique for uncovering the underlying intrinsic geometry of data, diffusion embeddings are inherently limited due to their discrete nature. To this end, we propose neural FIM, a method for computing the Fisher information metric (FIM) from point cloud data - allowing for a continuous manifold model for the data. Neural FIM creates an extensible metric space from discrete point cloud data such that information from the metric can inform us of manifold characteristics such as volume and geodesics. We demonstrate Neural FIM's utility in selecting parameters for the PHATE visualization method as well as its ability to obtain information pertaining to local volume illuminating branching points and cluster centers embeddings of a toy dataset and two single-cell datasets of IPSC reprogramming and PBMCs (immune cells). Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures, 1 table

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Huot, Y.; Morel, A.; Twardowski, M. S.; Stramski, D.; +1 Authors

    The particulate scattering, <i>b</i><sub>p</sub>, and backscattering, <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub>, coefficients are determined by the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the scattering of light within the water column. For the remote observation of ocean color, <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub> along with the total absorption coefficient govern the amount and spectral qualities of light leaving the sea surface. However, for the construction and validation of ocean color models measurements of <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub> are still lacking, especially at low chlorophyll <i>a</i> concentrations ([Chl]). Here, we examine the relationships between spectral <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub> and <i>b</i><sub>p</sub> vs. [Chl] along an 8000 km transect crossing the Case 1 waters of the eastern South Pacific Gyre. In these waters, over the entire range of [Chl] encountered (~0.02&ndash;2 mg m<sup>3</sup>), both <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub> and <i>b</i><sub>p</sub> can be related to [Chl] by power functions (i.e. <i>b</i><sub>p</sub> or <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub>=&alpha;[Chl]<sup>&beta;</sup>). Regression analyses are carried out to provide the parameters &alpha; and &beta; for several wavelengths throughout the visible for both <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub> and <i>b</i><sub>p</sub>. When applied to the data, these functions retrieve the same fraction of variability in <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub> and <i>b</i><sub>p</sub> (coefficients of determination between 0.82 and 0.88). The <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub> coefficient fall within the bounds of previous measurements at intermediate and high [Chl] recently published. Its dependence on [Chl] below ~0.1 mg m<sup>&minus;3</sup> is described for the first time with in situ data. The backscattering ratio (i.e. <i>b</i><sub>bp</sub>/<i>b</i><sub>p</sub>) with values near 0.01 for all stations appears to be spectrally neutral and not significantly dependent on [Chl]. These results should foster the development of improved forward models of the mean optical properties for oceanic Case 1 waters as well as inverse models based upon them.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-4-...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-4-...
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    Authors: Wassim, Chatoo; Mohamed, Abdouh; Robert-Hugues, Duparc; Gilbert, Bernier;

    Abstract The developing mammalian retina is generated by the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) giving rise to neuronal and glial lineages. Whether an immature progenitor/stem cell subpopulation is present in the developing mammalian retina remains undefined. Deficiency in the polycomb group gene Bmi1 results in reduced proliferation and postnatal depletion of neural and hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we show that Bmi1 is required for the self-renewal of most immature RPCs and for postnatal retinal development. In the embryo, Bmi1 is highly enriched in a rare stage-specific embryonic antigen-1-positive RPC subpopulation expressing the stem cell markers Sox2, Lhx2, and Musashi. Gain-of-function experiments revealed that Bmi1 overexpression could convert RPCs having limited proliferation capacity into RPCs showing extensive proliferation and multiple differentiation capacities over time. At all developmental stages analyzed using the neurosphere assay, Bmi1 deficiency resulted in reduced proliferation and self-renewal of most immature RPCs. Reduced RPCs proliferation was also observed in the peripheral retina of Bmi1−/− fetus and newborn mice. The biological impact of these developmental anomalies was revealed by the reduced retinal diameter of Bmi1-deficient pups. P19Arf and p16Ink4a were upregulated in vivo and in vitro and coinactivation of p53, which lies downstream of p19Arf, partially restored Bmi1-deficient RPCs self-renewal phenotype. Bmi1 thus distinguishes immature RPCs from the main RPC population and is required for normal retinal development.

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    Stem Cells
    Article . 2010
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    Authors: Marie-Eve Naud; Étienne Artigau; Lison Malo; Loïc Albert; +10 Authors

    We present the discovery of a co-moving planetary-mass companion ~42" (~2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i - z color (> 3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5+-1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates Teff = 1000-1100 K and logg = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 MJup for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE. 18 p., 10 fig., published in ApJ. May 20th, 2014: Small corrections compared to the journal version: 1) addition of the an important reference to 1RSX 1609-2105b from Lafreni\`ere et al. 2008, 2010, 2) update of the url for Andrew Mann metallicity calibration, 3) correction of a few factual mistakes in section 2.2.4), 4) aesthetic reformatting of urls

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    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 2014
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      The Astrophysical Journal
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    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

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    Authors: Teulier, Loïc; Weber, Jean-Michel; Crevier, Julie; Darveau, Charles-A.;

    Bees are thought to be strict users of carbohydrates as metabolic fuel for flight. Many insects, however, have the ability to oxidize the amino acid proline at a high rate, which is a unique feature of this group of animals. The presence of proline in the haemolymph of bees and in the nectar of plants led to the hypothesis that plants may produce proline as a metabolic reward for pollinators. We investigated flight muscle metabolism of hymenopteran species using high-resolution respirometry performed on permeabilized muscle fibres. The muscle fibres of the honeybee,Apis mellifera, do not have a detectable capacity to oxidize proline, as those from the migratory locust,Locusta migratoria, used here as an outgroup representative. The closely related bumblebee,Bombus impatiens, can oxidize proline alone and more than doubles its respiratory capacity when proline is combined with carbohydrate-derived substrates. A distant wasp species,Vespula vulgaris, exhibits the same metabolic phenotype as the bumblebee, suggesting that proline oxidation is common in hymenopterans. Using a combination of mitochondrial substrates and inhibitors, we further show that inB. impatiens, proline oxidation provides reducing equivalents and electrons directly to the electron transport system. Together, these findings demonstrate that some bee and wasp species can greatly enhance the oxidation of carbohydrates using proline as fuel for flight.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Article . 2016
    License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
    Data sources: Crossref
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