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2,388 Research products, page 1 of 239

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  • 2013-2022
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  • Australian Research Council (ARC)
  • AU

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christophe Maïano; Alexandre J. S. Morin; Marie-Christine Lanfranchi; Pierre Therme;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP140101559)

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting–purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting–Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kristen K. Beck; Michael-Shawn Fletcher; Patricia Gadd; Henk Heijnis; Krystyna M. Saunders; Gavin Simpson; Atun Zawadzki;
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC , ARC | Tracking the response of ... (DI110100019), ARC | Discovery Indigenous - Gr... (IN140100050)

    Critical transitions in ecosystem states are often sudden and unpredictable. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to identify measurable early warning signals (EWS) for these important events. Aquatic ecosystems provide an opportunity to observe critical transitions due to their high sensitivity and rapid response times. Using palaeoecological techniques, we can measure properties of time series data to determine if critical transitions are preceded by any measurable ecosystem metrics, that is, identify EWS. Using a suite of palaeoenvironmental data spanning the last 2,400 years (diatoms, pollen, geochemistry, and charcoal influx), we assess whether a critical transition in diatom community structure was preceded by measurable EWS. Lake Vera, in the temperate rain forest of western Tasmania, Australia, has a diatom community dominated by Discostella stelligera and undergoes an abrupt compositional shift at ca. 820 cal yr BP that is concomitant with increased fire disturbance of the local vegetation. This shift is manifest as a transition from less oligotrophic acidic diatom flora (Achnanthidium minutissimum, Brachysira styriaca, and Fragilaria capucina) to more oligotrophic acidic taxa (Frustulia elongatissima, Eunotia diodon, and Gomphonema multiforme). We observe a marked increase in compositional variance and rate-of-change prior to this critical transition, revealing these metrics are useful EWS in this system. Interestingly, vegetation remains complacent to fire disturbance until after the shift in the diatom community. Disturbance taxa invade and the vegetation system experiences an increase in both compositional variance and rate-of-change. These trends imply an approaching critical transition in the vegetation and the probable collapse of the local rain forest system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo; Katie Gates; Chris J. Brauer; Steve Smith; Louis Bernatchez; Luciano B. Beheregaray;
    Project: ARC | The genomics of adaptatio... (DP110101207), ARC | ARC Future Fellowships - ... (FT130101068), ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP150102903)

    Resilience to environmental stressors due to climate warming is influenced by local adaptations, including plastic responses. The recent literature has focused on genomic signatures of climatic adaptation, but little is known about how plastic capacity may be influenced by biogeographic and evolutionary processes. We investigate phenotypic plasticity as a target of climatic selection, hypothesizing that lineages that evolved in warmer climates will exhibit greater plastic adaptive resilience to upper thermal stress. This was experimentally tested by comparing transcriptomic responses within and among temperate, subtropical, and desert ecotypes of Australian rainbowfish subjected to contemporary and projected summer temperatures. Critical thermal maxima were estimated, and ecological niches delineated using bioclimatic modeling. A comparative phylogenetic expression variance and evolution model was used to assess plastic and evolved changes in gene expression. Although 82% of all expressed genes were found in the three ecotypes, they shared expression patterns in only 5 out of 236 genes that responded to the climate change experiment. A total of 532 genes showed signals of adaptive (i.e., genetic-based) plasticity due to ecotype-specific directional selection, and 23 of those responded to projected summer temperatures. Network analyses demonstrated centrality of these genes in thermal response pathways. The greatest adaptive resilience to upper thermal stress was shown by the subtropical ecotype, followed by the desert and temperate ecotypes. Our findings indicate that vulnerability to climate change will be highly influenced by biogeographic factors, emphasizing the value of integrative assessments of climatic adaptive traits for accurate estimation of population and ecosystem responses. Significance Adaptation to climate change is expected to be influenced by thermal conditions experienced by species during their evolutionary history. We studied plastic capacity as a target of climatic selection, hypothesizing that populations that evolved under warmer climates have greater plastic adaptive resilience to climate change. This was tested experimentally by comparing upper thermal tolerance and gene expression in fish populations from desert, temperate, and subtropical regions of Australia. Divergent adaptive plastic responses to future climates were found across different bioregions, including in key heat stress genes. The greatest adaptive resilience was shown by the subtropical ecotype, followed by the desert and temperate ecotypes. These results have implications for large-scale assessments of climate impacts and for predictions of species distribution changes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    R. Chown; Y. Omori; K. Aylor; Bradford Benson; Lindsey Bleem; John E. Carlstrom; Chihway Chang; H-M. Cho; T. M. Crawford; A. T. Crites; +36 more
    Publisher: American Astronomical Society
    Country: United States
    Project: NSERC , NSF | Center for Cosmological P... (0114422), NSF | Cosmological Research wit... (1248097), ARC | ARC Future Fellowships - ... (FT150100074)

    We present three maps of the millimeter-wave sky created by combining data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. We use data from the SPT-SZ survey, a survey of 2540 deg$^2$ of the the sky with arcminute resolution in three bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, and the full-mission Planck temperature data in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz bands. A linear combination of the SPT-SZ and Planck data is computed in spherical harmonic space, with weights derived from the noise of both instruments. This weighting scheme results in Planck data providing most of the large-angular-scale information in the combined maps, with the smaller-scale information coming from SPT-SZ data. A number of tests have been done on the maps. We find their angular power spectra to agree very well with theoretically predicted spectra and previously published results. Comment: 21 pages, 12 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vinoth Balasubramani; Małgorzata Kujawińska; Cédric Allier; Vijayakumar Anand; Chau-Jern Cheng; Christian Depeursinge; Nathaniel Hai; Saulius Juodkazis; Jeroen Kalkman; Arkadiusz Kuś; +7 more
    Publisher: MDPI
    Project: NSERC , EC | REVEAL (101016726), ARC | Photonic crystals at visi... (DP130101205), ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP170100131), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP190100505)

    Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) provides unique means for the imaging of biological or technical microstructures, merging beneficial features identified with microscopy, interferometry, holography, and numerical computations. This roadmap article reviews several digital holography-based QPI approaches developed by prominent research groups. It also briefly discusses the present and future perspectives of 2D and 3D QPI research based on digital holographic microscopy, holographic tomography, and their applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    S. Hong Lee; Enda M. Byrne; Christina M. Hultman; Anna K. Kähler; Anna A. E. Vinkhuyzen; Stephan Ripke; Ole A. Andreassen; Thomas Frisell; Alexander Gusev; Xinli Hu; +134 more
    Countries: Australia, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium
    Project: NHMRC | Using genomics to underst... (1078901), NHMRC | Using New Genomic Technol... (1053639), NHMRC | Statistical analyses of w... (1047956), NIH | 1/2 A Large-Scale Schizop... (5R01MH077139-05), NWO | Cluster computing in gene... (480-05-003), NIH | Genetic predictors of res... (5U01GM092691-04), NHMRC | Uncoupled Research Fellow... (613602), ARC | Novel statistical algorit... (DE130100614)

    Background: A long-standing epidemiological puzzle is the reduced rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in those with schizophrenia (SZ) and vice versa. Traditional epidemiological approaches to determine if this negative association is underpinned by genetic factors would test for reduced rates of one disorder in relatives of the other, but sufficiently powered data sets are difficult to achieve. The genomics era presents an alternative paradigm for investigating the genetic relationship between two uncommon disorders. Methods: We use genome-wide common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from independently collected SZ and RA case-control cohorts to estimate the SNP correlation between the disorders. We test a genotype X environment (GxE) hypothesis for SZ with environment defined as winter- vs summer-born. Results: We estimate a small but significant negative SNP-genetic correlation between SZ and RA (−0.046, s.e. 0.026, P = 0.036). The negative correlation was stronger for the SNP set attributed to coding or regulatory regions (−0.174, s.e. 0.071, P = 0.0075). Our analyses led us to hypothesize a gene-environment interaction for SZ in the form of immune challenge. We used month of birth as a proxy for environmental immune challenge and estimated the genetic correlation between winter-born and non-winter born SZ to be significantly less than 1 for coding/regulatory region SNPs (0.56, s.e. 0.14, P = 0.00090). Conclusions: Our results are consistent with epidemiological observations of a negative relationship between SZ and RA reflecting, at least in part, genetic factors. Results of the month of birth analysis are consistent with pleiotropic effects of genetic variants dependent on environmental context. Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2017 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Paola Oliva-Altamirano; Deanne B. Fisher; Karl Glazebrook; Emily Wisnioski; Georgios Bekiaris; Robert Bassett; Danail Obreschkow; Roberto Abraham;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: ARC | ARC Future Fellowships - ... (FT170100376), ARC | Investigating Rosetta Sto... (DP130101460)

    We present Keck/OSIRIS adaptive optics observations with 150-400 pc spatial sampling of 7 turbulent, clumpy disc galaxies from the DYNAMO sample ($0.07

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gary Edmond; Emma Cunliffe; David Hamer;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP170100086)

    This article suggests that lawyers and courts are largely oblivious to scientific insights regarding the value and limitations of latent fingerprint evidence. It proceeds through a detailed historical analysis of the way fingerprint evidence has been reported and challenged. It compares legal responses with mainstream scientific research. Our analysis shows that fingerprint evidence is routinely equated with categorical proof of identity notwithstanding scientific warnings that such an approach is ‘indefensible’. We find that legal challenges to latent fingerprint evidence have been uniformly focused on adjectival issues (e.g. compliance with enabling legislation), leaving the validity and accuracy of this subjective comparison technique virtually unexamined since its first reception at the very beginning of the twentieth century. Lack of legal engagement with validity, error and scientific research suggest that adversarial procedures have not worked effectively to secure scientifically reliable expert evidence and that legal personnel struggle with elementary scientific reasoning.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Leimeng Zhuang; Chen Zhu; Bill Corcoran; Maurizio Burla; Chris G. H. Roeloffzen; Arne Leinse; Jochen Schröder; Arthur J. Lowery;
    Publisher: The Optical Society
    Project: ARC | Ultra-stable photonic-chi... (DE120101329), ARC | Australian Laureate Fello... (FL130100041)

    Modern optical communications rely on high-resolution, high-bandwidth filtering to maximize the data-carrying capacity of fiber-optic networks. Such filtering typically requires high-speed, power-hungry digital processes in the electrical domain. Passive optical filters currently provide high bandwidths with low power consumption, but at the expense of resolution. Here, we present a passive filter chip that functions as an optical Nyquist-filtering interleaver featuring sub-GHz resolution and a near-rectangular passband with 8% roll-off. This performance is highly promising for high-spectral-efficiency Nyquist wavelength division multiplexed (N-WDM) optical super-channels. The chip provides a simple two-ring-resonator-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which has a sub-cm2 footprint owing to the high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2 waveguide, while manifests low wavelength-dependency enabling C-band (> 4 THz) coverage with more than 160 effective free spectral ranges of 25 GHz. This device is anticipated to be a critical building block for spectrally-efficient, chip-scale transceivers and ROADMs for N-WDM super-channels in next-generation optical communication networks.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth M. P. Madin; Emily S. Darling; Marah J. Hardt;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: ARC | Monitoring coral reef hea... (DE120102614)

    Coral reefs worldwide are declining at an accelerating rate due to multiple types of human impacts. Meanwhile, new technologies with applications in reef science and conservation are emerging at an ever-faster rate and are simultaneously becoming cheaper and more accessible. Technology alone cannot save reefs, but it can potentially help scientists and conservation practitioners study, mitigate, and even solve key challenges facing coral reefs. We examine how new and emerging technologies are already being used for coral reef science and conservation. Examples include drones, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), 3D mapping and modelling tools, high-resolution and nano-satellite imagery, and a suite of monitoring and surveillance tools that are revolutionizing enforcement of sustainable reef fisheries. We argue that emerging technologies can play a pivotal role in tackling many of the critical issues facing coral reef conservation science and practice, but maximizing the impact of these technologies requires addressing several significant barriers. These barriers include lack of awareness of technologies and tools, prohibitive cost, lack of transferability across systems and/or scales, lack of technical expertise, and lack of accessibility. We discuss where analogous challenges have been overcome in another system and identify insights that can provide guidance for wise application of emerging technologies to coral reef science and conservation. Thoughtful consideration of, and adaptation to, these challenges will help us best harness the potential of emerging and future technological innovations to help solve the global coral reef crisis.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,388 Research products, page 1 of 239
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christophe Maïano; Alexandre J. S. Morin; Marie-Christine Lanfranchi; Pierre Therme;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP140101559)

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting–purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting–Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kristen K. Beck; Michael-Shawn Fletcher; Patricia Gadd; Henk Heijnis; Krystyna M. Saunders; Gavin Simpson; Atun Zawadzki;
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC , ARC | Tracking the response of ... (DI110100019), ARC | Discovery Indigenous - Gr... (IN140100050)

    Critical transitions in ecosystem states are often sudden and unpredictable. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to identify measurable early warning signals (EWS) for these important events. Aquatic ecosystems provide an opportunity to observe critical transitions due to their high sensitivity and rapid response times. Using palaeoecological techniques, we can measure properties of time series data to determine if critical transitions are preceded by any measurable ecosystem metrics, that is, identify EWS. Using a suite of palaeoenvironmental data spanning the last 2,400 years (diatoms, pollen, geochemistry, and charcoal influx), we assess whether a critical transition in diatom community structure was preceded by measurable EWS. Lake Vera, in the temperate rain forest of western Tasmania, Australia, has a diatom community dominated by Discostella stelligera and undergoes an abrupt compositional shift at ca. 820 cal yr BP that is concomitant with increased fire disturbance of the local vegetation. This shift is manifest as a transition from less oligotrophic acidic diatom flora (Achnanthidium minutissimum, Brachysira styriaca, and Fragilaria capucina) to more oligotrophic acidic taxa (Frustulia elongatissima, Eunotia diodon, and Gomphonema multiforme). We observe a marked increase in compositional variance and rate-of-change prior to this critical transition, revealing these metrics are useful EWS in this system. Interestingly, vegetation remains complacent to fire disturbance until after the shift in the diatom community. Disturbance taxa invade and the vegetation system experiences an increase in both compositional variance and rate-of-change. These trends imply an approaching critical transition in the vegetation and the probable collapse of the local rain forest system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo; Katie Gates; Chris J. Brauer; Steve Smith; Louis Bernatchez; Luciano B. Beheregaray;
    Project: ARC | The genomics of adaptatio... (DP110101207), ARC | ARC Future Fellowships - ... (FT130101068), ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP150102903)

    Resilience to environmental stressors due to climate warming is influenced by local adaptations, including plastic responses. The recent literature has focused on genomic signatures of climatic adaptation, but little is known about how plastic capacity may be influenced by biogeographic and evolutionary processes. We investigate phenotypic plasticity as a target of climatic selection, hypothesizing that lineages that evolved in warmer climates will exhibit greater plastic adaptive resilience to upper thermal stress. This was experimentally tested by comparing transcriptomic responses within and among temperate, subtropical, and desert ecotypes of Australian rainbowfish subjected to contemporary and projected summer temperatures. Critical thermal maxima were estimated, and ecological niches delineated using bioclimatic modeling. A comparative phylogenetic expression variance and evolution model was used to assess plastic and evolved changes in gene expression. Although 82% of all expressed genes were found in the three ecotypes, they shared expression patterns in only 5 out of 236 genes that responded to the climate change experiment. A total of 532 genes showed signals of adaptive (i.e., genetic-based) plasticity due to ecotype-specific directional selection, and 23 of those responded to projected summer temperatures. Network analyses demonstrated centrality of these genes in thermal response pathways. The greatest adaptive resilience to upper thermal stress was shown by the subtropical ecotype, followed by the desert and temperate ecotypes. Our findings indicate that vulnerability to climate change will be highly influenced by biogeographic factors, emphasizing the value of integrative assessments of climatic adaptive traits for accurate estimation of population and ecosystem responses. Significance Adaptation to climate change is expected to be influenced by thermal conditions experienced by species during their evolutionary history. We studied plastic capacity as a target of climatic selection, hypothesizing that populations that evolved under warmer climates have greater plastic adaptive resilience to climate change. This was tested experimentally by comparing upper thermal tolerance and gene expression in fish populations from desert, temperate, and subtropical regions of Australia. Divergent adaptive plastic responses to future climates were found across different bioregions, including in key heat stress genes. The greatest adaptive resilience was shown by the subtropical ecotype, followed by the desert and temperate ecotypes. These results have implications for large-scale assessments of climate impacts and for predictions of species distribution changes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    R. Chown; Y. Omori; K. Aylor; Bradford Benson; Lindsey Bleem; John E. Carlstrom; Chihway Chang; H-M. Cho; T. M. Crawford; A. T. Crites; +36 more
    Publisher: American Astronomical Society
    Country: United States
    Project: NSERC , NSF | Center for Cosmological P... (0114422), NSF | Cosmological Research wit... (1248097), ARC | ARC Future Fellowships - ... (FT150100074)

    We present three maps of the millimeter-wave sky created by combining data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. We use data from the SPT-SZ survey, a survey of 2540 deg$^2$ of the the sky with arcminute resolution in three bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, and the full-mission Planck temperature data in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz bands. A linear combination of the SPT-SZ and Planck data is computed in spherical harmonic space, with weights derived from the noise of both instruments. This weighting scheme results in Planck data providing most of the large-angular-scale information in the combined maps, with the smaller-scale information coming from SPT-SZ data. A number of tests have been done on the maps. We find their angular power spectra to agree very well with theoretically predicted spectra and previously published results. Comment: 21 pages, 12 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vinoth Balasubramani; Małgorzata Kujawińska; Cédric Allier; Vijayakumar Anand; Chau-Jern Cheng; Christian Depeursinge; Nathaniel Hai; Saulius Juodkazis; Jeroen Kalkman; Arkadiusz Kuś; +7 more
    Publisher: MDPI
    Project: NSERC , EC | REVEAL (101016726), ARC | Photonic crystals at visi... (DP130101205), ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP170100131), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP190100505)

    Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) provides unique means for the imaging of biological or technical microstructures, merging beneficial features identified with microscopy, interferometry, holography, and numerical computations. This roadmap article reviews several digital holography-based QPI approaches developed by prominent research groups. It also briefly discusses the present and future perspectives of 2D and 3D QPI research based on digital holographic microscopy, holographic tomography, and their applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    S. Hong Lee; Enda M. Byrne; Christina M. Hultman; Anna K. Kähler; Anna A. E. Vinkhuyzen; Stephan Ripke; Ole A. Andreassen; Thomas Frisell; Alexander Gusev; Xinli Hu; +134 more
    Countries: Australia, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium
    Project: NHMRC | Using genomics to underst... (1078901), NHMRC | Using New Genomic Technol... (1053639), NHMRC | Statistical analyses of w... (1047956), NIH | 1/2 A Large-Scale Schizop... (5R01MH077139-05), NWO | Cluster computing in gene... (480-05-003), NIH | Genetic predictors of res... (5U01GM092691-04), NHMRC | Uncoupled Research Fellow... (613602), ARC | Novel statistical algorit... (DE130100614)

    Background: A long-standing epidemiological puzzle is the reduced rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in those with schizophrenia (SZ) and vice versa. Traditional epidemiological approaches to determine if this negative association is underpinned by genetic factors would test for reduced rates of one disorder in relatives of the other, but sufficiently powered data sets are difficult to achieve. The genomics era presents an alternative paradigm for investigating the genetic relationship between two uncommon disorders. Methods: We use genome-wide common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from independently collected SZ and RA case-control cohorts to estimate the SNP correlation between the disorders. We test a genotype X environment (GxE) hypothesis for SZ with environment defined as winter- vs summer-born. Results: We estimate a small but significant negative SNP-genetic correlation between SZ and RA (−0.046, s.e. 0.026, P = 0.036). The negative correlation was stronger for the SNP set attributed to coding or regulatory regions (−0.174, s.e. 0.071, P = 0.0075). Our analyses led us to hypothesize a gene-environment interaction for SZ in the form of immune challenge. We used month of birth as a proxy for environmental immune challenge and estimated the genetic correlation between winter-born and non-winter born SZ to be significantly less than 1 for coding/regulatory region SNPs (0.56, s.e. 0.14, P = 0.00090). Conclusions: Our results are consistent with epidemiological observations of a negative relationship between SZ and RA reflecting, at least in part, genetic factors. Results of the month of birth analysis are consistent with pleiotropic effects of genetic variants dependent on environmental context. Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2017 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Paola Oliva-Altamirano; Deanne B. Fisher; Karl Glazebrook; Emily Wisnioski; Georgios Bekiaris; Robert Bassett; Danail Obreschkow; Roberto Abraham;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: ARC | ARC Future Fellowships - ... (FT170100376), ARC | Investigating Rosetta Sto... (DP130101460)

    We present Keck/OSIRIS adaptive optics observations with 150-400 pc spatial sampling of 7 turbulent, clumpy disc galaxies from the DYNAMO sample ($0.07

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gary Edmond; Emma Cunliffe; David Hamer;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Project: ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP170100086)

    This article suggests that lawyers and courts are largely oblivious to scientific insights regarding the value and limitations of latent fingerprint evidence. It proceeds through a detailed historical analysis of the way fingerprint evidence has been reported and challenged. It compares legal responses with mainstream scientific research. Our analysis shows that fingerprint evidence is routinely equated with categorical proof of identity notwithstanding scientific warnings that such an approach is ‘indefensible’. We find that legal challenges to latent fingerprint evidence have been uniformly focused on adjectival issues (e.g. compliance with enabling legislation), leaving the validity and accuracy of this subjective comparison technique virtually unexamined since its first reception at the very beginning of the twentieth century. Lack of legal engagement with validity, error and scientific research suggest that adversarial procedures have not worked effectively to secure scientifically reliable expert evidence and that legal personnel struggle with elementary scientific reasoning.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Leimeng Zhuang; Chen Zhu; Bill Corcoran; Maurizio Burla; Chris G. H. Roeloffzen; Arne Leinse; Jochen Schröder; Arthur J. Lowery;
    Publisher: The Optical Society
    Project: ARC | Ultra-stable photonic-chi... (DE120101329), ARC | Australian Laureate Fello... (FL130100041)

    Modern optical communications rely on high-resolution, high-bandwidth filtering to maximize the data-carrying capacity of fiber-optic networks. Such filtering typically requires high-speed, power-hungry digital processes in the electrical domain. Passive optical filters currently provide high bandwidths with low power consumption, but at the expense of resolution. Here, we present a passive filter chip that functions as an optical Nyquist-filtering interleaver featuring sub-GHz resolution and a near-rectangular passband with 8% roll-off. This performance is highly promising for high-spectral-efficiency Nyquist wavelength division multiplexed (N-WDM) optical super-channels. The chip provides a simple two-ring-resonator-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which has a sub-cm2 footprint owing to the high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2 waveguide, while manifests low wavelength-dependency enabling C-band (> 4 THz) coverage with more than 160 effective free spectral ranges of 25 GHz. This device is anticipated to be a critical building block for spectrally-efficient, chip-scale transceivers and ROADMs for N-WDM super-channels in next-generation optical communication networks.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth M. P. Madin; Emily S. Darling; Marah J. Hardt;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: ARC | Monitoring coral reef hea... (DE120102614)

    Coral reefs worldwide are declining at an accelerating rate due to multiple types of human impacts. Meanwhile, new technologies with applications in reef science and conservation are emerging at an ever-faster rate and are simultaneously becoming cheaper and more accessible. Technology alone cannot save reefs, but it can potentially help scientists and conservation practitioners study, mitigate, and even solve key challenges facing coral reefs. We examine how new and emerging technologies are already being used for coral reef science and conservation. Examples include drones, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), 3D mapping and modelling tools, high-resolution and nano-satellite imagery, and a suite of monitoring and surveillance tools that are revolutionizing enforcement of sustainable reef fisheries. We argue that emerging technologies can play a pivotal role in tackling many of the critical issues facing coral reef conservation science and practice, but maximizing the impact of these technologies requires addressing several significant barriers. These barriers include lack of awareness of technologies and tools, prohibitive cost, lack of transferability across systems and/or scales, lack of technical expertise, and lack of accessibility. We discuss where analogous challenges have been overcome in another system and identify insights that can provide guidance for wise application of emerging technologies to coral reef science and conservation. Thoughtful consideration of, and adaptation to, these challenges will help us best harness the potential of emerging and future technological innovations to help solve the global coral reef crisis.