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  • 2021-2021
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
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  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adams, C. B.; Benbow, W.; Finley, J. P.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; D'Amico, G.; D'Elia, V.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; +313 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: Spain, Poland, Norway, Italy, Italy, France, France, Netherlands, Spain, Germany ...
    Project: AKA | Intrinsic Very High Energ... (320045), NSERC

    The results of gamma-ray observations of the binary system HESS J0632 + 057 collected during 450 hr over 15 yr, between 2004 and 2019, are presented. Data taken with the atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS at energies above 350 GeV were used together with observations at X-ray energies obtained with Swift-XRT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Suzaku. Some of these observations were accompanied by measurements of the H�� emission line. A significant detection of the modulation of the very high-energy gamma-ray fluxes with a period of 316.7 �� 4.4 days is reported, consistent with the period of 317.3 �� 0.7 days obtained with a refined analysis of X-ray data. The analysis of data from four orbital cycles with dense observational coverage reveals short-timescale variability, with flux-decay timescales of less than 20 days at very high energies. Flux variations observed over a timescale of several years indicate orbit-to-orbit variability. The analysis confirms the previously reported correlation of X-ray and gamma-ray emission from the system at very high significance, but cannot find any correlation of optical H�� parameters with fluxes at X-ray or gamma-ray energies in simultaneous observations. The key finding is that the emission of HESS J0632 + 057 in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands is highly variable on different timescales. The ratio of gamma-ray to X-ray flux shows the equality or even dominance of the gamma-ray energy range. This wealth of new data is interpreted taking into account the insufficient knowledge of the ephemeris of the system, and discussed in the context of results reported on other gamma-ray binary systems. The astrophysical journal 923(2), 241 (2021). doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac29b7 Published by Univ., Chicago, Ill. [u.a.]

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marc-Antoine Stoeckel; Yoann Olivier; Marco Gobbi; Dmytro Dudenko; Vincent Lemaur; Mohamed Zbiri; Anne A. Y. Guilbert; Gabriele D'Avino; Fabiola Liscio; Andrea Migliori; +11 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | FLAG-ERA II (730027), ANR | NIE (ANR-11-LABX-0058), EC | BORGES (813863), EC | UHMob (811284), EC | EXTMOS (646176), EC | SUPRAFUNCTION (257305), NSERC , ANR | UNISTRA (ANR-10-IDEX-0002), UKRI | Characterisation and rati... (EP/P00928X/1), EC | GrapheneCore3 (881603)

    Charge transport in organic semiconductors is notoriously extremely sensitive to the presence of disorder, both internal and external (i.e. related to the interactions with the dielectric layer), especially for n-type materials. Internal dynamic disorder stems from large thermal fluctuations both in intermolecular transfer integrals and (molecular) site energies in weakly interacting van der Waals solids and sources transient localization of the charge carriers. The molecular vibrations that drive transient localization typically operate at low-frequency (< a-few-hundred cm-1), which renders it difficult to assess them experimentally. Hitherto, this has prevented the identification of clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. In addition, the disorder can also be external, being controlled by the gate insulator dielectric properties. Here we report on a comprehensive study of charge transport in two closely related n-type molecular organic semiconductors using a combination of temperature-dependent inelastic neutron scattering and photoelectron spectroscopy corroborated by electrical measurements, theory and simulations. We provide unambiguous evidence that ad hoc molecular design enables to free the electron charge carriers from both internal and external disorder to ultimately reach band-like electron transport. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1909.05344

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Abbott R.a; Abbott T.D.b; Abraham S.c; Acernese F.d; e; Ackley K.f; Adams A.g; Adams C.h; Adhikari R.X.a; Adya V.B.i; +191 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Countries: Belgium, United Kingdom, Belgium, Belgium, Italy, United States, Belgium, Spain, Netherlands, France
    Project: NSERC

    We report on an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in the frequency band 20-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0,+0.1]×10-8 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby, spinning and slightly nonaxisymmetric isolated neutron star in our Galaxy. This search uses the LIGO data from the first six months of Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's third observational run, O3. No periodic gravitational wave signals are observed, and 95% confidence-level (C.L.) frequentist upper limits are placed on their strengths. The lowest upper limits on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 are ∼1.7×10-25 near 200 Hz. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the lowest upper limits are ∼6.3×10-26. These strict frequentist upper limits refer to all sky locations and the entire range of frequency derivative values. For a population-averaged ensemble of sky locations and stellar orientations, the lowest 95% C.L. upper limits on the strain amplitude are ∼1.4×10-25. These upper limits improve upon our previously published all-sky results, with the greatest improvement (factor of ∼2) seen at higher frequencies, in part because quantum squeezing has dramatically improved the detector noise level relative to the second observational run, O2. These limits are the most constraining to date over most of the parameter space searched. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leading-edge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research 26000005, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905: JP17H06358, JP17H06361 and JP17H06364, JSPS Core-to-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) 17H06133, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation (NRF) and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center (ASGC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan under grants including ASCDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of NAOJ, and Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK Abbott, R. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, KAGRA Collaboration)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vijaya L. Damaraju; Maral Aminpour; Michelle Kuzma; Philip Winter; Jordane Preto; Jack A. Tuszynski; Alexander B.J. McEwan; Michael B. Sawyer;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: NSERC

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG), a marker of energy metabolism and cell proliferation, is routinely used in the clinic to assess patient response to chemotherapy and to monitor tumor growth. Treatment with some tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) causes changes in blood glucose levels in both nondiabetic and diabetic patients. We evaluated the interaction of several classes of TKIs with human glucose transporter-1 (hGLUT-1) in FaDu and GIST-1 cells by measuring [3 H]2-deoxy-d-glucose ([3 H]2-DG) and [3 H]FDG uptake. Uptake of both was inhibited to varying extents by the TKIs, and representative TKIs from each class showed competitive inhibition of [3 H]2-DG uptake. In GIST-1 cells, [3 H]FDG uptake inhibition by temsirolimus and nilotinib was irreversible, whereas inhibition by imatinib, gefitinib, and pazopanib was reversible. Molecular modeling studies showed that TKIs form multiple hydrogen bonds with polar residues of the sugar binding site (i.e., Q161, Q282, Q283, N288, N317, and W388), and van der Waals interactions with the H-pocket site. Our results showed interaction of TKIs with amino acid residues at the glucose binding site to inhibit glucose uptake by hGLUT-1. We hypothesize that inhibition of hGLUT-1 by TKIs could alter glucose levels in patients treated with TKIs, leading to hypoglycemia and fatigue, although further studies are required to evaluate roles of other SLC2 and SLC5 members. In addition, TKIs could affect tumor [18 F]FDG uptake, increasingly used as a marker of tumor response. The hGLUT-1 inhibition by TKIs may have implications for routine [18 F]FDG-PET monitoring of tumor response in patients.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Benjamin W. A. Hyatt; Yuri Leonenko;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC

    This study outlines a model for injected fluid flow in a vertically confined porous aquifer with mechanical dispersion. Existing studies have investigated the behaviour and geometry of immiscible fluid flow in this setting, where the injected fluid displaces the resident fluid, forming a sharp interface between the two. The present study extends analytical solutions to include mechanical dispersion of the interface. The solutions are inverted to solve for time as a function of position (r,z), giving each position in the aquifer an intersection time corresponding to the moment the travelling interface intersects a point of interest. The set of (r0,z0) positions which share an intersection time are treated as dummy variables that represent an 'effective surface' and are integrated over to solve for the velocity field within the aquifer. Using this velocity field, the concentration profile resulting from mechanical dispersion can be found analytically.It is shown that the concentration of the injected fluid smoothly decays around the position of the interface from immiscible solutions, allowing for the injected fluid to be present in detectable quantities beyond the extent of these interfaces. This concentration spread should be considered in defining outer boundaries on fluids in injection well applications such as carbon capture and storage or groundwater applications.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Atriya Biswas; Pier Giuseppe Anselma; Aashit Rathore; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Abstract An online simulation framework is developed in this article to evaluate the performance of a multi-mode electrified powertrain equipped with more than one power source. An electrically variable transmission with two planetary gear-set has been chosen as the centerpiece of the powertrain considering the versatility and prospects of such transmissions. A novel architecture topology of the aforementioned class of transmission is selected through rigorous screening process whose workflow is presented here with brevity. The article systematically delineates the steps for deriving dynamics associated with all the feasible operating modes facilitated by the selected topology. The dynamics associated with all the feasible mode-shift events are also heeded judiciously. One of the legitimate concern of multi-mode transmission is its proclivity to contribute discontinuity of power-flow downstream of the powertrain. Mode-shift events can be predominantly held responsible for engendering such discontinuity. Many scholars in literature have substantiated the advent of dynamic coordinated control as a technique for ameliorating such discontinuity. Hence, a system-level coordinated control is employed within the energy management system (equivalent consumption minimization strategy), which governs the mode schedule of the multi-mode powertrain in real-time simulation. Simulation results corroborate the effect of coordinated control on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy in generating optimal mode schedule.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tea Lulic-Kuryllo; Francesco Negro; Ning Jiang; Clark R. Dickerson;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    The pectoralis major assists in several shoulder movements, such as humeral vertical and horizontal adduction, flexion, extension, and internal rotation. Despite its involvement in numerous functional activities, its role in typical shoulder function is ambiguous. Due to this, its purpose in arm movement is largely diminished. However, mounting evidence associates pectoralis major injuries to long-term debilitating arm disability. Therefore, a more deliberate investigation of its role in typical shoulder function is paramount. The purpose of this paper is to outline the current limitations in the acquisition and characterization of pectoralis major activation using standard bipolar surface electromyography. Macroscopic level analyses are used to investigate pectoralis major activation in eight tasks at low (15-25% of maximal voluntary effort (MVE) and moderate (50% MVE) efforts in healthy males. Virtually derived bipolar EMG amplitudes are quantified for the clavicular and the upper sternocostal regions based on the common locations used to acquire EMG signals from classic EMG. HD-sEMG amplitudes from three pectoralis major regions (i.e. clavicular, upper, and lower sternocostal) were compared to virtually derived bipolar EMG amplitudes (i.e. clavicular and upper sternocostal) to determine if current EMG methods misestimate pectoralis major activity. Current findings indicate that classic EMG recordings mischaracterize pectoralis major activation in several tasks and effort levels, highlighting the importance of acquiring signals from multiple pectoralis major regions.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ewa M. Iwanek; Leonarda F. Liotta; Shazam Williams; Linjie Hu; Huitian Ju; Giuseppe Pantaleo; Alisha Thapar; Zbigniew Kaszkur; Donald W. Kirk; Marek Gliński;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy
    Project: NSERC

    Herein, the activity of Ag and bimetallic Au-Ag catalysts, supported over Ce0.85Zr0.15O2 (CZ), was investigated in a complex stream, whose components included CO, C3H8, NO, O2, and, optionally, an injection of water vapor. In such a stream, three of the possible reactions that can occur are CO oxidation, propane combustion, and NO oxidation. The aim of these studies was to explore whether silver, due to its strong affinity to oxygen, will counteract the stabilization of oxygen by potassium. The effect of the presence of potassium ions on the activity of the monometallic silver catalysts is beneficial in the complex stream without water vapor in all three studied reactions, although it is negligible in the model CO stream. It has been shown that water vapor strongly suppresses the activity of the Ag+K/CZ catalyst, much more so than that of the Ag/CZ catalyst. The second purpose of the work was to determine whether the negative effect of potassium ions on the activity of nanogold catalyst can be countered by the addition of silver. Studies in a model stream for CO oxidation have shown that, for a catalyst preloaded with gold, the effect of potassium is nulled by silver, and the activity of AuAg + 0.15 at%K/CZ and AuAg + 0.30 at%K/CZ is the same as that of the monometallic Au catalyst. Conversely, when the reaction is carried out in a complex stream, containing CO, C3H8, NO, O2, and water vapor, the presence of water vapor leads to higher CO conversion as well as increased NO2 formation and slightly suppresses the C3H8 combustion.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giorgio Corsi; Katherine Picard; Maria Amalia Di Castro; Stefano Garofalo; Federico Tucci; Giuseppina Chece; Claudio Del Percio; M.T. Golia; Marcello Raspa; Ferdinando Scavizzi; +12 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Italy
    Project: NSERC

    International audience; Microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, actively contributes to the homeostasis of cerebral parenchyma by sensing neuronal activity and supporting synaptic remodeling and plasticity. While several studies demonstrated different roles for astrocytes in sleep, the contribution of microglia in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle and in the modulation of synaptic activity in the different day phases has not been deeply investigated. Using light as a zeitgeber cue, we studied the effects of microglial depletion with the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor antagonist PLX5622 on the sleep/wake cycle and on hippocampal synaptic transmission in male mice. Our data demonstrate that almost complete microglial depletion increases the duration of NREM sleep and reduces the hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. The fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 plays a relevant role in these effects, because cx3cr1GFP/GFP mice recapitulate what found in PLX5622-treated mice. Furthermore, during the light phase, microglia express lower levels of cx3cr1 and a reduction of cx3cr1 expression is also observed when cultured microglial cells are stimulated by ATP, a purinergic molecule released during sleep. Our findings suggest that microglia participate in the regulation of sleep, adapting their cx3cr1 expression in response to the light/dark phase, and modulating synaptic activity in a phase-dependent manner.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christy, M.E.; Gautam, T.; Ou, L.; Schmookler, B.; Wang, Y.; Adikaram, D.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Ali, S.F.; Aljawrneh, B.; +161 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Croatia
    Project: NSF | Experimental Studies of N... (1508272), NSERC

    We present new precision measurements of the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section for momentum transfer (Q$^2$) up to 15.75~\gevsq. Combined with existing data, these provide an improved extraction of the proton magnetic form factor at high Q$^2$ and double the range over which a longitudinal/transverse separation of the cross section can be performed. The difference between our results and polarization data agrees with that observed at lower Q$^2$ and attributed to hard two-photon exchange (TPE) effects, extending to 8~(GeV/c)$^2$ the range of Q$^2$ for which a discrepancy is established at $>$95\% confidence. We use the discrepancy to quantify the size of TPE contributions needed to explain the cross section at high Q$^2$. 7 pages, 2 figures

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Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
263 Research products, page 1 of 27
  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adams, C. B.; Benbow, W.; Finley, J. P.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; D'Amico, G.; D'Elia, V.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; +313 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: Spain, Poland, Norway, Italy, Italy, France, France, Netherlands, Spain, Germany ...
    Project: AKA | Intrinsic Very High Energ... (320045), NSERC

    The results of gamma-ray observations of the binary system HESS J0632 + 057 collected during 450 hr over 15 yr, between 2004 and 2019, are presented. Data taken with the atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS at energies above 350 GeV were used together with observations at X-ray energies obtained with Swift-XRT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Suzaku. Some of these observations were accompanied by measurements of the H�� emission line. A significant detection of the modulation of the very high-energy gamma-ray fluxes with a period of 316.7 �� 4.4 days is reported, consistent with the period of 317.3 �� 0.7 days obtained with a refined analysis of X-ray data. The analysis of data from four orbital cycles with dense observational coverage reveals short-timescale variability, with flux-decay timescales of less than 20 days at very high energies. Flux variations observed over a timescale of several years indicate orbit-to-orbit variability. The analysis confirms the previously reported correlation of X-ray and gamma-ray emission from the system at very high significance, but cannot find any correlation of optical H�� parameters with fluxes at X-ray or gamma-ray energies in simultaneous observations. The key finding is that the emission of HESS J0632 + 057 in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands is highly variable on different timescales. The ratio of gamma-ray to X-ray flux shows the equality or even dominance of the gamma-ray energy range. This wealth of new data is interpreted taking into account the insufficient knowledge of the ephemeris of the system, and discussed in the context of results reported on other gamma-ray binary systems. The astrophysical journal 923(2), 241 (2021). doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac29b7 Published by Univ., Chicago, Ill. [u.a.]

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marc-Antoine Stoeckel; Yoann Olivier; Marco Gobbi; Dmytro Dudenko; Vincent Lemaur; Mohamed Zbiri; Anne A. Y. Guilbert; Gabriele D'Avino; Fabiola Liscio; Andrea Migliori; +11 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | FLAG-ERA II (730027), ANR | NIE (ANR-11-LABX-0058), EC | BORGES (813863), EC | UHMob (811284), EC | EXTMOS (646176), EC | SUPRAFUNCTION (257305), NSERC , ANR | UNISTRA (ANR-10-IDEX-0002), UKRI | Characterisation and rati... (EP/P00928X/1), EC | GrapheneCore3 (881603)

    Charge transport in organic semiconductors is notoriously extremely sensitive to the presence of disorder, both internal and external (i.e. related to the interactions with the dielectric layer), especially for n-type materials. Internal dynamic disorder stems from large thermal fluctuations both in intermolecular transfer integrals and (molecular) site energies in weakly interacting van der Waals solids and sources transient localization of the charge carriers. The molecular vibrations that drive transient localization typically operate at low-frequency (< a-few-hundred cm-1), which renders it difficult to assess them experimentally. Hitherto, this has prevented the identification of clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. In addition, the disorder can also be external, being controlled by the gate insulator dielectric properties. Here we report on a comprehensive study of charge transport in two closely related n-type molecular organic semiconductors using a combination of temperature-dependent inelastic neutron scattering and photoelectron spectroscopy corroborated by electrical measurements, theory and simulations. We provide unambiguous evidence that ad hoc molecular design enables to free the electron charge carriers from both internal and external disorder to ultimately reach band-like electron transport. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1909.05344

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Abbott R.a; Abbott T.D.b; Abraham S.c; Acernese F.d; e; Ackley K.f; Adams A.g; Adams C.h; Adhikari R.X.a; Adya V.B.i; +191 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Countries: Belgium, United Kingdom, Belgium, Belgium, Italy, United States, Belgium, Spain, Netherlands, France
    Project: NSERC

    We report on an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in the frequency band 20-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0,+0.1]×10-8 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby, spinning and slightly nonaxisymmetric isolated neutron star in our Galaxy. This search uses the LIGO data from the first six months of Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's third observational run, O3. No periodic gravitational wave signals are observed, and 95% confidence-level (C.L.) frequentist upper limits are placed on their strengths. The lowest upper limits on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 are ∼1.7×10-25 near 200 Hz. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the lowest upper limits are ∼6.3×10-26. These strict frequentist upper limits refer to all sky locations and the entire range of frequency derivative values. For a population-averaged ensemble of sky locations and stellar orientations, the lowest 95% C.L. upper limits on the strain amplitude are ∼1.4×10-25. These upper limits improve upon our previously published all-sky results, with the greatest improvement (factor of ∼2) seen at higher frequencies, in part because quantum squeezing has dramatically improved the detector noise level relative to the second observational run, O2. These limits are the most constraining to date over most of the parameter space searched. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leading-edge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research 26000005, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905: JP17H06358, JP17H06361 and JP17H06364, JSPS Core-to-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) 17H06133, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation (NRF) and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center (ASGC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan under grants including ASCDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of NAOJ, and Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK Abbott, R. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, KAGRA Collaboration)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vijaya L. Damaraju; Maral Aminpour; Michelle Kuzma; Philip Winter; Jordane Preto; Jack A. Tuszynski; Alexander B.J. McEwan; Michael B. Sawyer;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: NSERC

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG), a marker of energy metabolism and cell proliferation, is routinely used in the clinic to assess patient response to chemotherapy and to monitor tumor growth. Treatment with some tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) causes changes in blood glucose levels in both nondiabetic and diabetic patients. We evaluated the interaction of several classes of TKIs with human glucose transporter-1 (hGLUT-1) in FaDu and GIST-1 cells by measuring [3 H]2-deoxy-d-glucose ([3 H]2-DG) and [3 H]FDG uptake. Uptake of both was inhibited to varying extents by the TKIs, and representative TKIs from each class showed competitive inhibition of [3 H]2-DG uptake. In GIST-1 cells, [3 H]FDG uptake inhibition by temsirolimus and nilotinib was irreversible, whereas inhibition by imatinib, gefitinib, and pazopanib was reversible. Molecular modeling studies showed that TKIs form multiple hydrogen bonds with polar residues of the sugar binding site (i.e., Q161, Q282, Q283, N288, N317, and W388), and van der Waals interactions with the H-pocket site. Our results showed interaction of TKIs with amino acid residues at the glucose binding site to inhibit glucose uptake by hGLUT-1. We hypothesize that inhibition of hGLUT-1 by TKIs could alter glucose levels in patients treated with TKIs, leading to hypoglycemia and fatigue, although further studies are required to evaluate roles of other SLC2 and SLC5 members. In addition, TKIs could affect tumor [18 F]FDG uptake, increasingly used as a marker of tumor response. The hGLUT-1 inhibition by TKIs may have implications for routine [18 F]FDG-PET monitoring of tumor response in patients.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Benjamin W. A. Hyatt; Yuri Leonenko;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC

    This study outlines a model for injected fluid flow in a vertically confined porous aquifer with mechanical dispersion. Existing studies have investigated the behaviour and geometry of immiscible fluid flow in this setting, where the injected fluid displaces the resident fluid, forming a sharp interface between the two. The present study extends analytical solutions to include mechanical dispersion of the interface. The solutions are inverted to solve for time as a function of position (r,z), giving each position in the aquifer an intersection time corresponding to the moment the travelling interface intersects a point of interest. The set of (r0,z0) positions which share an intersection time are treated as dummy variables that represent an 'effective surface' and are integrated over to solve for the velocity field within the aquifer. Using this velocity field, the concentration profile resulting from mechanical dispersion can be found analytically.It is shown that the concentration of the injected fluid smoothly decays around the position of the interface from immiscible solutions, allowing for the injected fluid to be present in detectable quantities beyond the extent of these interfaces. This concentration spread should be considered in defining outer boundaries on fluids in injection well applications such as carbon capture and storage or groundwater applications.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Atriya Biswas; Pier Giuseppe Anselma; Aashit Rathore; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Abstract An online simulation framework is developed in this article to evaluate the performance of a multi-mode electrified powertrain equipped with more than one power source. An electrically variable transmission with two planetary gear-set has been chosen as the centerpiece of the powertrain considering the versatility and prospects of such transmissions. A novel architecture topology of the aforementioned class of transmission is selected through rigorous screening process whose workflow is presented here with brevity. The article systematically delineates the steps for deriving dynamics associated with all the feasible operating modes facilitated by the selected topology. The dynamics associated with all the feasible mode-shift events are also heeded judiciously. One of the legitimate concern of multi-mode transmission is its proclivity to contribute discontinuity of power-flow downstream of the powertrain. Mode-shift events can be predominantly held responsible for engendering such discontinuity. Many scholars in literature have substantiated the advent of dynamic coordinated control as a technique for ameliorating such discontinuity. Hence, a system-level coordinated control is employed within the energy management system (equivalent consumption minimization strategy), which governs the mode schedule of the multi-mode powertrain in real-time simulation. Simulation results corroborate the effect of coordinated control on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy in generating optimal mode schedule.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tea Lulic-Kuryllo; Francesco Negro; Ning Jiang; Clark R. Dickerson;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    The pectoralis major assists in several shoulder movements, such as humeral vertical and horizontal adduction, flexion, extension, and internal rotation. Despite its involvement in numerous functional activities, its role in typical shoulder function is ambiguous. Due to this, its purpose in arm movement is largely diminished. However, mounting evidence associates pectoralis major injuries to long-term debilitating arm disability. Therefore, a more deliberate investigation of its role in typical shoulder function is paramount. The purpose of this paper is to outline the current limitations in the acquisition and characterization of pectoralis major activation using standard bipolar surface electromyography. Macroscopic level analyses are used to investigate pectoralis major activation in eight tasks at low (15-25% of maximal voluntary effort (MVE) and moderate (50% MVE) efforts in healthy males. Virtually derived bipolar EMG amplitudes are quantified for the clavicular and the upper sternocostal regions based on the common locations used to acquire EMG signals from classic EMG. HD-sEMG amplitudes from three pectoralis major regions (i.e. clavicular, upper, and lower sternocostal) were compared to virtually derived bipolar EMG amplitudes (i.e. clavicular and upper sternocostal) to determine if current EMG methods misestimate pectoralis major activity. Current findings indicate that classic EMG recordings mischaracterize pectoralis major activation in several tasks and effort levels, highlighting the importance of acquiring signals from multiple pectoralis major regions.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ewa M. Iwanek; Leonarda F. Liotta; Shazam Williams; Linjie Hu; Huitian Ju; Giuseppe Pantaleo; Alisha Thapar; Zbigniew Kaszkur; Donald W. Kirk; Marek Gliński;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy
    Project: NSERC

    Herein, the activity of Ag and bimetallic Au-Ag catalysts, supported over Ce0.85Zr0.15O2 (CZ), was investigated in a complex stream, whose components included CO, C3H8, NO, O2, and, optionally, an injection of water vapor. In such a stream, three of the possible reactions that can occur are CO oxidation, propane combustion, and NO oxidation. The aim of these studies was to explore whether silver, due to its strong affinity to oxygen, will counteract the stabilization of oxygen by potassium. The effect of the presence of potassium ions on the activity of the monometallic silver catalysts is beneficial in the complex stream without water vapor in all three studied reactions, although it is negligible in the model CO stream. It has been shown that water vapor strongly suppresses the activity of the Ag+K/CZ catalyst, much more so than that of the Ag/CZ catalyst. The second purpose of the work was to determine whether the negative effect of potassium ions on the activity of nanogold catalyst can be countered by the addition of silver. Studies in a model stream for CO oxidation have shown that, for a catalyst preloaded with gold, the effect of potassium is nulled by silver, and the activity of AuAg + 0.15 at%K/CZ and AuAg + 0.30 at%K/CZ is the same as that of the monometallic Au catalyst. Conversely, when the reaction is carried out in a complex stream, containing CO, C3H8, NO, O2, and water vapor, the presence of water vapor leads to higher CO conversion as well as increased NO2 formation and slightly suppresses the C3H8 combustion.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giorgio Corsi; Katherine Picard; Maria Amalia Di Castro; Stefano Garofalo; Federico Tucci; Giuseppina Chece; Claudio Del Percio; M.T. Golia; Marcello Raspa; Ferdinando Scavizzi; +12 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Italy
    Project: NSERC

    International audience; Microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, actively contributes to the homeostasis of cerebral parenchyma by sensing neuronal activity and supporting synaptic remodeling and plasticity. While several studies demonstrated different roles for astrocytes in sleep, the contribution of microglia in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle and in the modulation of synaptic activity in the different day phases has not been deeply investigated. Using light as a zeitgeber cue, we studied the effects of microglial depletion with the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor antagonist PLX5622 on the sleep/wake cycle and on hippocampal synaptic transmission in male mice. Our data demonstrate that almost complete microglial depletion increases the duration of NREM sleep and reduces the hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. The fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 plays a relevant role in these effects, because cx3cr1GFP/GFP mice recapitulate what found in PLX5622-treated mice. Furthermore, during the light phase, microglia express lower levels of cx3cr1 and a reduction of cx3cr1 expression is also observed when cultured microglial cells are stimulated by ATP, a purinergic molecule released during sleep. Our findings suggest that microglia participate in the regulation of sleep, adapting their cx3cr1 expression in response to the light/dark phase, and modulating synaptic activity in a phase-dependent manner.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christy, M.E.; Gautam, T.; Ou, L.; Schmookler, B.; Wang, Y.; Adikaram, D.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Ali, S.F.; Aljawrneh, B.; +161 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Croatia
    Project: NSF | Experimental Studies of N... (1508272), NSERC

    We present new precision measurements of the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section for momentum transfer (Q$^2$) up to 15.75~\gevsq. Combined with existing data, these provide an improved extraction of the proton magnetic form factor at high Q$^2$ and double the range over which a longitudinal/transverse separation of the cross section can be performed. The difference between our results and polarization data agrees with that observed at lower Q$^2$ and attributed to hard two-photon exchange (TPE) effects, extending to 8~(GeV/c)$^2$ the range of Q$^2$ for which a discrepancy is established at $>$95\% confidence. We use the discrepancy to quantify the size of TPE contributions needed to explain the cross section at high Q$^2$. 7 pages, 2 figures