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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Villaverde, Tamara; Global Carex Group;

    Carex (Cyperaceae), with an estimated 2000 species, nearly cosmopolitan distribution and broad range of habitats, is one of the largest angiosperm genera and the largest in the temperate zone. In this article, we provide argument and evidence for a broader circumscription of Carex to add all species currently classified in Cymophyllus (monotypic), Kobresia (c. 60 species), Schoenoxiphium (c. 15 species) and Uncinia (c. 70 species) to those currently classified as Carex. Carex and these genera comprise tribe Cariceae (subfamily Cyperoideae, Cyperaceae) and form a wellsupported monophyletic group in all molecular phylogenetic studies to date. Carex as defined here in the broad sense currently comprises at least four clades. Three are strongly supported (Siderostictae, core Vignea and core Carex), whereas the caricoid clade, which includes all the segregate genera, receives only weak to moderate support. The caricoid clade is most commonly split into two clades, one including a monophyletic Schoenoxiphium and two small clades of species of Carex s.s., and the other comprising Kobresia, Uncinia and mostly unispicate species of Carex s.s. Morphological variation is high in all but the Vignea clade, making it extremely difficult to define consistent synapomorphies for most clades. However, Carex s.l. as newly circumscribed here is clearly differentiated from the sister groups in tribe Scirpeae by the transition from bisexual flowers with a bristle perianth in the sister group to unisexual flowers without a perianth in Carex. The naked female flowers of Carex s.l. are at least partially enclosed in a flask-shaped prophyll, termed a perigynium. Carex s.s. is not only by far the largest genus in the group, but also the earliest published name. As a result, only 72 new combinations and 58 replacement names are required to treat all of tribe Cariceae as a single genus Carex. We present the required transfers here, with synonymy, and we argue that this broader monophyletic circumscription of Carex reflects the close evolutionary relationships in the group and serves the goal of nomenclatural stability better than other possible treatments. We are grateful to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for funding of the Biodiversity Synthesis Group of the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) project, which funded our BioSynC Synthesis meeting at the Field Museum in Chicago in September 2011, when the Global Carex Group was formed. We also thank the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for funding our continuing international collaborative work on the phylogeny and classification of Carex under grants DEB 1255901 to ALH and MJW, and DEB 1256033 to EHR. We also acknowledge with thanks funding for nomenclatural research and for attendance at our second meeting during the Monocots V conference in New York in July, 2013, from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Canada (NSERC) to MJW and JRS; University of Mainz to BG; JSPS KAKENHI Grant no. 25840136 to OY; Korea National Arboretum to SK; CGL2012- 38744 project from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness to ML; project 30870178 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China to SRZ, and a University of Wisconsin-Madison Raper Travel Grant to DS. The figures were prepared with invaluable technical advice from H. C. Rimmer. Peer reviewed

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Kirk, Haltaufderhyde; Rana N, Ozdeslik; Nadine L, Wicks; Julia A, Najera; +1 Authors

    AbstractHuman skin is constantly exposed to solar light containing visible and ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a powerful skin carcinogen. UVR elicits cellular responses in epidermal cells via several mechanisms: direct absorption of short‐wavelength UVR photons by DNA, oxidative damage caused by long‐wavelength UVR, and, as we recently demonstrated, via a retinal‐dependent G protein‐coupled signaling pathway. Because the human epidermis is exposed to a wide range of light wavelengths, we investigated whether opsins, light‐activated receptors that mediate photoreception in the eye, are expressed in epidermal skin to potentially serve as photosensors. Here we show that four opsins—OPN1‐SW, OPN2, OPN3 and OPN5—are expressed in the two major human epidermal cell types, melanocytes and keratinocytes, and the mRNA expression profile of these opsins does not change in response to physiological UVR doses. We detected two OPN3 splice variants present in similar amounts in both cell types and three OPN5 splice isoforms, two of which encode truncated proteins. Notably, OPN2 and OPN3 mRNA were significantly more abundant than other opsins and encoded full‐length proteins. Our results demonstrate that opsins are expressed in epidermal skin cells and suggest that they might initiate light–induced signaling pathways, possibly contributing to UVR phototransduction.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Photochemistry and Photobiology
    Article
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    Photochemistry and Photobiology
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      Photochemistry and Photobiology
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      Photochemistry and Photobiology
      Article . 2014
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Daniele Luigi Pinti; Marie Haut-Labourdette; André Poirier; Marion Saby; +5 Authors

    The determination of the current and past recharge sources, as well as the reconstruction of the timing of the recharge in geothermal reservoirs, is required in order to correctly assess the resource potential of these systems. Theistareykir is a newly developed geothermal field close to the well-known exploited fields of Krafla and Námafjall in NE Iceland. In this study, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in deep geothermal fluids are presented and, together with the Cl and noble gas signatures, are used to place constraints on the fluid sources. The Cl/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios show a peculiar and unique composition among Icelandic geothermal fluids. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.70355 to 0.70671, suggesting the presence of a significant seawater component—possibly marine aerosols added to rain or snowfall—as well as an additional source of Sr leached from local basalts. Moreover, a correlation between the atmospheric noble gas (ANGs) elemental ratios Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar, and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios is observed. The latter results from the mixing of meteoric water with Sr leached from local basalts, meteoric water containing unrelated Sr from seawater, and recharge water with ANGs derived from trapped air bubbles in snow. We suggest that the combined ANGs and Sr seawater signatures are representative of a glacial water source derived from the melting of compacting snow.

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    Geosciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
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    Geosciences
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      Other literature type . Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
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      Geosciences
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    Standard tomographic analyses ignore model uncertainty. It is assumed that a given model generated the data and the task is to estimate the quantum state, or a subset of parameters within that model. Here we apply a model averaging technique to mitigate the risk of overconfident estimates of model parameters in two examples: (1) selecting the rank of the state in tomography and (2) selecting the model for the fidelity decay curve in randomized benchmarking. Comment: For a summary, see http://i.imgur.com/nMJxANo.png

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    New Journal of Physics
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      New Journal of Physics
      Article . 2014
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2014
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Authors: Hao Zhou; Melike Erol-Kantarci; Yuanwei Liu; H. Vincent Poor;

    Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have received considerable attention as a key enabler for envisioned 6G networks, for the purpose of improving the network capacity, coverage, efficiency, and security with low energy consumption and low hardware cost. However, integrating RISs into the existing infrastructure greatly increases the network management complexity, especially for controlling a significant number of RIS elements. To unleash the full potential of RISs, efficient optimization approaches are of great importance. This work provides a comprehensive survey on optimization techniques for RIS-aided wireless communications, including model-based, heuristic, and machine learning (ML) algorithms. In particular, we first summarize the problem formulations in the literature with diverse objectives and constraints, e.g., sum-rate maximization, power minimization, and imperfect channel state information constraints. Then, we introduce model-based algorithms that have been used in the literature, such as alternating optimization, the majorization-minimization method, and successive convex approximation. Next, heuristic optimization is discussed, which applies heuristic rules for obtaining low-complexity solutions. Moreover, we present state-of-the-art ML algorithms and applications towards RISs, i.e., supervised and unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning, federated learning, graph learning, transfer learning, and hierarchical learning-based approaches. Model-based, heuristic, and ML approaches are compared in terms of stability, robustness, optimality and so on, providing a systematic understanding of these techniques. Finally, we highlight RIS-aided applications towards 6G networks and identify future challenges. Comment: This paper has been accepted by IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/comst....
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/comst....
      Article . 2023
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      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Andersson, Nils; Baker, John; Belczynski, Kris; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; +43 Authors

    Interferometric detectors will very soon give us an unprecedented view of the gravitational-wave sky, and in particular of the explosive and transient Universe. Now is the time to challenge our theoretical understanding of short-duration gravitational-wave signatures from cataclysmic events, their connection to more traditional electromagnetic and particle astrophysics, and the data analysis techniques that will make the observations a reality. This paper summarizes the state of the art, future science opportunities, and current challenges in understanding gravitational-wave transients. 33 pages, 2 figures

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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2013
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    Classical and Quantum Gravity
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      Classical and Quantum Gravity
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    Authors: Cheng-Wei Wu; Keon Wimberly; Adele Pietras; William S Dodd; +2 Authors

    Background Adaptive responses to stress are essential for cell and organismal survival. In metazoans, little is known about the impact of environmental stress on RNA homeostasis. Results By studying the regulation of a cadmium-induced gene named numr-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans, we discovered that disruption of RNA processing acts as a signal for environmental stress. We find that NUMR-1 contains motifs common to RNA splicing factors and influences RNA splicing in vivo. A genome-wide screen reveals that numr-1 is strongly and specifically induced by silencing of genes that function in basal RNA metabolism including subunits of the metazoan integrator complex. Human integrator processes snRNAs for functioning with splicing factors, and we find that silencing of C. elegans integrator subunits disrupts snRNA processing, causes aberrant pre-mRNA splicing, and induces the heat shock response. Cadmium, which also strongly induces numr-1, has similar effects on RNA and the heat shock response. Lastly, we find that heat shock factor-1 is required for full numr-1 induction by cadmium. Conclusion Our results are consistent with a model in which disruption of integrator processing of RNA acts as a molecular damage signal initiating an adaptive stress response mediated by heat shock factor-1. When numr-1 is induced via this pathway in C. elegans, its function in RNA metabolism may allow it to mitigate further damage and thereby promote tolerance to cadmium. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12915-019-0675-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Biology
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    Authors: Scheuermann, Fabian; Kreckel, Kathryn; Barnes, Ashley T.; Belfiore, Francesco; +29 Authors

    Connecting the gas in HII regions to the underlying source of the ionizing radiation can help us constrain the physical processes of stellar feedback and how HII regions evolve over time. With PHANGS$\unicode{x2013}$MUSE we detect nearly 24,000 HII regions across 19 galaxies and measure the physical properties of the ionized gas (e.g. metallicity, ionization parameter, density). We use catalogues of multi-scale stellar associations from PHANGS$\unicode{x2013}$HST to obtain constraints on the age of the ionizing sources. We construct a matched catalogue of 4,177 HII regions that are clearly linked to a single ionizing association. A weak anti-correlation is observed between the association ages and the H$\alpha$ equivalent width EW(H$\alpha$), the H$\alpha$/FUV flux ratio and the ionization parameter, log q. As all three are expected to decrease as the stellar population ages, this could indicate that we observe an evolutionary sequence. This interpretation is further supported by correlations between all three properties. Interpreting these as evolutionary tracers, we find younger nebulae to be more attenuated by dust and closer to giant molecular clouds, in line with recent models of feedback-regulated star formation. We also observe strong correlations with the local metallicity variations and all three proposed age tracers, suggestive of star formation preferentially occurring in locations of locally enhanced metallicity. Overall, EW(H$\alpha$) and log q show the most consistent trends and appear to be most reliable tracers for the age of an HII region. Comment: 15 pages, 12 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Corentin Cruché; Sayak Gupta; Jeremy Kodanko; Shawn K. Collins;

    A series of copper-based photocatalysts of the type Cu(NN)(BINAP)BF4 were synthesized bearing π-extended diimine ligands. Their behavior in several photocatalytic processes were evaluated and revealed acceptable levels of activity in an SET process, but negligible activity in PCET or ET processes. Suitable activity in ET processes could be restored through modification of the ligand. The BINAP-derived complexes were then evaluated for activity against triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Controls indicated that copper complexes, and not their ligands, were responsible for activity. Encouraging activity was displayed by a homoleptic complex Cu(dppz)2BF4.

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    Molecules
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    Authors: P. Scholz; Slavko Bogdanov; Jason W. T. Hessels; Ryan S. Lynch; +18 Authors

    We undertook coordinated campaigns with the Green Bank, Effelsberg, and Arecibo radio telescopes during Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton observations of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 to search for simultaneous radio and X-ray bursts. We find 12 radio bursts from FRB 121102 during 70 ks total of X-ray observations. We detect no X-ray photons at the times of radio bursts from FRB 121102 and further detect no X-ray bursts above the measured background at any time. We place a 5$\sigma$ upper limit of $3\times10^{-11}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ on the 0.5--10 keV fluence for X-ray bursts at the time of radio bursts for durations $<700$ ms, which corresponds to a burst energy of $4\times10^{45}$ erg at the measured distance of FRB 121102. We also place limits on the 0.5--10 keV fluence of $5\times10^{-10}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ and $1\times10^{-9}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ for bursts emitted at any time during the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, respectively, assuming a typical X-ray burst duration of 5 ms. We analyze data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and place a 5$\sigma$ upper limit on the 10--100 keV fluence of $4\times10^{-9}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ ($5\times10^{47}$ erg at the distance of FRB 121102) for gamma-ray bursts at the time of radio bursts. We also present a deep search for a persistent X-ray source using all of the X-ray observations taken to date and place a 5$\sigma$ upper limit on the 0.5--10 keV flux of $4\times10^{-15}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ ($3\times10^{41}$ erg~s$^{-1}$ at the distance of FRB 121102). We discuss these non-detections in the context of the host environment of FRB 121102 and of possible sources of fast radio bursts in general. Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures, published in ApJ

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    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 2017
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    The Astrophysical Journal
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      The Astrophysical Journal
      Article . 2017
      License: IOP Copyright Policies
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      NRC Publications Archive
      Other literature type . 2017
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      The Astrophysical Journal
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: NARCIS
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2017
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Villaverde, Tamara; Global Carex Group;

    Carex (Cyperaceae), with an estimated 2000 species, nearly cosmopolitan distribution and broad range of habitats, is one of the largest angiosperm genera and the largest in the temperate zone. In this article, we provide argument and evidence for a broader circumscription of Carex to add all species currently classified in Cymophyllus (monotypic), Kobresia (c. 60 species), Schoenoxiphium (c. 15 species) and Uncinia (c. 70 species) to those currently classified as Carex. Carex and these genera comprise tribe Cariceae (subfamily Cyperoideae, Cyperaceae) and form a wellsupported monophyletic group in all molecular phylogenetic studies to date. Carex as defined here in the broad sense currently comprises at least four clades. Three are strongly supported (Siderostictae, core Vignea and core Carex), whereas the caricoid clade, which includes all the segregate genera, receives only weak to moderate support. The caricoid clade is most commonly split into two clades, one including a monophyletic Schoenoxiphium and two small clades of species of Carex s.s., and the other comprising Kobresia, Uncinia and mostly unispicate species of Carex s.s. Morphological variation is high in all but the Vignea clade, making it extremely difficult to define consistent synapomorphies for most clades. However, Carex s.l. as newly circumscribed here is clearly differentiated from the sister groups in tribe Scirpeae by the transition from bisexual flowers with a bristle perianth in the sister group to unisexual flowers without a perianth in Carex. The naked female flowers of Carex s.l. are at least partially enclosed in a flask-shaped prophyll, termed a perigynium. Carex s.s. is not only by far the largest genus in the group, but also the earliest published name. As a result, only 72 new combinations and 58 replacement names are required to treat all of tribe Cariceae as a single genus Carex. We present the required transfers here, with synonymy, and we argue that this broader monophyletic circumscription of Carex reflects the close evolutionary relationships in the group and serves the goal of nomenclatural stability better than other possible treatments. We are grateful to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for funding of the Biodiversity Synthesis Group of the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) project, which funded our BioSynC Synthesis meeting at the Field Museum in Chicago in September 2011, when the Global Carex Group was formed. We also thank the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for funding our continuing international collaborative work on the phylogeny and classification of Carex under grants DEB 1255901 to ALH and MJW, and DEB 1256033 to EHR. We also acknowledge with thanks funding for nomenclatural research and for attendance at our second meeting during the Monocots V conference in New York in July, 2013, from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Canada (NSERC) to MJW and JRS; University of Mainz to BG; JSPS KAKENHI Grant no. 25840136 to OY; Korea National Arboretum to SK; CGL2012- 38744 project from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness to ML; project 30870178 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China to SRZ, and a University of Wisconsin-Madison Raper Travel Grant to DS. The figures were prepared with invaluable technical advice from H. C. Rimmer. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Kirk, Haltaufderhyde; Rana N, Ozdeslik; Nadine L, Wicks; Julia A, Najera; +1 Authors

    AbstractHuman skin is constantly exposed to solar light containing visible and ultraviolet radiation (UVR), a powerful skin carcinogen. UVR elicits cellular responses in epidermal cells via several mechanisms: direct absorption of short‐wavelength UVR photons by DNA, oxidative damage caused by long‐wavelength UVR, and, as we recently demonstrated, via a retinal‐dependent G protein‐coupled signaling pathway. Because the human epidermis is exposed to a wide range of light wavelengths, we investigated whether opsins, light‐activated receptors that mediate photoreception in the eye, are expressed in epidermal skin to potentially serve as photosensors. Here we show that four opsins—OPN1‐SW, OPN2, OPN3 and OPN5—are expressed in the two major human epidermal cell types, melanocytes and keratinocytes, and the mRNA expression profile of these opsins does not change in response to physiological UVR doses. We detected two OPN3 splice variants present in similar amounts in both cell types and three OPN5 splice isoforms, two of which encode truncated proteins. Notably, OPN2 and OPN3 mRNA were significantly more abundant than other opsins and encoded full‐length proteins. Our results demonstrate that opsins are expressed in epidermal skin cells and suggest that they might initiate light–induced signaling pathways, possibly contributing to UVR phototransduction.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Photochemistry and Photobiology
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Photochemistry and Photobiology
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Photochemistry and Photobiology
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      Photochemistry and Photobiology
      Article . 2014
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Daniele Luigi Pinti; Marie Haut-Labourdette; André Poirier; Marion Saby; +5 Authors

    The determination of the current and past recharge sources, as well as the reconstruction of the timing of the recharge in geothermal reservoirs, is required in order to correctly assess the resource potential of these systems. Theistareykir is a newly developed geothermal field close to the well-known exploited fields of Krafla and Námafjall in NE Iceland. In this study, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in deep geothermal fluids are presented and, together with the Cl and noble gas signatures, are used to place constraints on the fluid sources. The Cl/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios show a peculiar and unique composition among Icelandic geothermal fluids. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.70355 to 0.70671, suggesting the presence of a significant seawater component—possibly marine aerosols added to rain or snowfall—as well as an additional source of Sr leached from local basalts. Moreover, a correlation between the atmospheric noble gas (ANGs) elemental ratios Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar, and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios is observed. The latter results from the mixing of meteoric water with Sr leached from local basalts, meteoric water containing unrelated Sr from seawater, and recharge water with ANGs derived from trapped air bubbles in snow. We suggest that the combined ANGs and Sr seawater signatures are representative of a glacial water source derived from the melting of compacting snow.

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    Geosciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
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