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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adrien Cervesato; E. Owen D. Waygood;
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council National Academy of Sciences
    Country: Canada

    Children’s independent mobility (CIM) on school days (weekdays) and on the weekend are examined in this study. Previous studies have focused primarily on weekday trips, with a vast majority only examining trips to school. However, the types of trips and the available time differ between weekdays and weekends. Weekday trips are more regular and possibly more local, whereas on the weekend the children may have more free time (i.e., no school) to engage in activities. Parents (as a group) are also less likely to have work obligations, and thus potentially more time, on the weekend. Theoretically, each context for the weekend could facilitate more independent or active mode trips. Nonetheless, this may be linked to whether destinations are local, which is linked to the built environment. Using origin–destination data (2011) for the City of Québec, this paper will expand knowledge in the field of children’s travel by examining all trips during a weekday ( n = 979) and weekend ( n = 315) for children aged 9 to 11 across five built environment types. The findings show that weekend trips are rarely independent, and that the key explanatory factors for greater CIM are shorter distances, having an older sibling, and more urban environments. Other sociodemographic variables were not significant or were inconsistent between the two types of weekday.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ashley Zachariah; Arno de Klerk;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    Solvent deasphalting and visbreaking are two important technologies in the development of processes for partial upgrading of oilsands-derived bitumen to improve oil fluidity for pipeline transport. This work investigated the impact of the process sequence, solvent deasphalting followed by visbreaking (SDA-Vis) compared to visbreaking followed by solvent deasphalting (Vis-SDA). Thermal conversion during visbreaking was performed at 380 °C for 85 min, and solvent deasphalting was performed with n-pentane. Using this combination of processes in either sequence changed bitumen from a viscosity-limited fluid to a density-limited fluid with respect to pipeline specifications. The density and viscosity of the oil products from SDA-Vis and Vis-SDA were comparable. It was found that SDA-Vis achieved 2 wt % higher liquid yield than Vis-SDA. Conversely, Vis-SDA produced an oil product with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio compared to SDA-Vis. This difference could be explained in terms of hydrogen transfer during the...

  • Publication . Article . 2008
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan Antonio Carrasco; Eric J. Miller; Barry Wellman;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    Hägerstrand's seminal argument that regional science is about people and not just locations is still a compelling and challenging idea when the spatial distribution of activities is studied. In the context of social activity–travel behavior (hosting and visiting), this issue is particularly fundamental as individuals’ main motivation in making social trips is mostly with whom they interact rather than where they go. A useful approach to incorporate the travelers’ social context is to study explicitly the spatial distribution of their social networks, focusing on social locations as emerging from their contacts, rather than analyzing social activity locations in isolation. In this context, this paper studies the spatial distribution of social activities, focusing on the home distances between specific individuals (egos) and the network members (alters) with whom they socialize—serving as a proxy to study social activity–travel location. Using data from a recent study of personal networks and social interaction, and multilevel models that account for the hierarchical structure of these networks, this paper provides empirical evidence on how the characteristics of individuals and their social context relate to the distance separating them. The results strongly suggest that, although the spatial distribution of social interaction has idiosyncratic characteristics, there are several systematic effects associated with the characteristics of egos, alters, and their personal networks that affect the spatial distribution of relationships, and they can contribute to an understanding of where people perform social activities with others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kortright, Robin; Kang, Lucy;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    As communities grow and change it has become increasingly important to understand, plan and design for the movement of freight in order to maintain goods movement efficiency and the economic competitiveness of communities, while integrating and balancing the needs of other transportation system users and the compatibility of surrounding land uses. The Ontario Ministry of Transportation has developed Freight-Supportive Guidelines to assist municipalities, planners, engineers, developers and other practitioners in creating safe and efficient freight-supportive communities. The Guidelines provide land use planning, site design, road design and operational best practices, examples and implementation tools that are applicable to a wide range of communities and municipalities across Canada. Transportation demand management strategies can also be used to improve the efficiency of urban freight movement. During the Toronto 2015 Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation conducted a pilot to explore the potential of using off-peak deliveries as an urban freight transportation demand management strategy. The pilot allowed businesses and municipalities to explore the suitability and potential benefits and challenges of off-peak deliveries.

  • Publication . Conference object . 1996
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Duane S. Cronin; K. Andrew Roberts; R.J. Pick;
    Publisher: American Society of Mechanical Engineers

    Due to coating disbondment long corrosion grooves can develop in line pipe. For simple corrosion geometries current methods of assessing the residual strength of the pipe are adequate but conservative, particularly if only the nominal material strength is considered. In the case of long corrosion grooves which contain pits the application of current assessment procedures can lead to a variation in the degree of conservatism, depending on the importance applied to the pitting. This paper reviews existing methods of assessing long corrosion and describes the result of a finite element study of pits within long corrosion grooves.Copyright © 1996 by ASME

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Green; Rebecca Steinbach; Alasdair Jones; Phil Edwards; Charlotte Kelly; John Nellthorp; Anna Goodman; Helen Roberts; Mark Petticrew; Paul Wilkinson;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR

    BackgroundIn September 2005 London introduced a policy granting young people aged < 17 years access to free bus and tram travel. A year later this policy was extended to people aged < 18 years in education, work or training. This intervention was part of a broader environmental strategy in London to reduce private car use, but its primary aim was to decrease ‘transport exclusion’, and ensure that access to goods, services, education and training opportunities were not denied to some young people because of transport poverty. However, there were also likely to be positive and negative health implications, which were difficult to assess in the absence of a robust evidence base on the impact of transport policies on health and well-being.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of free bus travel for young people in London on the public health. Specifically, to provide empirical evidence for the impact of this ‘natural experiment’ on health outcomes and behaviours (e.g. injuries, active travel) for young people; explore the effects on the determinants of health; identify the effects on older citizens of increased access to bus travel for young people and to identify whether or not the intervention represented value for money.DesignQuasi-experimental design, using secondary analysis of routine data, primary qualitative data and literature reviews.SettingLondon, UK.ParticipantsYoung people aged 12–17 years and older citizens aged ≥ 60 years.InterventionThe introduction of free bus travel for those aged < 17 years living in London in 2005, extended to those aged < 18 years in 2006.Main outcome measuresQuantitative: number of journeys to school or work; frequency and distance of active travel (i.e. walking and/or cycling), bus travel, car travel; incidence of road traffic injuries and assaults and socioeconomic gradients in travel patterns. Qualitative: how free bus travel affected young people and older citizens’ travel and well-being.MethodsQuantitative component: change-on-change analysis comparing pre–post change in the target age group (12–17 years) against that seen in ‘non-exposed’ groups [for travel mode, road traffic injury (RTI) and assaults]. Qualitative component: interviews analysed using both deductive and inductive methods. Economic evaluation: cost–benefit analysis (CBA).Data sourcesLondon Area Transport Survey (LATS) and London Travel Demand Survey (LTDS) (travel mode); STATS19 Road Accident data set (RTI); Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) (assaults); interviews with young people and older citizens; and cost data from providers and literature reviews.ResultsThe introduction of free bus travel for young people was associated with higher use of bus travel by adults and young people [31% increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 19% to 42%; and 26% increase, 95% CI 13% to 41%, respectively], especially for short journeys, and lower car distances relative to adults (relative change 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.94); no significant overall reduction in ‘active travel’ [reduction in number of walking trips but no evidence of change in distance walked (relative change 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07)]; significant reduction in cycling relative to adults (but from a very low base); a reduction in road traffic injuries for car occupants (relative change 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.95) and cyclists (relative change 0.60, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.66), but not pedestrians; an overall modest increase in journeys to work or school (relative change 1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14); equivocal evidence of impact on socioeconomic gradients in travel behaviour and no evidence of adverse impact on travel of older people aged > 60 years. An increase in assaults largely preceded the scheme. Qualitative data suggested that the scheme increased opportunities for independent travel, social inclusion, and a sense of belonging and that it ‘normalised’ bus travel. The monetised benefits of the scheme substantially outweighed the costs, providing what the Department for Transport (DfT) considers ‘high’ value for money.ConclusionThe free bus travel scheme for young people appears to have encouraged their greater use of bus transport for short trips without significant impact on their overall active travel. There was qualitative evidence for benefits on social determinants of health, such as normalisation of bus travel, greater social inclusion and opportunities for independent travel. In the context of a good bus service, universal free bus travel for young people appears to be a cost-effective contributor to social inclusion and, potentially, to increasing sustainable transport in the long term. Further research is needed on the effects of both active and other travel modes on the determinants of health; the factors that influence maintenance of travel mode change; travel as ‘social practice’; the impact of driving license changes on injury rates for young adults and the value of a statistical life for young people.FundingThe National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research programme.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Sophie Némoz;
    Publisher: Éditions en environnement VertigO
    Country: Canada

    Lors du Symposium mondial sur le développement durable dans les universités (SMDD-U-2012), les établissements de recherche et d’enseignement supérieur ont été appelés à accompagner les changements environnementaux de la société. L’article interroge leur rôle dans la transition énergétique des territoires, en analysant comment les universités vont, en pratique, participer aux projets de réseaux intelligents au service de la mobilité électrique. L’objectif est de mettre à l’épreuve des faits les promesses d’un changement radical par l’amélioration de la cognition au moyen des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication. D’un point de vue international et local, cette « ontologie de l’intelligence » est revisitée sur le terrain universitaire. Un état des lieux et du paysage scientifique à travers le monde ouvre les discussions sur le concept d’« innovation de rupture » tel qu’il est aujourd’hui associé à l’introduction de technologies intelligentes dans le champ énergétique. Le cas de la recherche-action « Smart Campus » permet de relativiser les explications enchantées de la réussite des innovations. During the World Symposium on Sustainable Development at Universities (WSSD-U-2012), the establishments of higher education have been required to accompany the environmental changes of society. The paper questions their role in the energy transition of territories by analyzing how universities participate in the projects of smart grids in connection to electric mobility. The aim is to look at the facts and to test the promises of a radical change by improving cognition thanks to these new information and communication technologies. From an international and local analysis, the “smart ontology” is revisited on the university ground. A state of international diffusion and a review of scientific literature open the discussions on the concept of “breakthrough innovation” such as it is associated with the introduction of smart technologies into the energy field. The case of action research “Smart Campus” puts into perspective the enchanted explanations of successful innovation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Geraldine J. Fuenmayor; John E Abraham; John Douglas Hunt;
    Publisher: University of Minnesota

    We applied the PECAS Framework, a spatial economic system for forecasting and policy analysis, to the region of Caracas, Venezuela. In this paper, we describe in 12 steps the elements developed for an Activity Allocation model in this region. A detailed inventory of built space and household characteristics was developed using a population synthesis technique. The model design and implementation reflected informal (slum) housing and social equity (with 20 residential space types), while accounting for the industrial mix of the region. Transport costs for economic interactions were calculated using a TRANUS travel demand model. We also describe the calibration of the model and the application to two policy scenarios: provision of public housing and increasing transit fares. The 12 steps can guide future researchers, specifically listing the data and processes that were applied in this context. The sensitivity tests showed how this type of model can be used to anticipate social equity effects due to policy. Based on the know-how gained, we provide valuable insights for other modelling teams, particularly for applications in developing economies.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
916 Research products, page 1 of 92
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adrien Cervesato; E. Owen D. Waygood;
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council National Academy of Sciences
    Country: Canada

    Children’s independent mobility (CIM) on school days (weekdays) and on the weekend are examined in this study. Previous studies have focused primarily on weekday trips, with a vast majority only examining trips to school. However, the types of trips and the available time differ between weekdays and weekends. Weekday trips are more regular and possibly more local, whereas on the weekend the children may have more free time (i.e., no school) to engage in activities. Parents (as a group) are also less likely to have work obligations, and thus potentially more time, on the weekend. Theoretically, each context for the weekend could facilitate more independent or active mode trips. Nonetheless, this may be linked to whether destinations are local, which is linked to the built environment. Using origin–destination data (2011) for the City of Québec, this paper will expand knowledge in the field of children’s travel by examining all trips during a weekday ( n = 979) and weekend ( n = 315) for children aged 9 to 11 across five built environment types. The findings show that weekend trips are rarely independent, and that the key explanatory factors for greater CIM are shorter distances, having an older sibling, and more urban environments. Other sociodemographic variables were not significant or were inconsistent between the two types of weekday.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ashley Zachariah; Arno de Klerk;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    Solvent deasphalting and visbreaking are two important technologies in the development of processes for partial upgrading of oilsands-derived bitumen to improve oil fluidity for pipeline transport. This work investigated the impact of the process sequence, solvent deasphalting followed by visbreaking (SDA-Vis) compared to visbreaking followed by solvent deasphalting (Vis-SDA). Thermal conversion during visbreaking was performed at 380 °C for 85 min, and solvent deasphalting was performed with n-pentane. Using this combination of processes in either sequence changed bitumen from a viscosity-limited fluid to a density-limited fluid with respect to pipeline specifications. The density and viscosity of the oil products from SDA-Vis and Vis-SDA were comparable. It was found that SDA-Vis achieved 2 wt % higher liquid yield than Vis-SDA. Conversely, Vis-SDA produced an oil product with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio compared to SDA-Vis. This difference could be explained in terms of hydrogen transfer during the...

  • Publication . Article . 2008
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan Antonio Carrasco; Eric J. Miller; Barry Wellman;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    Hägerstrand's seminal argument that regional science is about people and not just locations is still a compelling and challenging idea when the spatial distribution of activities is studied. In the context of social activity–travel behavior (hosting and visiting), this issue is particularly fundamental as individuals’ main motivation in making social trips is mostly with whom they interact rather than where they go. A useful approach to incorporate the travelers’ social context is to study explicitly the spatial distribution of their social networks, focusing on social locations as emerging from their contacts, rather than analyzing social activity locations in isolation. In this context, this paper studies the spatial distribution of social activities, focusing on the home distances between specific individuals (egos) and the network members (alters) with whom they socialize—serving as a proxy to study social activity–travel location. Using data from a recent study of personal networks and social interaction, and multilevel models that account for the hierarchical structure of these networks, this paper provides empirical evidence on how the characteristics of individuals and their social context relate to the distance separating them. The results strongly suggest that, although the spatial distribution of social interaction has idiosyncratic characteristics, there are several systematic effects associated with the characteristics of egos, alters, and their personal networks that affect the spatial distribution of relationships, and they can contribute to an understanding of where people perform social activities with others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kortright, Robin; Kang, Lucy;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    As communities grow and change it has become increasingly important to understand, plan and design for the movement of freight in order to maintain goods movement efficiency and the economic competitiveness of communities, while integrating and balancing the needs of other transportation system users and the compatibility of surrounding land uses. The Ontario Ministry of Transportation has developed Freight-Supportive Guidelines to assist municipalities, planners, engineers, developers and other practitioners in creating safe and efficient freight-supportive communities. The Guidelines provide land use planning, site design, road design and operational best practices, examples and implementation tools that are applicable to a wide range of communities and municipalities across Canada. Transportation demand management strategies can also be used to improve the efficiency of urban freight movement. During the Toronto 2015 Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation conducted a pilot to explore the potential of using off-peak deliveries as an urban freight transportation demand management strategy. The pilot allowed businesses and municipalities to explore the suitability and potential benefits and challenges of off-peak deliveries.

  • Publication . Conference object . 1996
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Duane S. Cronin; K. Andrew Roberts; R.J. Pick;
    Publisher: American Society of Mechanical Engineers

    Due to coating disbondment long corrosion grooves can develop in line pipe. For simple corrosion geometries current methods of assessing the residual strength of the pipe are adequate but conservative, particularly if only the nominal material strength is considered. In the case of long corrosion grooves which contain pits the application of current assessment procedures can lead to a variation in the degree of conservatism, depending on the importance applied to the pitting. This paper reviews existing methods of assessing long corrosion and describes the result of a finite element study of pits within long corrosion grooves.Copyright © 1996 by ASME

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Green; Rebecca Steinbach; Alasdair Jones; Phil Edwards; Charlotte Kelly; John Nellthorp; Anna Goodman; Helen Roberts; Mark Petticrew; Paul Wilkinson;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR

    BackgroundIn September 2005 London introduced a policy granting young people aged < 17 years access to free bus and tram travel. A year later this policy was extended to people aged < 18 years in education, work or training. This intervention was part of a broader environmental strategy in London to reduce private car use, but its primary aim was to decrease ‘transport exclusion’, and ensure that access to goods, services, education and training opportunities were not denied to some young people because of transport poverty. However, there were also likely to be positive and negative health implications, which were difficult to assess in the absence of a robust evidence base on the impact of transport policies on health and well-being.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of free bus travel for young people in London on the public health. Specifically, to provide empirical evidence for the impact of this ‘natural experiment’ on health outcomes and behaviours (e.g. injuries, active travel) for young people; explore the effects on the determinants of health; identify the effects on older citizens of increased access to bus travel for young people and to identify whether or not the intervention represented value for money.DesignQuasi-experimental design, using secondary analysis of routine data, primary qualitative data and literature reviews.SettingLondon, UK.ParticipantsYoung people aged 12–17 years and older citizens aged ≥ 60 years.InterventionThe introduction of free bus travel for those aged < 17 years living in London in 2005, extended to those aged < 18 years in 2006.Main outcome measuresQuantitative: number of journeys to school or work; frequency and distance of active travel (i.e. walking and/or cycling), bus travel, car travel; incidence of road traffic injuries and assaults and socioeconomic gradients in travel patterns. Qualitative: how free bus travel affected young people and older citizens’ travel and well-being.MethodsQuantitative component: change-on-change analysis comparing pre–post change in the target age group (12–17 years) against that seen in ‘non-exposed’ groups [for travel mode, road traffic injury (RTI) and assaults]. Qualitative component: interviews analysed using both deductive and inductive methods. Economic evaluation: cost–benefit analysis (CBA).Data sourcesLondon Area Transport Survey (LATS) and London Travel Demand Survey (LTDS) (travel mode); STATS19 Road Accident data set (RTI); Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) (assaults); interviews with young people and older citizens; and cost data from providers and literature reviews.ResultsThe introduction of free bus travel for young people was associated with higher use of bus travel by adults and young people [31% increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 19% to 42%; and 26% increase, 95% CI 13% to 41%, respectively], especially for short journeys, and lower car distances relative to adults (relative change 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.94); no significant overall reduction in ‘active travel’ [reduction in number of walking trips but no evidence of change in distance walked (relative change 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07)]; significant reduction in cycling relative to adults (but from a very low base); a reduction in road traffic injuries for car occupants (relative change 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.95) and cyclists (relative change 0.60, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.66), but not pedestrians; an overall modest increase in journeys to work or school (relative change 1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14); equivocal evidence of impact on socioeconomic gradients in travel behaviour and no evidence of adverse impact on travel of older people aged > 60 years. An increase in assaults largely preceded the scheme. Qualitative data suggested that the scheme increased opportunities for independent travel, social inclusion, and a sense of belonging and that it ‘normalised’ bus travel. The monetised benefits of the scheme substantially outweighed the costs, providing what the Department for Transport (DfT) considers ‘high’ value for money.ConclusionThe free bus travel scheme for young people appears to have encouraged their greater use of bus transport for short trips without significant impact on their overall active travel. There was qualitative evidence for benefits on social determinants of health, such as normalisation of bus travel, greater social inclusion and opportunities for independent travel. In the context of a good bus service, universal free bus travel for young people appears to be a cost-effective contributor to social inclusion and, potentially, to increasing sustainable transport in the long term. Further research is needed on the effects of both active and other travel modes on the determinants of health; the factors that influence maintenance of travel mode change; travel as ‘social practice’; the impact of driving license changes on injury rates for young adults and the value of a statistical life for young people.FundingThe National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research programme.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Sophie Némoz;
    Publisher: Éditions en environnement VertigO
    Country: Canada

    Lors du Symposium mondial sur le développement durable dans les universités (SMDD-U-2012), les établissements de recherche et d’enseignement supérieur ont été appelés à accompagner les changements environnementaux de la société. L’article interroge leur rôle dans la transition énergétique des territoires, en analysant comment les universités vont, en pratique, participer aux projets de réseaux intelligents au service de la mobilité électrique. L’objectif est de mettre à l’épreuve des faits les promesses d’un changement radical par l’amélioration de la cognition au moyen des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication. D’un point de vue international et local, cette « ontologie de l’intelligence » est revisitée sur le terrain universitaire. Un état des lieux et du paysage scientifique à travers le monde ouvre les discussions sur le concept d’« innovation de rupture » tel qu’il est aujourd’hui associé à l’introduction de technologies intelligentes dans le champ énergétique. Le cas de la recherche-action « Smart Campus » permet de relativiser les explications enchantées de la réussite des innovations. During the World Symposium on Sustainable Development at Universities (WSSD-U-2012), the establishments of higher education have been required to accompany the environmental changes of society. The paper questions their role in the energy transition of territories by analyzing how universities participate in the projects of smart grids in connection to electric mobility. The aim is to look at the facts and to test the promises of a radical change by improving cognition thanks to these new information and communication technologies. From an international and local analysis, the “smart ontology” is revisited on the university ground. A state of international diffusion and a review of scientific literature open the discussions on the concept of “breakthrough innovation” such as it is associated with the introduction of smart technologies into the energy field. The case of action research “Smart Campus” puts into perspective the enchanted explanations of successful innovation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Geraldine J. Fuenmayor; John E Abraham; John Douglas Hunt;
    Publisher: University of Minnesota

    We applied the PECAS Framework, a spatial economic system for forecasting and policy analysis, to the region of Caracas, Venezuela. In this paper, we describe in 12 steps the elements developed for an Activity Allocation model in this region. A detailed inventory of built space and household characteristics was developed using a population synthesis technique. The model design and implementation reflected informal (slum) housing and social equity (with 20 residential space types), while accounting for the industrial mix of the region. Transport costs for economic interactions were calculated using a TRANUS travel demand model. We also describe the calibration of the model and the application to two policy scenarios: provision of public housing and increasing transit fares. The 12 steps can guide future researchers, specifically listing the data and processes that were applied in this context. The sensitivity tests showed how this type of model can be used to anticipate social equity effects due to policy. Based on the know-how gained, we provide valuable insights for other modelling teams, particularly for applications in developing economies.