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    Authors: Cutieru, Adriana F.;

    As a result of the acute understanding of the constructibility of historical writings, the historiography and the literary sciences have come closer in the last few years. Hayden White shows in his book Metahistory (1973) that the narrative techniques historians use in their historical writings are similar to those used by the authors of literary writings. The narratology has also become a discipline, which allows the dialogue between historiography and literary sciences. Thus, the (post)modern theories of historiography and the concepts of metafiction in literature have an impact on one another. In this context, it is more than challenging to analyse the historical novel November 1918 written by the German author Alfred Döblin (1878-1957), as he already anticipates in the 1920es this evolution of historiography and literature. His historical novel November 1918 is, despite its modernity, a relatively unknown novel, not only to the public, but also to the literary critics. Döblin combines in this novel the monumental realistic description of historical events with the existential analysis of his protagonists. As far as the formal aspects are concerned, he combines the experimental narrative techniques of the avant-garde with the traditional elements, thus unveiling the conviction of the traditional realist author that a fictional literary work can bring out a hidden truth about history and reality. Therefore, he creates a unique form of literature linking tradition and innovation. He caracterises this form, in his poetological writings by means of two key-concepts: “modernes Epos” and “Tatsachenphantasie”: “modern epos” and “fantasy of the real”. In my dissertation I intend to define these key-concepts in Alfred Döblin’s poetics with a view to establish the theoretical setting for the interpretation of his novel November 1918. Since Döblin himself defines in his theoretical essays the “fantasy of the real” as portrayal of both real and fantastic elements, my dissertation focuses on this fictional tension between reality and fantasy, between the elements specific to the realist writings and those specific to the fantastic ones. The “incursion of the demonic” and “the narrator demiurge” are two innovative concepts I present in my dissertation. These concepts should lead to a better definition and understanding of Döblin’s novel poetics. Avec la conscience grandissante de la constructibilité de l’histoire, l’historiographie et les sciences littéraires se sont beaucoup rapprochées dans les dernières années. Hayden White a montré, dans son livre Metahistory (1973), que dans la construction de l’histoire, les historiens utilisent, pour construire leur récit, des techniques de narration semblables à celles utilisées par les écrivains. La narratologie devient ainsi une discipline qui rend possible le dialogue entre l’historiographie et les sciences littéraires. Par ce dialogue entre les deux disciplines, les théories (post)modernes de l’historiographie et les concepts de la métafiction dans la littérature s’influencent réciproquement. Dans ce contexte, il est d’autant plus intéressant d’analyser le roman Novembre 1918 de l’écrivain allemand Alfred Döblin (1878-1957), qui anticipe sur cette évolution de l’historiographie et de la littérature, mais qui, malgré sa modernité, reste paradoxalement très peu connu et quasiment ignoré par la critique littéraire. Dans son roman historique, Döblin combine le récit épique des faits historiques avec l’analyse existentielle des protagonistes, en vue de décrire l’histoire comme procès. Du point de vue formel, il combine les moyens narratifs expérimentaux et avant-gardistes, avec la conviction traditionnelle de l’auteur réaliste, c’est-à-dire qu’un récit de fiction puisse dire la vérité sur la réalité et l’histoire. Ainsi il crée une forme singulière de récit entre tradition et innovation, forme qu’il caractérise dans ses essais poétologiques à partir de deux concepts clés : « modernes Epos » et « Tatsachenphantasie », « épopée moderne » et « fantaisie de la réalité ». Dans ma thèse, j’entends définir ces concepts clés de la poétique d’Alfred Döblin pour ainsi établir le cadre théorique de l’interprétation du roman Novembre 1918. L’auteur lui-même définit dans ses essais esthétiques la « fantaisie de la réalité » comme union entre des faits réels et des faits fantastiques. C’est pourquoi ma thèse se concentre sur ce jeu fictionnel entre réalité et fantaisie, entre les éléments du récit réaliste et ceux du récit fantastique. « L’incursion de la démonie » et « le narrateur démiurge » sont deux concepts innovateurs de ma thèse qui aideront à mieux comprendre et définir la poétique du roman d’Alfred Döblin. Die Historiographie und die Literaturwissenschaft haben sich in den letzten Jahren sehr viel angenähert. Durch sein bahnbrechendes Buch Metahistory (1973) bringt Haydn White ans Licht, dass sowohl die Schriftsteller als auch die Historiker sich ähnlicher narrativer Verfahren bedienen, um die Wirklichkeit zu beschreiben. Durch dieses Bewusstsein der Konstruktivität und Narrativität von Geschichte ist die Narratologie zur verbindenden Wissenschaft geworden. Darum ist es interessant, sich Alfred Döblins historischem Roman November 1918, einem der großen historischen Romane der deutschen Literatur, zuzuwenden, weil er vieles davon vorwegnimmt, was die (post)modernen Theorien der Historiographie und die metafiktionalen Konzepte der Literatur ins Blickfeld rücken. Aufgrund unglücklicher Rezeptionsbedingungen wurde Döblins Roman bis heute kaum beachtet, sowohl vom Publikum als auch von der literarischen Kritik. In seiner Darstellung der deutschen Revolution verknüpft Döblin die experimentell-avantgardistischen Erzählverfahren und das Misstrauen gegenüber der Erzählbarkeit der Geschichtsprozesse mit der traditionellen Einstellung, dass eine fiktive Erzählung die Wahrheit über Wirklichkeit und Geschichte sagen kann. Dementsprechend schafft er eine einzigartige Erzählform zwischen Tradition und Innovation, die er bereits in seinem Berliner Programm anhand von zwei Schlüsselbegriffen definiert: „modernes Epos“ und „Tatsachenphantasie“. Meine Arbeit versucht, Döblins Geschichtsepos November 1918 im Lichte dieser zwei Begriffe zu analysieren und zu zeigen, wie Döblin sein ästhetisches Postulat der „Tatsachenphantasie“ in seinem Roman literarisch realisiert. Da Döblin selbst die „Tatsachenphantasie“-Ästhetik als Verbindung der wirklichen und der phantastischen Fakten und Elementen definiert, befasse ich mich in meiner Arbeit mit diesem Zusammenspiel zwischen den narrativen Formen der realistischen Erzählung und denjenigen Motiven und Elementen, die in den phantastischen Erzählungen vorkommen. „Der Einbruch des Dämonischen“ und „der Erzähler als Demiurg“ sind zwei innovative Schlüsselkonzepte meiner Arbeit, die zu einer besseren Begriffsbestimmung von Döblins „Tatsachenphantasie“-Ästhetik führen werden. [À l'origine dans / Was originally part of : Thèses et mémoires - FAS - Département de littératures et de langues modernes] Thèse réalisée en co-tutelle avec l'Université Libre de Berlin, Institut für Deutsche und Niederländische Philologie

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    Authors: Oliveira, Philippe-André De;

    Mémoire numérisé par la Direction des bibliothèques de l'Université de Montréal.

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    Authors: Kloas, Jutta; Voigt, Ulrich;

    Seit geraumer Zeit werden in einigen Ländern Straßenbenutzungsgebühren in Innenstädten (City-Maut) zur Verkehrsbeeinflussung sowie zur Finanzierung von Verkehrsinvestitionen erhoben. In den Städten, in denen eine City-Maut zur Verkehrsbeeinflussung eingesetzt wurde, konnte meist eine spürbare Veränderung des Fahrverhaltens festgestellt werden. Vor allem in London und bei dem Großversuch in Stockholm führte die City-Maut zu einer deutlichen Reduktion des innerstädtischen Verkehraufkommens und einer Verlagerung zu öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln - allerdings auch zu einer Erhöhung des Verkehrs auf Ausweichstraßen. Eine Analyse der wichtigsten ausländischen City-Maut-Beispiele hat gezeigt, dass jedes System im Hinblick auf die verkehrspolitischen Rahmenbedingungen, die jeweils verfolgten Ziele und die Ausgestaltung als Unikat anzusehen ist. Generelle Empfehlungen für oder gegen eine City-Maut in deutschen Städten lassen sich daraus nicht ableiten. Allerdings kann eine Reihe von Faktoren benannt werden, die die Akzeptanz und den Erfolg einer solchen Maßnahme fördern.1 Zu den wichtigsten gehören das Ausmaß der Verkehrsprobleme in der Innenstadt (z. B. Stau), der klare politische Willen, diesen Problemen auch mit so drastischen Mitteln wie einer City-Maut zu begegnen und eine Verwendung der Einnahmen für Verkehrsinvestitionen.

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    EconStor
    Article . 2007
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      EconStor
      Article . 2007
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    Authors: M, Oppert;

    Objective To provide an update to the “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock,” last published in 2008. Design A consensus committee of 68 international experts representing 30 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict of interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independent of any industry funding. A stand-alone meeting was held for all subgroup heads, co- and vice-chairs, and selected individuals. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. Methods The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations as strong (1) or weak (2). The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasized. Recommendations were classified into three groups: (1) those directly targeting severe sepsis; (2) those targeting general care of the critically ill patient and considered high priority in severe sepsis; and (3) pediatric considerations. Results Key recommendations and suggestions, listed by category, include: early quantitative resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 h after recognition (1C); blood cultures before antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG); administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials therapy within 1 h of the recognition of septic shock (1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (1C) as the goal of therapy; reassessment of antimicrobial therapy daily for de-escalation, when appropriate (1B); infection source control with attention to the balance of risks and benefits of the chosen method within 12 h of diagnosis (1C); initial fluid resuscitation with crystalloid (1B) and consideration of the addition of albumin in patients who continue to require substantial amounts of crystalloid to maintain adequate mean arterial pressure (2C) and the avoidance of hetastarch formulations (1B); initial fluid challenge in patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion and suspicion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg of crystalloids (more rapid administration and greater amounts of fluid may be needed in some patients (1C); fluid challenge technique continued as long as hemodynamic improvement is based on either dynamic or static variables (UG); norepinephrine as the first-choice vasopressor to maintain mean arterial pressure ≥65 mmHg (1B); epinephrine when an additional agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressure (2B); vasopressin (0.03 U/min) can be added to norepinephrine to either raise mean arterial pressure to target or to decrease norepinephrine dose but should not be used as the initial vasopressor (UG); dopamine is not recommended except in highly selected circumstances (2C); dobutamine infusion administered or added to vasopressor in the presence of (a) myocardial dysfunction as suggested by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output, or (b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusion despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate mean arterial pressure (1C); avoiding use of intravenous hydrocortisone in adult septic shock patients if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability (2C); hemoglobin target of 7–9 g/dL in the absence of tissue hypoperfusion, ischemic coronary artery disease, or acute hemorrhage (1B); low tidal volume (1A) and limitation of inspiratory plateau pressure (1B) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); application of at least a minimal amount of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ARDS (1B); higher rather than lower level of PEEP for patients with sepsis-induced moderate or severe ARDS (2C); recruitment maneuvers in sepsis patients with severe refractory hypoxemia due to ARDS (2C); prone positioning in sepsis-induced ARDS patients with a Pao 2/Fio 2 ratio of ≤100 mm Hg in facilities that have experience with such practices (2C); head-of-bed elevation in mechanically ventilated patients unless contraindicated (1B); a conservative fluid strategy for patients with established ARDS who do not have evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (1C); protocols for weaning and sedation (1A); minimizing use of either intermittent bolus sedation or continuous infusion sedation targeting specific titration endpoints (1B); avoidance of neuromuscular blockers if possible in the septic patient without ARDS (1C); a short course of neuromuscular blocker (no longer than 48 h) for patients with early ARDS and a Pao 2/Fi o 2 180 mg/dL, targeting an upper blood glucose ≤180 mg/dL (1A); equivalency of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration or intermittent hemodialysis (2B); prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (1B); use of stress ulcer prophylaxis to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with bleeding risk factors (1B); oral or enteral (if necessary) feedings, as tolerated, rather than either complete fasting or provision of only intravenous glucose within the first 48 h after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (2C); and addressing goals of care, including treatment plans and end-of-life planning (as appropriate) (1B), as early as feasible, but within 72 h of intensive care unit admission (2C). Recommendations specific to pediatric severe sepsis include: therapy with face mask oxygen, high flow nasal cannula oxygen, or nasopharyngeal continuous PEEP in the presence of respiratory distress and hypoxemia (2C), use of physical examination therapeutic endpoints such as capillary refill (2C); for septic shock associated with hypovolemia, the use of crystalloids or albumin to deliver a bolus of 20 mL/kg of crystalloids (or albumin equivalent) over 5–10 min (2C); more common use of inotropes and vasodilators for low cardiac output septic shock associated with elevated systemic vascular resistance (2C); and use of hydrocortisone only in children with suspected or proven “absolute”’ adrenal insufficiency (2C). Conclusions Strong agreement existed among a large cohort of international experts regarding many level 1 recommendations for the best care of patients with severe sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for this important group of critically ill patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2769-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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  • Authors: Universität <Konstanz>;
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    Authors: Weber, Martina; Henke, Christoph; Hofmann, Erich; Schwager, Konrad;

    Einleitung: Spontane Herniationen der Meningen sind selten und treten meist durch eine Liquorrhoe oder Meningitis in Erscheinung. Methoden: Es wird von acht Patienten berichtet mit Herniationen der Hirnhäute, anamnestisch ohne traumatische Ursache. Die zwischen 7 und 67 Jahre alten Patienten wurden teilweise mehrfach operiert, nachdem sie durch rezidivierende Rhinoliquorrhoe und/oder Meningitis auffielen. Ergebnisse: Mit radiologischer Bildgebung, intrathekaler Fluoreszeingabe und pathologischen Untersuchungen des entnommenen Materials konnten Arachnoidalhernien in die Keilbeinhöhle diagnostiziert werden. In zwei Fällen war ein persistierender Sternbergkanal zu vermuten. Schlussfolgerung: Bei fehlender Traumaanamnese muss bei rezidivierender Liquorrhoe und Meningitis von einer Spontanherniation der Hirnhäute ausgegangen werden. Für die genaue Lokalisation ist vor allem die intrathekale Fluoreszeingabe bedeutsam. GMS Current Posters in Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery; 5:Doc08; ISSN 1865-1038

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    https://doi.org/10.3205/09hnod...
    Conference object . 2009
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      https://doi.org/10.3205/09hnod...
      Conference object . 2009
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    Authors: Anselgruber, Marie-Luise;

    Diese Arbeit bringt Bilderbuch- und Friedensforschung erstmals systematisch in einen Dialog, um Formen und Funktionsweisen von der hier als „Friedensbilderbücher“ bezeichneten Medien aufzuzeigen. Sie stellt erstmals Fragen danach, wie und warum Friedensbilderbücher wirken, d.h. Kinder einerseits „friedensalphabetisieren“ und andererseits zum Friedenshandeln motivieren. Bilderbücher sind ein ideales Medium zur Friedenserziehung von Kindern. Schon früh während des Sozialisationsprozesses können jungen Menschen durch das Bilderbuch Friedensinhalte, Abneigung gegen Gewalt und alternative Wege der Konfliktlösung vermittelt und somit im kindlichen Geist die Werte einer Kultur des Friedens verankert werden. Im Mittelpunkt der Arbeit steht der friedenserzieherische Aspekt in den Bilderbüchern der österreichischen Kinder- und Jugendbuchautorin Mira Lobe (1913-1995). Mittels einer systematischen Analyse von sieben Friedensbilderbüchern wird untersucht, welcher literarischer, pädagogischer, semiotischer, narrativer und ästhetischer Strategien und Vorgangsweisen sich Mira Lobe bedient, um die Gratwanderung von politischen und tabuisierten Themen zur Kindgemäßheit zu reüssieren und um in Kindern Empathiebereitschaft und Gewaltabneigung zu induzieren, sie zum Friedenshandeln zu inspirieren und motivieren. Auch die Möglichkeiten der Friedenserziehung mittels der Bilder bzw. der Text-Bild-Interdependenz im Bilderbuch werden in diesem Hinblick untersucht. Der interdisziplinäre Zugang, nämlich die Verknüpfung von Erkenntnissen der Friedenserziehung mit den Einsichten der Bilderbuchforschung in die medienspezifischen Möglichkeiten des Bilderbuchs, macht es möglich aufzuzeigen, wie Mira Lobe mit ihren Friedensbilderbüchern einen universellen und zeitlosen Beitrag zur Friedenserziehung leistet. Ce mémoire cherche à créer un dialogue entre les domaines de recherche du livre d’images et celui de recherches sur la paix afin d’exposer les différentes formes et fonctions des livres d’images pour la paix. Questionnant le pourquoi et le comment de ces œuvres, ce travail expose la façon et la manière avec lesquelles ces dernières contribuent à « l’alphabétisation de la paix » auprès des enfants et comment elles les motivent à agir en fonction de la paix. Les livres d’images constituent un média idéal pour éduquer les enfants à la paix. Très tôt dans le processus de socialisation, ces livres sauront transmettre et inculquer des concepts et aptitudes clefs et éventuellement ancrer dans l’esprit de l’enfant les valeurs d’une culture de la paix. Au centre de cette recherche est exposé le thème de la paix tel que traité à travers les œuvres de l’écrivaine autrichienne Mira Lobe (1913–1995). Par l’analyse de sept livres d’images pour la paix, ce travail explique quelles stratégies et méthodes littéraires, pédagogiques, sémiotiques, narratives et esthétiques sont employées par l’auteure pour réussir à bien présenter et à traiter de sujets politiques complexes et d’enjeux sociaux et humains parfois délicats et tabous à un jeune auditoire. Il montre également par quels moyens ces œuvres font naître l’empathie, une aversion pour la violence et comment elles pourront finalement amener les enfants à opter pour l’acte de la paix. En joignant et en mettant en relation les résultats et conclusions des deux champs de recherche observés dans ce travail, soit l’éducation à la paix et la recherche sur des livres d’images, il devient possible de démontrer comment Mira Lobe apporte, avec ses livres d’images pour la paix, une contribution universelle et intemporelle à l’éducation à la paix. The purpose of this study is to lay the groundwork for a dialogue between the fields of picture book studies and peace education in order to highlight the different forms and functions of picture books for peace. This study shows how these books contribute to peace literacy in children and motivate them to act for peace, by looking at how and why they are written and how and why they work. Picture books are an ideal medium to educate children about peace. Very early in the childhood socialization process, these books can convey concepts and key skills and eventually instill in the child values rooted in a culture of peace. This research is based on the theme of peace as dealt with in the works of the Austrian author Maria Lobe (1913-1995). Seven peace picture books are analyzed to determine which strategies and literary, pedagogical, semiotic, narrative and aesthetic approaches the author used to deal with sometimes delicate and taboo complex human, political and social issues in her works for young audiences. The research also seeks to show how these works may help develop empathy, an aversion for violence and a desire for peace in children who may thus learn to choose peace and become peacemakers. The results and conclusions drawn from the fields of education and studies of picture books lead us to demonstrate how Mira Lobe, through her peace picture books, makes a universal and timeless contribution to peace education.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lie, T. T.;
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    NRC Publications Archive
    Other literature type . 1975
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      NRC Publications Archive
      Other literature type . 1975
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    Authors: Brömmelsiek, Björn;

    Quand le bilinguisme individuel résout les conflits linguistiques collectifs Frontière linguistique et discours identitaires à Fribourg/Freiburg : la perspective des jeunes adultes bilingues Cette thèse aborde la question linguistique fribourgeoise et l’importance de la langue à Fribourg / Freiburg (Suisse) dans la cohabitation de ses habitants. Elle porte également sur les points de discorde des groupes linguistiques, l’influence de la langue sur la construction des identités (collectives) et son rôle comme marqueur de différenciation entre les Fribourgeois alémaniques et romands. À cette fin, une analyse de discours portant sur un débat mené dans les quotidiens fribourgeois La Liberté et les Freiburger Nachrichten a été réalisée pour établir le contexte du travail. Ce débat, d’une durée de quatre ans, portait sur la nouvelle constitution cantonale. De plus, 17 entrevues furent menées auprès de 18 jeunes adultes bilingues (français et allemand) fribourgeois, afin d’aborder la question linguistique depuis une nouvelle perspective. L’analyse de discours a démontré l’existence de différentes perceptions de l’identité collective fribourgeoise, perceptions souvent liées à l’appartenance à un groupe linguistique : d’une part, la perception d’une ville francophone comptant une minorité germanophone prédomine chez les Fribourgeois romands, alors que, d’autre part, la perception d’une ville traditionnellement bilingue caractérise davantage les Fribourgeois alémaniques, divisant ainsi les Fribourgeois en deux camps. Les uns aspirent à une identité collective (bilingue) qui inclue l’altérité respective, tandis que les autres tentent de renforcer leur propre identité en soulignant l’altérité et en négligeant plutôt les points communs. Les entrevues réalisées ont démontré que la langue est le principal marqueur de différenciation des Fribourgeois alémaniques et romands – bien avant certains paramètres tels que les normes et valeurs, la mentalité, la religion, les habitudes de vie ou la culture. Les informateurs bilingues et la plupart du temps biculturels montrent des attitudes et perceptions particulières : se distinguant de plusieurs argumentaires présents dans l’analyse de discours, ceux-ci s’approprient les deux camps et montrent un sentiment d’appartenance avec le Fribourg romand et alémanique. Ce faisant, ils dénouent la majorité des sources de conflit et des contradictions de la question linguistique fribourgeoise. Leurs attitudes et perceptions spécifiques en font les médiateurs des groupes linguistiques dans le canton-pont et posent des questions potentiellement désagréables aux acteurs sociaux impliqués dans le débat linguistique fribourgeois. When individual bilingualism solves collective language conflicts Language frontier and identity discourse in Fribourg/Freiburg: the perspective of young bilingual adults This thesis deals with the Fribourg/Freiburg (Switzerland) language question and examines the significance of language for the cohabitation in Fribourg as well as it looks into fields of conflict for the language groups, the influence of language on the construction of a (collective) identity and the role of language as a criterion to make a distinction between German and French Swiss. Therefore, firstly, a discourse analysis was carried out to investigate a debate lasting four years that took place in the local newspapers La Liberté and Freiburger Nachrichten concerning a new cantonal constitution, to find out about the different positions in the Fribourg language question and to set the context and backdrop of this thesis. Secondly, 17 interviews with a total of 18 young bilingual (French/German) Fribourg adults have been executed, to take a new perspective on the Fribourg language question. The discourse analysis made varying perceptions of collective identity in the city apparent that are often language group related. The latter expressed itself in a primarily French Fribourg perception of a francophone city with a German speaking minority and a principally German Fribourg perception of a traditionally bilingual city thus creating two camps: one camp wishes for a (bilingual) collective identity, which includes the respective alterity, whereas the other camp tries to reinforce their identity by stressing the alterity and simultaneously rather excludes common grounds with the other camp. The interviews show that the language is the principal criterion to make a distinction between German and French Fribourg inhabitants – ranging before other criteria such as norms and values, mentalities, religion, ways of living or culture. The bilingual and mostly bicultural interviewees reveal a specific perception and attitude: in contrast to the results of the discourse analysis they integrate both camps in their personality, and also have a feeling of belonging with German and French Fribourg and are thus resolving most of the conflict points and contradictions in the Fribourg language question. This makes them mediators between the language groups in the bridge canton and poses potentially uncomfortable questions to the social actors involved in the Fribourg language debate. Wenn individuelle Zweisprachigkeit kollektive Sprachkonflikte löst Sprachgrenze und Identitätsdiskurse in Fribourg/Freiburg: Die Sicht junger bilingualer Erwachsener Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Freiburger Sprachenfrage und untersucht die Bedeutung der Sprache in Fribourg/Freiburg (Schweiz) für das Zusammenleben der Einwohner sowie Konfliktfelder der Sprachgruppen, den Einfluss der Sprache auf die Konstruktion von (kollektiver) Identität und die Rolle der Sprache als Differenzierungsmerkmal zwischen Deutsch- und Welschfreiburgern. Dazu wurde einerseits eine Diskursanalyse einer vier Jahre wehrenden Debatte über eine neue Kantonsverfassung in den Freiburger Tageszeitungen La Liberté und den Freiburger Nachrichten unternommen, um Kontext und Hintergrund der Arbeit zu etablieren. Andererseits wurden 17 Interviews mit 18 jungen zweisprachigen (Französisch/Deutsch) Freiburger Erwachsenen geführt, um so eine neue Perspektive auf die Sprachenfrage zu bekommen. Die Diskursanalyse machte unterschiedliche, oft sprachgruppenabhängige Wahrnehmungen kollektiver Identität in der Stadt Freiburg deutlich: Die vornehmlich Welschfreiburger Wahrnehmung einer frankofonen Stadt mit deutschsprachiger Minderheit und die zuvorderst Deutschfreiburger Wahrnehmung einer traditionell zweisprachigen Stadt, so dass es zwei Lager gibt. Dabei wünscht sich ein Lager eine (zweisprachige) kollektive Identität, welche die jeweilige Alterität inkludiert; das andere Lager versucht seine Identität durch eine starke Betonung der Alterität zu bekräftigen, wobei es Gemeinsamkeiten mit dem anderen Lager eher exkludiert. Bei den Interviews zeigt sich, dass die Sprache das Hauptdifferenzierungsmerkmal zwischen Deutsch- und Welschfreiburgern ist – noch vor Parametern wie Normen und Werten, Mentalitäten, Religion, Lebensgewohnheiten oder Kultur. Die zweisprachigen und meist bikulturellen Informanten offenbaren eine spezielle Wahrnehmung und Haltung: In Abweichung zu vielen Argumentationen der Diskursanalyse vereinen sie beide Lager auf sich, haben ein Zugehörigkeitsgefühl zu Deutsch- und Welschfreiburg und lösen so die Konfliktpunkte und Widersprüche der Freiburger Sprachenfrage. Dies macht sie zu Mittlern zwischen den Sprachgruppen im Brückenkanton und stellt die sozialen Aktanten in der Freiburger Sprachendebatte vor potentiell unangenehme Fragen. [À l'origine dans / Was originally part of : Thèses et mémoires - FAS - Département de littératures et de langues modernes]

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    Authors: Berg, Margit; Werner, Birgit;

    Die Studie Prima®Sprache erfasste im Rahmen einer vergleichenden Querschnittuntersuchung das Sprachverständnis mono- und bilingualer Schüler der Klassenstufen 3 und 4 an Grund-, Sprachheil- und Förderschulen. Die Grundschüler zeigten auf Wort-, Satz- und Textebene signifikant bessere Verstehensleistungen als die Sprachheil- und Förderschüler. In allen Schulformen waren die monolingualen Schüler den bilingualen Schülern überlegen. In der Gesamtgruppe korrelierten die Verständnisleistungen mit den Leistungen des phonologischen Arbeitsgedächtnisses und der phonematischen Differenzierungsfähigkeit. Eine differenzierte Analyse des rezeptiven Wortschatzes weist auf das Phänomen der Wortschatzarmut bei Förderschülern hin. Sallat, Stephan [Hrsg.]; Spreer, Markus [Hrsg.]; Glück, Christian W. [Hrsg.]: Sprache professionell fördern. Idstein : Schulz-Kirchner Verlag 2014, S. 74-82

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cutieru, Adriana F.;

    As a result of the acute understanding of the constructibility of historical writings, the historiography and the literary sciences have come closer in the last few years. Hayden White shows in his book Metahistory (1973) that the narrative techniques historians use in their historical writings are similar to those used by the authors of literary writings. The narratology has also become a discipline, which allows the dialogue between historiography and literary sciences. Thus, the (post)modern theories of historiography and the concepts of metafiction in literature have an impact on one another. In this context, it is more than challenging to analyse the historical novel November 1918 written by the German author Alfred Döblin (1878-1957), as he already anticipates in the 1920es this evolution of historiography and literature. His historical novel November 1918 is, despite its modernity, a relatively unknown novel, not only to the public, but also to the literary critics. Döblin combines in this novel the monumental realistic description of historical events with the existential analysis of his protagonists. As far as the formal aspects are concerned, he combines the experimental narrative techniques of the avant-garde with the traditional elements, thus unveiling the conviction of the traditional realist author that a fictional literary work can bring out a hidden truth about history and reality. Therefore, he creates a unique form of literature linking tradition and innovation. He caracterises this form, in his poetological writings by means of two key-concepts: “modernes Epos” and “Tatsachenphantasie”: “modern epos” and “fantasy of the real”. In my dissertation I intend to define these key-concepts in Alfred Döblin’s poetics with a view to establish the theoretical setting for the interpretation of his novel November 1918. Since Döblin himself defines in his theoretical essays the “fantasy of the real” as portrayal of both real and fantastic elements, my dissertation focuses on this fictional tension between reality and fantasy, between the elements specific to the realist writings and those specific to the fantastic ones. The “incursion of the demonic” and “the narrator demiurge” are two innovative concepts I present in my dissertation. These concepts should lead to a better definition and understanding of Döblin’s novel poetics. Avec la conscience grandissante de la constructibilité de l’histoire, l’historiographie et les sciences littéraires se sont beaucoup rapprochées dans les dernières années. Hayden White a montré, dans son livre Metahistory (1973), que dans la construction de l’histoire, les historiens utilisent, pour construire leur récit, des techniques de narration semblables à celles utilisées par les écrivains. La narratologie devient ainsi une discipline qui rend possible le dialogue entre l’historiographie et les sciences littéraires. Par ce dialogue entre les deux disciplines, les théories (post)modernes de l’historiographie et les concepts de la métafiction dans la littérature s’influencent réciproquement. Dans ce contexte, il est d’autant plus intéressant d’analyser le roman Novembre 1918 de l’écrivain allemand Alfred Döblin (1878-1957), qui anticipe sur cette évolution de l’historiographie et de la littérature, mais qui, malgré sa modernité, reste paradoxalement très peu connu et quasiment ignoré par la critique littéraire. Dans son roman historique, Döblin combine le récit épique des faits historiques avec l’analyse existentielle des protagonistes, en vue de décrire l’histoire comme procès. Du point de vue formel, il combine les moyens narratifs expérimentaux et avant-gardistes, avec la conviction traditionnelle de l’auteur réaliste, c’est-à-dire qu’un récit de fiction puisse dire la vérité sur la réalité et l’histoire. Ainsi il crée une forme singulière de récit entre tradition et innovation, forme qu’il caractérise dans ses essais poétologiques à partir de deux concepts clés : « modernes Epos » et « Tatsachenphantasie », « épopée moderne » et « fantaisie de la réalité ». Dans ma thèse, j’entends définir ces concepts clés de la poétique d’Alfred Döblin pour ainsi établir le cadre théorique de l’interprétation du roman Novembre 1918. L’auteur lui-même définit dans ses essais esthétiques la « fantaisie de la réalité » comme union entre des faits réels et des faits fantastiques. C’est pourquoi ma thèse se concentre sur ce jeu fictionnel entre réalité et fantaisie, entre les éléments du récit réaliste et ceux du récit fantastique. « L’incursion de la démonie » et « le narrateur démiurge » sont deux concepts innovateurs de ma thèse qui aideront à mieux comprendre et définir la poétique du roman d’Alfred Döblin. Die Historiographie und die Literaturwissenschaft haben sich in den letzten Jahren sehr viel angenähert. Durch sein bahnbrechendes Buch Metahistory (1973) bringt Haydn White ans Licht, dass sowohl die Schriftsteller als auch die Historiker sich ähnlicher narrativer Verfahren bedienen, um die Wirklichkeit zu beschreiben. Durch dieses Bewusstsein der Konstruktivität und Narrativität von Geschichte ist die Narratologie zur verbindenden Wissenschaft geworden. Darum ist es interessant, sich Alfred Döblins historischem Roman November 1918, einem der großen historischen Romane der deutschen Literatur, zuzuwenden, weil er vieles davon vorwegnimmt, was die (post)modernen Theorien der Historiographie und die metafiktionalen Konzepte der Literatur ins Blickfeld rücken. Aufgrund unglücklicher Rezeptionsbedingungen wurde Döblins Roman bis heute kaum beachtet, sowohl vom Publikum als auch von der literarischen Kritik. In seiner Darstellung der deutschen Revolution verknüpft Döblin die experimentell-avantgardistischen Erzählverfahren und das Misstrauen gegenüber der Erzählbarkeit der Geschichtsprozesse mit der traditionellen Einstellung, dass eine fiktive Erzählung die Wahrheit über Wirklichkeit und Geschichte sagen kann. Dementsprechend schafft er eine einzigartige Erzählform zwischen Tradition und Innovation, die er bereits in seinem Berliner Programm anhand von zwei Schlüsselbegriffen definiert: „modernes Epos“ und „Tatsachenphantasie“. Meine Arbeit versucht, Döblins Geschichtsepos November 1918 im Lichte dieser zwei Begriffe zu analysieren und zu zeigen, wie Döblin sein ästhetisches Postulat der „Tatsachenphantasie“ in seinem Roman literarisch realisiert. Da Döblin selbst die „Tatsachenphantasie“-Ästhetik als Verbindung der wirklichen und der phantastischen Fakten und Elementen definiert, befasse ich mich in meiner Arbeit mit diesem Zusammenspiel zwischen den narrativen Formen der realistischen Erzählung und denjenigen Motiven und Elementen, die in den phantastischen Erzählungen vorkommen. „Der Einbruch des Dämonischen“ und „der Erzähler als Demiurg“ sind zwei innovative Schlüsselkonzepte meiner Arbeit, die zu einer besseren Begriffsbestimmung von Döblins „Tatsachenphantasie“-Ästhetik führen werden. [À l'origine dans / Was originally part of : Thèses et mémoires - FAS - Département de littératures et de langues modernes] Thèse réalisée en co-tutelle avec l'Université Libre de Berlin, Institut für Deutsche und Niederländische Philologie

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    Authors: Oliveira, Philippe-André De;

    Mémoire numérisé par la Direction des bibliothèques de l'Université de Montréal.

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    Authors: Kloas, Jutta; Voigt, Ulrich;

    Seit geraumer Zeit werden in einigen Ländern Straßenbenutzungsgebühren in Innenstädten (City-Maut) zur Verkehrsbeeinflussung sowie zur Finanzierung von Verkehrsinvestitionen erhoben. In den Städten, in denen eine City-Maut zur Verkehrsbeeinflussung eingesetzt wurde, konnte meist eine spürbare Veränderung des Fahrverhaltens festgestellt werden. Vor allem in London und bei dem Großversuch in Stockholm führte die City-Maut zu einer deutlichen Reduktion des innerstädtischen Verkehraufkommens und einer Verlagerung zu öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln - allerdings auch zu einer Erhöhung des Verkehrs auf Ausweichstraßen. Eine Analyse der wichtigsten ausländischen City-Maut-Beispiele hat gezeigt, dass jedes System im Hinblick auf die verkehrspolitischen Rahmenbedingungen, die jeweils verfolgten Ziele und die Ausgestaltung als Unikat anzusehen ist. Generelle Empfehlungen für oder gegen eine City-Maut in deutschen Städten lassen sich daraus nicht ableiten. Allerdings kann eine Reihe von Faktoren benannt werden, die die Akzeptanz und den Erfolg einer solchen Maßnahme fördern.1 Zu den wichtigsten gehören das Ausmaß der Verkehrsprobleme in der Innenstadt (z. B. Stau), der klare politische Willen, diesen Problemen auch mit so drastischen Mitteln wie einer City-Maut zu begegnen und eine Verwendung der Einnahmen für Verkehrsinvestitionen.

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    EconStor
    Article . 2007
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    Authors: M, Oppert;

    Objective To provide an update to the “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock,” last published in 2008. Design A consensus committee of 68 international experts representing 30 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict of interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independent of any industry funding. A stand-alone meeting was held for all subgroup heads, co- and vice-chairs, and selected individuals. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. Methods The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations as strong (1) or weak (2). The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasized. Recommendations were classified into three groups: (1) those directly targeting severe sepsis; (2) those targeting general care of the critically ill patient and considered high priority in severe sepsis; and (3) pediatric considerations. Results Key recommendations and suggestions, listed by category, include: early quantitative resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 h after recognition (1C); blood cultures before antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG); administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials therapy within 1 h of the recognition of septic shock (1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (1C) as the goal of therapy; reassessment of antimicrobial therapy daily for de-escalation, when appropriate (1B); infection source control with attention to the balance of risks and benefits of the chosen method within 12 h of diagnosis (1C); initial fluid resuscitation with crystalloid (1B) and consideration of the addition of albumin in patients who continue to require substantial amounts of crystalloid to maintain adequate mean arterial pressure (2C) and the avoidance of hetastarch formulations (1B); initial fluid challenge in patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion and suspicion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg of crystalloids (more rapid administration and greater amounts of fluid may be needed in some patients (1C); fluid challenge technique continued as long as hemodynamic improvement is based on either dynamic or static variables (UG); norepinephrine as the first-choice vasopressor to maintain mean arterial pressure ≥65 mmHg (1B); epinephrine when an additional agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressure (2B); vasopressin (0.03 U/min) can be added to norepinephrine to either raise mean arterial pressure to target or to decrease norepinephrine dose but should not be used as the initial vasopressor (UG); dopamine is not recommended except in highly selected circumstances (2C); dobutamine infusion administered or added to vasopressor in the presence of (a) myocardial dysfunction as suggested by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output, or (b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusion despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate mean arterial pressure (1C); avoiding use of intravenous hydrocortisone in adult septic shock patients if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability (2C); hemoglobin target of 7–9 g/dL in the absence of tissue hypoperfusion, ischemic coronary artery disease, or acute hemorrhage (1B); low tidal volume (1A) and limitation of inspiratory plateau pressure (1B) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); application of at least a minimal amount of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ARDS (1B); higher rather than lower level of PEEP for patients with sepsis-induced moderate or severe ARDS (2C); recruitment maneuvers in sepsis patients with severe refractory hypoxemia due to ARDS (2C); prone positioning in sepsis-induced ARDS patients with a Pao 2/Fio 2 ratio of ≤100 mm Hg in facilities that have experience with such practices (2C); head-of-bed elevation in mechanically ventilated patients unless contraindicated (1B); a conservative fluid strategy for patients with established ARDS who do not have evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (1C); protocols for weaning and sedation (1A); minimizing use of either intermittent bolus sedation or continuous infusion sedation targeting specific titration endpoints (1B); avoidance of neuromuscular blockers if possible in the septic patient without ARDS (1C); a short course of neuromuscular blocker (no longer than 48 h) for patients with early ARDS and a Pao 2/Fi o 2 180 mg/dL, targeting an upper blood glucose ≤180 mg/dL (1A); equivalency of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration or intermittent hemodialysis (2B); prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (1B); use of stress ulcer prophylaxis to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with bleeding risk factors (1B); oral or enteral (if necessary) feedings, as tolerated, rather than either complete fasting or provision of only intravenous glucose within the first 48 h after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (2C); and addressing goals of care, including treatment plans and end-of-life planning (as appropriate) (1B), as early as feasible, but within 72 h of intensive care unit admission (2C). Recommendations specific to pediatric severe sepsis include: therapy with face mask oxygen, high flow nasal cannula oxygen, or nasopharyngeal continuous PEEP in the presence of respiratory distress and hypoxemia (2C), use of physical examination therapeutic endpoints such as capillary refill (2C); for septic shock associated with hypovolemia, the use of crystalloids or albumin to deliver a bolus of 20 mL/kg of crystalloids (or albumin equivalent) over 5–10 min (2C); more common use of inotropes and vasodilators for low cardiac output septic shock associated with elevated systemic vascular resistance (2C); and use of hydrocortisone only in children with suspected or proven “absolute”’ adrenal insufficiency (2C). Conclusions Strong agreement existed among a large cohort of international experts regarding many level 1 recommendations for the best care of patients with severe sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for this important group of critically ill patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2769-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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  • Authors: Universität <Konstanz>;
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    Authors: Weber, Martina; Henke, Christoph; Hofmann, Erich; Schwager, Konrad;

    Einleitung: Spontane Herniationen der Meningen sind selten und treten meist durch eine Liquorrhoe oder Meningitis in Erscheinung. Methoden: Es wird von acht Patienten berichtet mit Herniationen der Hirnhäute, anamnestisch ohne traumatische Ursache. Die zwischen 7 und 67 Jahre alten Patienten wurden teilweise mehrfach operiert, nachdem sie durch rezidivierende Rhinoliquorrhoe und/oder Meningitis auffielen. Ergebnisse: Mit radiologischer Bildgebung, intrathekaler Fluoreszeingabe und pathologischen Untersuchungen des entnommenen Materials konnten Arachnoidalhernien in die Keilbeinhöhle diagnostiziert werden. In zwei Fällen war ein persistierender Sternbergkanal zu vermuten. Schlussfolgerung: Bei fehlender Traumaanamnese muss bei rezidivierender Liquorrhoe und Meningitis von einer Spontanherniation der Hirnhäute ausgegangen werden. Für die genaue Lokalisation ist vor allem die intrathekale Fluoreszeingabe bedeutsam. GMS Current Posters in Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery; 5:Doc08; ISSN 1865-1038

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