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  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
  • 13. Climate action

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Marine Ecology Progr...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Biruk A. Feyissa; Muhammad Arshad; Margaret Y. Gruber; Susanne E. Kohalmi; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundDevelopingMedicago sativaL. (alfalfa) cultivars tolerant to drought is critical for the crop’s sustainable production. miR156 regulates various plant biological functions by silencing SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors.ResultsTo understand the mechanism of miR156-modulated drought stress tolerance in alfalfa we used genotypes with altered expression levels of miR156, miR156-regulatedSPL13, andDIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE(DFR) regulatingWD40–1. Previously we reported the involvement of miR156 in drought tolerance, but the mechanism and downstream genes involved in this process were not fully studied. Here we illustrate the interplay between miR156/SPL13 and WD40–1/DFR to regulate drought stress by coordinating gene expression with metabolite and physiological strategies. Low to moderate levels of miR156 overexpression suppressedSPL13and increasedWD40–1to fine-tuneDFRexpression for enhanced anthocyanin biosynthesis. This, in combination with other accumulated stress mitigating metabolites and physiological responses, improved drought tolerance. We also demonstrated that SPL13 binds in vivo to theDFRpromoter to regulate its expression.ConclusionsTaken together, our results reveal that moderate relative miR156 transcript levels are sufficient to enhance drought resilience in alfalfa by silencingSPL13and increasingWD40–1expression, whereas higher miR156 overexpression results in drought susceptibility.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Plant Biology
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    BMC Plant Biology
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Plant Biology
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      BMC Plant Biology
      Article . 2019
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      BMC Plant Biology
      Article . 2019
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      BMC Plant Biology
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    Authors: Chengyu He; Guohe Huang; Lirong Liu; Xinli Xu; +1 Authors

    Rapid urbanization has challenged the utilization and the circulation of water, especially in rapidly developing regions. It is necessary to disaggregate virtual water metabolic networks (VWMN) in representative areas, and examine their relevant dynamics to sustain regional development. In this study, the VWMN of Guangdong Province, China is developed to explore the ecological relationships between pairwise components and identify the ecological hierarchy structure of VWMN. Particularly, the structural analysis of VWMN is optimized and two indicators are proposed in this study. The integral virtual water recycling index (IVWRI) enable to reveal the extent that components are benefited from the existence of the VWEN and the integral virtual water productivity (IVWP) can identify economic output per unit integral virtual water utilization of each component. The results indicate that the tertiary industry fails to promote the development of its upstream industries, and the integral virtual water productivity of this industry is declining. Technology upgrading of manufacturing industry and steady import of primary products are imperative. Moreover, petroleum, coking, nuclear-fuel and construction industries are key components that clog the studied VWMN. This research provides scientific support for the robust development of VWMN, particularly in alleviating water scarcity and promoting sustainable regional development.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ecological Indicator...arrow_drop_down
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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2020
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      Ecological Indicators
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marika A. Schulhof; Andrew E. Allen; Eric E. Allen; Natalie Mladenov; +7 Authors

    AbstractWarming, eutrophication (nutrient fertilization) and brownification (increased loading of allochthonous organic matter) are three global trends impacting lake ecosystems. However, the independent and synergistic effects of resource addition and warming on autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms are largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the independent and interactive effects of temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, both allochthonous and autochthonous) and nitrogen (N) supply, in addition to the effect of spatial variables, on the composition, richness, and evenness of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities in lakes across elevation and N deposition gradients in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. We found that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities are structured by temperature, terrestrial (allochthonous) DOC and latitude. Prokaryotic communities are also influenced by total and aquatic (autochthonous) DOC, while eukaryotic communities are also structured by nitrate. Additionally, increasing N availability was associated with reduced richness of prokaryotic communities, and both lower richness and evenness of eukaryotes. We did not detect any synergistic or antagonistic effects as there were no interactions among temperature and resource variables. Together, our results suggest that (a) organic and inorganic resources, temperature, and geographic location (based on latitude and longitude) independently influence lake microbial communities; and (b) increasing N supply due to atmospheric N deposition may reduce richness of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, probably by reducing niche dimensionality. Our study provides insight into abiotic processes structuring microbial communities across environmental gradients and their potential roles in material and energy fluxes within and between ecosystems.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Molecular Ecologyarrow_drop_down
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    Molecular Ecology
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    Molecular Ecology
    Article . 2020
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      Molecular Ecology
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      Molecular Ecology
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: K J, Matten; A J, Bartlett; D, Milani; P L, Gillis; +4 Authors

    Naphthalene sulfonic acids (NSAs) are used extensively in industrial applications as dispersants in dyes, rubbers, and pesticides, and as anti-corrosive agents in coatings, gels, and sealants. This study examined the toxicity of three NSA congeners, barium dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate (BaDNS), calcium dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate (CaDNS), and dinonylnaphthalene disulfonic acid (DNDS), to two benthic species, Tubifex tubifex and Hyalella azteca. Two substrates with different levels of organic carbon (sediment [2%] and sand [0%]) were used in toxicity tests. Juvenile production was the most sensitive endpoint for T. tubifex: the 28-d EC50s were18.2, 22.2, and 64.0 μg/g dw in sand and 281.3, 361.6, and 218.9 μg/g dw in sediment for BaDNS, CaDNS, and DNDS, respectively. The 28-d LC50s for H. azteca were similar among compounds: 115.3, 82.1, and 49.0 μg/g dry weight (dw) in sand, and 627.3, 757.9, and188.5 μg/g dw in sediment, for BaDNS, CaDNS, and DNDS, respectively. However, when LC50s were estimated based on concentrations of NSAs measured in overlying water (which can be an important route of exposure for H. azteca), BaDNS and CaDNS were 3-4 orders of magnitude more toxic than DNDS. The NSAs examined were3-fold more toxic when present in substrates with no organic carbon (e.g., sand) for all H. azteca endpoints where LC/EC50s could be calculated and for sublethal endpoints for T. tubifex. The organic carbon content of the sediment appears to have acted as a sink and reduced NSA toxicity by decreasing bioavailability. Environmental sediment samples were collected from 12 river sites across southern Ontario. The maximum concentration of CaDNS observed in sediment collected from this region was 2.8 μg/g dw in sediment with 2% organic carbon; 100-fold lower than the lowest EC10 in the current study.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Environmental Pollut...arrow_drop_down
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    Environmental Pollution
    Article . 2020
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      Environmental Pollution
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    Authors: H. B. O'Neill; Christopher R. Burn; Steven V. Kokelj; Trevor C. Lantz;

    AbstractPermafrost conditions were examined between 2010 and 2014 at four sites across an alpine treeline on Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Ground and air temperature sensors were installed in forest and tundra between 30 and 500 m asl. Annual mean air temperatures increased and the number of freezing degree days declined with elevation, due to persistent winter air temperature inversions. The annual mean temperature at the permafrost surface (Tps) in mineral soils increased with elevation from about −2.5 °C in lowland forest to about −1.5 °C in dwarf shrub tundra. The increase in Tps coincided with higher air temperatures and earlier snow accumulation at tundra sites. The higher Tps in alpine tundra compared to lowland forest in Peel Plain contrasts with the northward decrease in Tps across latitudinal treeline elsewhere in the western Arctic. An increase in Tps with elevation may be common in Arctic mountain environments due to the prevalence of atmospheric temperature inversions in winter. In such contexts, although vegetation characteristics are governed by summer climate, permafrost conditions are critically influenced by the winter regime. The tundra permafrost on Peel Plateau is considerably warmer and, hence, more sensitive to disturbance than perennially frozen ground north of treeline in other parts of the western Arctic. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    Permafrost and Periglacial Processes
    Article . 2015
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      Permafrost and Periglacial Processes
      Article . 2015
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  • Authors: A. Chow; Songnian Li; Alan S. Fung;

    ABSTRACTThis research presents a method to determine the maximum potential for the capturing of solar radiation on the rooftop of buildings in an urban environment. This involves the modeling of solar energy potential and comparison to historical building energy demand profiles through the use of 3-D solar simulation software tools and geographic information systems (GIS). The objective is to accurately identify the amount of surface area that is suitable for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and to estimate the hourly PV electricity generation potential of existing building rooftops in an urban environment. This study demonstrates a viable approach for modeling urban solar energy and offers valuable information for electricity distributors, policy makers, and urban energy planners to facilitate the substantial design of a green built environment. The developed methodology is comprised of three main sections: (1) determination of suitable rooftop area, (2) determination of the amount of incident solar...

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    Authors: Zeina, Baalbaki; Elena, Torfs; Thomas, Maere; Viviane, Yargeau; +1 Authors

    The presence of micropollutants in the environment has triggered research on quantifying and predicting their fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Since the removal of micropollutants is highly related to conventional pollutant removal and affected by hydraulics, aeration, biomass composition and solids concentration, the fate of these conventional pollutants and characteristics must be well predicted before tackling models to predict the fate of micropollutants. In light of this, the current paper presents the dynamic modelling of conventional pollutants undergoing activated sludge treatment using a limited set of additional daily composite data besides the routine data collected at a WWTP over one year. Results showed that as a basis for modelling, the removal of micropollutants, the Bürger-Diehl settler model was found to capture the actual effluent total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations more efficiently than the Takács model by explicitly modelling the overflow boundary. Results also demonstrated that particular attention must be given to characterizing incoming TSS to obtain a representative solids balance in the presence of a chemically enhanced primary treatment, which is key to predict the fate of micropollutants.

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    Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
    Article . 2016
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      Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
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    Authors: Shakirudeen A. Salaudeen; Syeda Humaira Tasnim; Mohammad Heidari; Bishnu Acharya; +1 Authors

    Abstract This work presents an investigation into the potential use of eggshell as a CO2 sorbent in the calcium looping gasification of biomass to enhance carbon negativity. Calcination reaction was studied in a quartz wool matrix reactor and a thermogravimetric analyser coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting sorbent was characterised with a scanning electron microscope, colourimeter, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and nitrogen sorption analyser. The pore structures of the samples are of Type II isotherm. Results show that increasing the calcination temperature enhances decomposition and improves the calcium content and specific surface area of the sorbent. As compared to nitrogen, calcination in a CO2 environment is not effective due to the increased CO2 partial pressure. Samples with low particle size displayed higher carbonation conversion. Increasing the carbonation temperature to an extent enhances the carbonation conversion. The carbonation conversion by the sorbent in multiple calcination-carbonation cycles was also studied. Initial CO2 uptake by the sorbent was highly encouraging. A conversion of 76.41% was realized after the first cycle, but due to sintering and attrition, the conversion reduced with increasing cycle. The sorbent exhibited a low conversion of 18% after the seventh cycle and this corresponds to a decay extent of 76.65%.

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    Waste Management
    Article . 2018
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      Waste Management
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilson, Christine D.;

    This paper presents CI, CO J=4-3, and CO J=3-2 maps of the barred spiral galaxy M83 taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Observations indicate a double peaked structure which is consistent with gas inflow along the bar collecting at the inner Lindblad resonance. This structure suggests that nuclear starbursts can occur even in galaxies where this inflow/collection occurs, in contrast to previous studies of barred spiral galaxies. However, the observations also suggest that the double peaked emission may be the result of a rotating molecular ring oriented nearly perpendicular to the main disk of the galaxy. The CO J=4-3 data indicate the presence of warm gas in the nucleus that is not apparent in the lower-J CO observations, which suggests that CO J=1-0 emission may not be a reliable tracer of molecular gas in starburst galaxies. The twelve CI/CO J=4-3 line ratios in the inner 24'' x 24'' are uniform at the 2 sigma level, which indicates that the CO J=4-3 emission is originating in the same hot photon-dominated regions as the CI emission. The CO J=4-3/J=3-2 line ratios vary significantly within the nucleus with the higher line ratios occurring away from peaks of emission along an arc of active star forming regions. These high line ratios (>1) likely indicate optically thin gas created by the high temperatures caused by star forming regions in the nucleus of this starburst galaxy. 15 pages with 10 figures. To appear in the August 10 1998 issue of The Astrophysical Journal

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 1998
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 1998
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 1998
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

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    Authors: Biruk A. Feyissa; Muhammad Arshad; Margaret Y. Gruber; Susanne E. Kohalmi; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundDevelopingMedicago sativaL. (alfalfa) cultivars tolerant to drought is critical for the crop’s sustainable production. miR156 regulates various plant biological functions by silencing SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors.ResultsTo understand the mechanism of miR156-modulated drought stress tolerance in alfalfa we used genotypes with altered expression levels of miR156, miR156-regulatedSPL13, andDIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE(DFR) regulatingWD40–1. Previously we reported the involvement of miR156 in drought tolerance, but the mechanism and downstream genes involved in this process were not fully studied. Here we illustrate the interplay between miR156/SPL13 and WD40–1/DFR to regulate drought stress by coordinating gene expression with metabolite and physiological strategies. Low to moderate levels of miR156 overexpression suppressedSPL13and increasedWD40–1to fine-tuneDFRexpression for enhanced anthocyanin biosynthesis. This, in combination with other accumulated stress mitigating metabolites and physiological responses, improved drought tolerance. We also demonstrated that SPL13 binds in vivo to theDFRpromoter to regulate its expression.ConclusionsTaken together, our results reveal that moderate relative miR156 transcript levels are sufficient to enhance drought resilience in alfalfa by silencingSPL13and increasingWD40–1expression, whereas higher miR156 overexpression results in drought susceptibility.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Plant Biology
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    BMC Plant Biology
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Plant Biology
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      BMC Plant Biology
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Chengyu He; Guohe Huang; Lirong Liu; Xinli Xu; +1 Authors

    Rapid urbanization has challenged the utilization and the circulation of water, especially in rapidly developing regions. It is necessary to disaggregate virtual water metabolic networks (VWMN) in representative areas, and examine their relevant dynamics to sustain regional development. In this study, the VWMN of Guangdong Province, China is developed to explore the ecological relationships between pairwise components and identify the ecological hierarchy structure of VWMN. Particularly, the structural analysis of VWMN is optimized and two indicators are proposed in this study. The integral virtual water recycling index (IVWRI) enable to reveal the extent that components are benefited from the existence of the VWEN and the integral virtual water productivity (IVWP) can identify economic output per unit integral virtual water utilization of each component. The results indicate that the tertiary industry fails to promote the development of its upstream industries, and the integral virtual water productivity of this industry is declining. Technology upgrading of manufacturing industry and steady import of primary products are imperative. Moreover, petroleum, coking, nuclear-fuel and construction industries are key components that clog the studied VWMN. This research provides scientific support for the robust development of VWMN, particularly in alleviating water scarcity and promoting sustainable regional development.

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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2020
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      Ecological Indicators
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    Authors: Marika A. Schulhof; Andrew E. Allen; Eric E. Allen; Natalie Mladenov; +7 Authors