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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Miguel A. Vigil Fuentes; Suman Thakur; Feng Wu; Manjusri Misra; +2 Authors

    AbstractIn this study, the 3D printability of a series of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends were investigated using fused filament fabrication (FFF). The studied blends suffered from poor 3D printability due to differences in compatibility and low thermal resistance. These shortcomings were addressed by incorporating a functionalized styrene-acrylate copolymer with oxirane moieties as a chain extender (CE). To enhance mechanical properties, the synergistic effect of 3D printing parameters such as printing temperature and speed, layer thickness and bed temperature were explored. Rheological analysis showed improvement in the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA:CE blend by allowing a higher printing temperature (220 °C) and sufficient printing speed (45 mm s−1). The surface morphology of fractured tensile specimens showed good bonding between layers when a bed temperature of 60 °C was used and a layer thickness of 0.25 mm was designed. The optimized printing samples shown higher storage modulus and strength, resulting in stiffer and stronger parts. The crystallinity, morphology and performance of the 3D printed products were correlated to share key methods to improve the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA based blends which may be implemented in other biopolymer blends, and further highlight how process parameters enhance the mechanical performance of 3D printed products.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2020
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2020
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    Scientific Reports
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2020
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      Scientific Reports
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Butts, Ian A. E.; Mokdad, Ali; Trippel, Edward A.; Pitcher, Trevor E.;

    Populations of Redside Dace Clinostomus elongatus have declined in many areas across the species' North American range. Therefore, the development of sperm cryopreservation technology would provide an invaluable means of preserving genetic diversity in populations that are in imminent danger of extirpation. We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS+ glycine; sucrose; and Hanks' balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA]; and methanol), freezing rate (1, 5, and 10 degrees C/min), and male-to-male variation on sperm quality. Incubating sperm in extenders affected motility; BSMIS+ glycine + methanol, BSMIS+ glycine + PG, and HBSS + methanol were the only treatments for which motility was not significantly different from that of fresh sperm. Sperm frozen with sucrose had higher motility than sperm frozen with BSMIS + glycine, and sperm frozen with DMSO had higher motility than sperm frozen with methanol. Freezing rates were evaluated for BSMIS + glycine, HBSS, and sucrose; all diluents were frozen with DMSO. The effect of freezing rate was not significant for BSMIS + glycine or for HBSS, but an effect was detected for sucrose, with sperm frozen at 5 degrees C/min or 10 degrees C/min having higher motility than sperm frozen at 1 degrees C/min. The effect of extender was not significant at 1 degrees C/min or 5 degrees C/min, but an effect was detected at 10 degrees C/min such that sperm frozen with sucrose had the highest motility. Male-to-male variability was evaluated by using sucrose + DMSO and a freezing rate of 10 degrees C/min. For these males, the sperm motility recovery index ranged from 6.67% to 79.27%, and the sperm velocity recovery index ranged from 21.37% to 57.33%. Our findings demonstrate that cryopreservation of Redside Dace sperm in a sucrose + DMSO extender at a freezing rate of 10 degrees C/min is adequate for preserving genetic diversity via sperm banks. Received August 27, 2012; accepted December 1, 2012

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    Other literature type . 2013
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    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
    Article . 2013
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      Scholarship at UWindsor
      Other literature type . 2013
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
      Article . 2013
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    Authors: Jennie G. Briard; Suria Jahan; Priya Chandran; David Allan; +2 Authors

    The success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation depends in part on the number and the quality of cells transplanted. Cryoinjuries during freezing and thawing reduce the ability of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to proliferate and differentiate after thawing. Up to 20% of the patients undergoing umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant experience delayed or failed engraftment, likely because of the inadequate hematopoietic potency of the unit. Therefore, the optimization of cryopreservation protocols, with an emphasis on the preservation of HSPCs, is an important issue. Current protocols typically utilize a 10% dimethyl sulfoxide cryoprotectant solution. This solution ensures 70–80% post-thaw cell viability by diluting intracellular solutes and maintaining the cell volume during cryopreservation. However, this solution fails to fully protect HSPCs, resulting in the loss of potency. Therefore, a new class of cryoprotectants (N-aryl-d-aldonamides) was designed and assessed for the ability to inhibit ice recrystallization and to protect HSPCs against cryoinjury. Several highly active ice recrystallization inhibitors were discovered. When used as additives to the conventional cryoprotectant solution, these nontoxic small molecules improved the preservation of functionally divergent hematopoietic progenitors in the colony-forming unit and long-term culture-initiating cell assays. By contrast, structurally similar compounds that did not inhibit ice recrystallization failed to improve the post-thaw recovery of myeloid progenitors. Together, these results demonstrate that the supplementation of cryopreservation solution with compounds capable of controlling ice recrystallization increases the post-thaw function and potency of HSPCs in UCB. This increase may translate into reduced risk of engraftment failure and allow for greater use of cryopreserved cord blood units.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    ACS Omega
    Article . 2016
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    ACS Omega
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Shabanian, Samira; Arpit, Devansh; Trischler, Adam; Bengio, Yoshua;

    Recurrent neural networks like long short-term memory (LSTM) are important architectures for sequential prediction tasks. LSTMs (and RNNs in general) model sequences along the forward time direction. Bidirectional LSTMs (Bi-LSTMs) on the other hand model sequences along both forward and backward directions and are generally known to perform better at such tasks because they capture a richer representation of the data. In the training of Bi-LSTMs, the forward and backward paths are learned independently. We propose a variant of the Bi-LSTM architecture, which we call Variational Bi-LSTM, that creates a channel between the two paths (during training, but which may be omitted during inference); thus optimizing the two paths jointly. We arrive at this joint objective for our model by minimizing a variational lower bound of the joint likelihood of the data sequence. Our model acts as a regularizer and encourages the two networks to inform each other in making their respective predictions using distinct information. We perform ablation studies to better understand the different components of our model and evaluate the method on various benchmarks, showing state-of-the-art performance.

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2017
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Teulier, Loïc; Weber, Jean-Michel; Crevier, Julie; Darveau, Charles-A.;

    Bees are thought to be strict users of carbohydrates as metabolic fuel for flight. Many insects, however, have the ability to oxidize the amino acid proline at a high rate, which is a unique feature of this group of animals. The presence of proline in the haemolymph of bees and in the nectar of plants led to the hypothesis that plants may produce proline as a metabolic reward for pollinators. We investigated flight muscle metabolism of hymenopteran species using high-resolution respirometry performed on permeabilized muscle fibres. The muscle fibres of the honeybee,Apis mellifera, do not have a detectable capacity to oxidize proline, as those from the migratory locust,Locusta migratoria, used here as an outgroup representative. The closely related bumblebee,Bombus impatiens, can oxidize proline alone and more than doubles its respiratory capacity when proline is combined with carbohydrate-derived substrates. A distant wasp species,Vespula vulgaris, exhibits the same metabolic phenotype as the bumblebee, suggesting that proline oxidation is common in hymenopterans. Using a combination of mitochondrial substrates and inhibitors, we further show that inB. impatiens, proline oxidation provides reducing equivalents and electrons directly to the electron transport system. Together, these findings demonstrate that some bee and wasp species can greatly enhance the oxidation of carbohydrates using proline as fuel for flight.

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    Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Article . 2016
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      Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Danlin, Hou; Dongxue, Zhan; Liangzhu, Wang; Ibrahim Galal, Hassan; +1 Authors

    AbstractMany factors contribute to the inherent uncertainty of energy consumption modeling in buildings. It is essential to perform a calibration and sensitivity analysis in order to manage these uncertainties. Despite the availability of several calibration methods, they are often deterministic and lack quantified uncertainties. Moreover, the selection of parameters in building energy modeling for calibration depends on the user’s experience. Therefore, a more rigorous selection process is required. This study developed a new automated Bayesian Inference calibration platform running as an R package. A sensitivity analysis module and a Bayesian inference module determine the calibration parameters and uncertainties, respectively. The Meta-model module is developed to replace the building energy model for the Markov Chain Monte Carlo process to save computing time. The proposed platform is successfully demonstrated on a synthetic high-rise office building and a real high-rise residential building in a hot and arid climate. The relationship between the number of calibration parameters, calibration performance, and the accuracy of the Meta-model is further discussed. The developed calibration platform in this study proved to have clear advantages over the existing platforms, with the ability to reasonably estimate building energy performance in a short computing time.

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    Discover Mechanical Engineering
    Article . 2023
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      Discover Mechanical Engineering
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    Authors: Tharindu Kodippili; Erfan Azqadan; Hamid Jahed; Stephan Lambert; +1 Authors

    Abstract Careful consideration of the preform shape is essential when designing a forging process. A high-quality forging process must promote process-related grain refinement, and an unbroken grain flow devoid of cavities or folding besides minimizing the amount of generated flash while achieving a complete die fill. The desired forged part properties can be obtained by optimizing the preform shape. However, three-dimensional shape optimization presents challenges in design generation and design evaluation due to the resource-intensive demands of each task. To address these challenges, we propose a multi-objective optimization framework consisting of a parametric computer-aided design (CAD) model for shape generation, data-driven models for shape evaluation, and a multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm to search the design space effectively. This computational framework is used to evolve an optimal preform shape which was ultimately cast using permanent mould casting (PMC) and then hot forged under elevated temperature conditions. We compared the forging outcome of the optimal preform with a baseline cylindrical billet which was produced according to the same sequence of manufacturing steps. Comparative analysis of the laboratory-scale forging results revealed that the cast-preform and cast-billet produced about 6% and 12% flash material, respectively. Quasi-static tensile and stress-controlled cyclic tests were also conducted to evaluate mechanical properties. While comparable yield and ultimate tensile strengths were observed in both forgings, a significant increase in fracture strain was observed in the preform forging, suggesting improved toughness. In general, the forging outcome of the optimized preform proved to be superior to the billet forging.

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    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
    Preprint . 2023
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    The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
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      The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Hao Zhou; Melike Erol-Kantarci; Yuanwei Liu; H. Vincent Poor;

    Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have received considerable attention as a key enabler for envisioned 6G networks, for the purpose of improving the network capacity, coverage, efficiency, and security with low energy consumption and low hardware cost. However, integrating RISs into the existing infrastructure greatly increases the network management complexity, especially for controlling a significant number of RIS elements. To unleash the full potential of RISs, efficient optimization approaches are of great importance. This work provides a comprehensive survey on optimization techniques for RIS-aided wireless communications, including model-based, heuristic, and machine learning (ML) algorithms. In particular, we first summarize the problem formulations in the literature with diverse objectives and constraints, e.g., sum-rate maximization, power minimization, and imperfect channel state information constraints. Then, we introduce model-based algorithms that have been used in the literature, such as alternating optimization, the majorization-minimization method, and successive convex approximation. Next, heuristic optimization is discussed, which applies heuristic rules for obtaining low-complexity solutions. Moreover, we present state-of-the-art ML algorithms and applications towards RISs, i.e., supervised and unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning, federated learning, graph learning, transfer learning, and hierarchical learning-based approaches. Model-based, heuristic, and ML approaches are compared in terms of stability, robustness, optimality and so on, providing a systematic understanding of these techniques. Finally, we highlight RIS-aided applications towards 6G networks and identify future challenges. Comment: This paper has been accepted by IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/comst....
    Article . 2023
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    Authors: Andersson, Nils; Baker, John; Belczynski, Kris; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; +43 Authors

    Interferometric detectors will very soon give us an unprecedented view of the gravitational-wave sky, and in particular of the explosive and transient Universe. Now is the time to challenge our theoretical understanding of short-duration gravitational-wave signatures from cataclysmic events, their connection to more traditional electromagnetic and particle astrophysics, and the data analysis techniques that will make the observations a reality. This paper summarizes the state of the art, future science opportunities, and current challenges in understanding gravitational-wave transients. 33 pages, 2 figures

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    Classical and Quantum Gravity
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      Classical and Quantum Gravity
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    Authors: Miguel A. Vigil Fuentes; Suman Thakur; Feng Wu; Manjusri Misra; +2 Authors

    AbstractIn this study, the 3D printability of a series of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends were investigated using fused filament fabrication (FFF). The studied blends suffered from poor 3D printability due to differences in compatibility and low thermal resistance. These shortcomings were addressed by incorporating a functionalized styrene-acrylate copolymer with oxirane moieties as a chain extender (CE). To enhance mechanical properties, the synergistic effect of 3D printing parameters such as printing temperature and speed, layer thickness and bed temperature were explored. Rheological analysis showed improvement in the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA:CE blend by allowing a higher printing temperature (220 °C) and sufficient printing speed (45 mm s−1). The surface morphology of fractured tensile specimens showed good bonding between layers when a bed temperature of 60 °C was used and a layer thickness of 0.25 mm was designed. The optimized printing samples shown higher storage modulus and strength, resulting in stiffer and stronger parts. The crystallinity, morphology and performance of the 3D printed products were correlated to share key methods to improve the 3D printability of PHBV:PLA based blends which may be implemented in other biopolymer blends, and further highlight how process parameters enhance the mechanical performance of 3D printed products.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

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