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  • 13. Climate action

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Suhua Wei; Chuixiang Yi; George R. Hendrey; Timothy T. Eaton; +17 Authors

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the warming climate plays a vital role in driving certain types of extreme weather. The impact of this warming and extreme weather on forest carbon assimilation capacity is poorly known. Filling this knowledge gap is critical towards understanding changing the amount of carbon that forests can hold. Here, we used a perfect-deficit approach to identify forest canopy photosynthetic capacity (CPC) deficits and analyze how they correlate to climate extremes, based on data measured by the eddy covariance method at 26 forest sites integrating 146 site-years. We found that droughts severely affect the carbon assimilation capacities of evergreen broadleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. In addition, the carbon assimilation capacities of Mediterranean forests are highly sensitive to climate extremes, while marine forest climates tend to be insensitive to climate extremes. Our estimates suggest an average global reduction of forest canopy photosynthetic capacity of 6.3petagramsof carbon per growing season over 2001-2010, with evergreen broadleaf forests contributing 51.7% of the total reduction. JRC.H.7-Climate Risk Management

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2014
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Environmental Research Letters
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS; Research@WUR
      Other literature type . Article . 2014
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Environmental Research Letters
      Article . 2014
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Marine Ecology Progr...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Biruk A. Feyissa; Muhammad Arshad; Margaret Y. Gruber; Susanne E. Kohalmi; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundDevelopingMedicago sativaL. (alfalfa) cultivars tolerant to drought is critical for the crop’s sustainable production. miR156 regulates various plant biological functions by silencing SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors.ResultsTo understand the mechanism of miR156-modulated drought stress tolerance in alfalfa we used genotypes with altered expression levels of miR156, miR156-regulatedSPL13, andDIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE(DFR) regulatingWD40–1. Previously we reported the involvement of miR156 in drought tolerance, but the mechanism and downstream genes involved in this process were not fully studied. Here we illustrate the interplay between miR156/SPL13 and WD40–1/DFR to regulate drought stress by coordinating gene expression with metabolite and physiological strategies. Low to moderate levels of miR156 overexpression suppressedSPL13and increasedWD40–1to fine-tuneDFRexpression for enhanced anthocyanin biosynthesis. This, in combination with other accumulated stress mitigating metabolites and physiological responses, improved drought tolerance. We also demonstrated that SPL13 binds in vivo to theDFRpromoter to regulate its expression.ConclusionsTaken together, our results reveal that moderate relative miR156 transcript levels are sufficient to enhance drought resilience in alfalfa by silencingSPL13and increasingWD40–1expression, whereas higher miR156 overexpression results in drought susceptibility.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    BMC Plant Biology
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    BMC Plant Biology
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Plant Biology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      BMC Plant Biology
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      BMC Plant Biology
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      BMC Plant Biology
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Marchand, Geneviève; Nicot, Philippe C.; Albajes, Ramon; Carisse, Odile;

    Understanding how populations of microbial pathogens and arthropod pests develop over time is critical for timely and effective intervention to control disease epidemics and pest infestations in agricultural production systems. Various elements including the pathogen or pest, host plant, natural enemies or competitors, environment, and human activity interact in complex ways, and some of these elements can be factored into mathematical models for pest population increase and disease progress. Greenhouse production affords a level of control over climate and growth environment, as well as the opportunity to release biological control agents, and thus the potential to influence pathogen and arthropod pest populations and their development to a much greater degree than in field production. To this end, thresholds for intervention must be derived based on the relationship between losses and yields weighed against the cost of intervention. In the context of integrated pest management, monitoring of pathogen and pest populations, as well as of the environment and the development of resistance to chemical pesticides such as fungicides and insecticides, is necessary to estimate the risk to the crop posed by these diseases and pests and to select the optimal method for their control.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
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    Authors: H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; S. Nowicki; +49 Authors

    Abstract. The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest contributors to global meansea-level rise today and is expected to continue to lose mass as the Arcticcontinues to warm. The two predominant mass loss mechanisms are increasedsurface meltwater run-off and mass loss associated with the retreat ofmarine-terminating outlet glaciers. In this paper we use a large ensemble ofGreenland ice sheet models forced by output from a representative subset ofthe Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) global climate models to project ice sheet changes and sea-level risecontributions over the 21st century. The simulations are part of theIce Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6). We estimate thesea-level contribution together with uncertainties due to future climateforcing, ice sheet model formulations and ocean forcing for the twogreenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. The resultsindicate that the Greenland ice sheet will continue to lose mass in bothscenarios until 2100, with contributions of 90±50 and 32±17 mm to sea-level rise for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. The largestmass loss is expected from the south-west of Greenland, which is governed bysurface mass balance changes, continuing what is already observed today.Because the contributions are calculated against an unforced controlexperiment, these numbers do not include any committed mass loss, i.e. massloss that would occur over the coming century if the climate forcingremained constant. Under RCP8.5 forcing, ice sheet model uncertaintyexplains an ensemble spread of 40 mm, while climate model uncertainty andocean forcing uncertainty account for a spread of 36 and 19 mm,respectively. Apart from those formally derived uncertainty ranges, thelargest gap in our knowledge is about the physical understanding andimplementation of the calving process, i.e. the interaction of the ice sheetwith the ocean. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Other literature type . Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    The Cryosphere
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DI-fusion
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: JAIRO
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
    Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/...
    Other literature type
    License: CC BY
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    The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2020
    Data sources: Crossref
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2020
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Other literature type . Article . 2020
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      The Cryosphere
      Article . 2020
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      DI-fusion
      Article . 2020
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
      Preprint . 2020
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      https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/...
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      The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . Preprint . 2020
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Other literature type . 2020
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    Authors: Chengyu He; Guohe Huang; Lirong Liu; Xinli Xu; +1 Authors

    Rapid urbanization has challenged the utilization and the circulation of water, especially in rapidly developing regions. It is necessary to disaggregate virtual water metabolic networks (VWMN) in representative areas, and examine their relevant dynamics to sustain regional development. In this study, the VWMN of Guangdong Province, China is developed to explore the ecological relationships between pairwise components and identify the ecological hierarchy structure of VWMN. Particularly, the structural analysis of VWMN is optimized and two indicators are proposed in this study. The integral virtual water recycling index (IVWRI) enable to reveal the extent that components are benefited from the existence of the VWEN and the integral virtual water productivity (IVWP) can identify economic output per unit integral virtual water utilization of each component. The results indicate that the tertiary industry fails to promote the development of its upstream industries, and the integral virtual water productivity of this industry is declining. Technology upgrading of manufacturing industry and steady import of primary products are imperative. Moreover, petroleum, coking, nuclear-fuel and construction industries are key components that clog the studied VWMN. This research provides scientific support for the robust development of VWMN, particularly in alleviating water scarcity and promoting sustainable regional development.

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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2020
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      Ecological Indicators
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Wesley Tourangeau; Kate Sherren; Carlisle Kent; Bertrum H. MacDonald;

    Abstract Producer organizations representing Canada’s farm and livestock sectors are powerful change agents and advocates for their industries, particularly during challenging times such as climate- or weather-related hardships. Such organizations have a complex role: engaging with policy-makers, as well as their memberships and the public, to pursue the interests of their specific communities. This paper includes an examination of how farm producer organizations communicate about climate and weather to these various audiences, and the specific needs and recommendations they advance. Of particular interest are commodities related to pasture-based grazing, which is underrepresented in the climate adaptation literature. A collection of 95 publicly available documents is analyzed, representing a snapshot of climate- and weather-related public and policy engagement of Canadian and Albertan farm and livestock producer organizations from 2010 to 2015. Qualitative coding by scale, commodity, and audience revealed three significant patterns within this exploratory study. First, while national “umbrella” organizations speak climate to government, Alberta-based livestock/forage organizations speak to their members with a focus on weather. Second, while the two national umbrella organizations examined are politically divergent, they appear to be united on the topic of climate change. Third, common ground was also found between climate and weather discourses around on-farm management, specifically rotational grazing. These three patterns reveal a disjointed dialogue within the Canadian farm and livestock sectors on topics of climate adaptation and mitigation, as well as opportunities for future cooperation, and the need for further research on farm organization beliefs and their capacity to create/manage climate knowledge.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Weather Climate and ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Marika A. Schulhof; Andrew E. Allen; Eric E. Allen; Natalie Mladenov; +7 Authors

    AbstractWarming, eutrophication (nutrient fertilization) and brownification (increased loading of allochthonous organic matter) are three global trends impacting lake ecosystems. However, the independent and synergistic effects of resource addition and warming on autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms are largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the independent and interactive effects of temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, both allochthonous and autochthonous) and nitrogen (N) supply, in addition to the effect of spatial variables, on the composition, richness, and evenness of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities in lakes across elevation and N deposition gradients in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. We found that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities are structured by temperature, terrestrial (allochthonous) DOC and latitude. Prokaryotic communities are also influenced by total and aquatic (autochthonous) DOC, while eukaryotic communities are also structured by nitrate. Additionally, increasing N availability was associated with reduced richness of prokaryotic communities, and both lower richness and evenness of eukaryotes. We did not detect any synergistic or antagonistic effects as there were no interactions among temperature and resource variables. Together, our results suggest that (a) organic and inorganic resources, temperature, and geographic location (based on latitude and longitude) independently influence lake microbial communities; and (b) increasing N supply due to atmospheric N deposition may reduce richness of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, probably by reducing niche dimensionality. Our study provides insight into abiotic processes structuring microbial communities across environmental gradients and their potential roles in material and energy fluxes within and between ecosystems.

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    Molecular Ecology
    Article
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    Molecular Ecology
    Article . 2020
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      Molecular Ecology
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      Molecular Ecology
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: K J, Matten; A J, Bartlett; D, Milani; P L, Gillis; +4 Authors

    Naphthalene sulfonic acids (NSAs) are used extensively in industrial applications as dispersants in dyes, rubbers, and pesticides, and as anti-corrosive agents in coatings, gels, and sealants. This study examined the toxicity of three NSA congeners, barium dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate (BaDNS), calcium dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate (CaDNS), and dinonylnaphthalene disulfonic acid (DNDS), to two benthic species, Tubifex tubifex and Hyalella azteca. Two substrates with different levels of organic carbon (sediment [2%] and sand [0%]) were used in toxicity tests. Juvenile production was the most sensitive endpoint for T. tubifex: the 28-d EC50s were18.2, 22.2, and 64.0 μg/g dw in sand and 281.3, 361.6, and 218.9 μg/g dw in sediment for BaDNS, CaDNS, and DNDS, respectively. The 28-d LC50s for H. azteca were similar among compounds: 115.3, 82.1, and 49.0 μg/g dry weight (dw) in sand, and 627.3, 757.9, and188.5 μg/g dw in sediment, for BaDNS, CaDNS, and DNDS, respectively. However, when LC50s were estimated based on concentrations of NSAs measured in overlying water (which can be an important route of exposure for H. azteca), BaDNS and CaDNS were 3-4 orders of magnitude more toxic than DNDS. The NSAs examined were3-fold more toxic when present in substrates with no organic carbon (e.g., sand) for all H. azteca endpoints where LC/EC50s could be calculated and for sublethal endpoints for T. tubifex. The organic carbon content of the sediment appears to have acted as a sink and reduced NSA toxicity by decreasing bioavailability. Environmental sediment samples were collected from 12 river sites across southern Ontario. The maximum concentration of CaDNS observed in sediment collected from this region was 2.8 μg/g dw in sediment with 2% organic carbon; 100-fold lower than the lowest EC10 in the current study.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Environmental Pollution
    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Environmental Pollut...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Environmental Pollution
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: H. B. O'Neill; Christopher R. Burn; Steven V. Kokelj; Trevor C. Lantz;

    AbstractPermafrost conditions were examined between 2010 and 2014 at four sites across an alpine treeline on Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Ground and air temperature sensors were installed in forest and tundra between 30 and 500 m asl. Annual mean air temperatures increased and the number of freezing degree days declined with elevation, due to persistent winter air temperature inversions. The annual mean temperature at the permafrost surface (Tps) in mineral soils increased with elevation from about −2.5 °C in lowland forest to about −1.5 °C in dwarf shrub tundra. The increase in Tps coincided with higher air temperatures and earlier snow accumulation at tundra sites. The higher Tps in alpine tundra compared to lowland forest in Peel Plain contrasts with the northward decrease in Tps across latitudinal treeline elsewhere in the western Arctic. An increase in Tps with elevation may be common in Arctic mountain environments due to the prevalence of atmospheric temperature inversions in winter. In such contexts, although vegetation characteristics are governed by summer climate, permafrost conditions are critically influenced by the winter regime. The tundra permafrost on Peel Plateau is considerably warmer and, hence, more sensitive to disturbance than perennially frozen ground north of treeline in other parts of the western Arctic. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    Permafrost and Periglacial Processes
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Permafrost and Periglacial Processes
      Article . 2015
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22,385 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Suhua Wei; Chuixiang Yi; George R. Hendrey; Timothy T. Eaton; +17 Authors

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the warming climate plays a vital role in driving certain types of extreme weather. The impact of this warming and extreme weather on forest carbon assimilation capacity is poorly known. Filling this knowledge gap is critical towards understanding changing the amount of carbon that forests can hold. Here, we used a perfect-deficit approach to identify forest canopy photosynthetic capacity (CPC) deficits and analyze how they correlate to climate extremes, based on data measured by the eddy covariance method at 26 forest sites integrating 146 site-years. We found that droughts severely affect the carbon assimilation capacities of evergreen broadleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. In addition, the carbon assimilation capacities of Mediterranean forests are highly sensitive to climate extremes, while marine forest climates tend to be insensitive to climate extremes. Our estimates suggest an average global reduction of forest canopy photosynthetic capacity of 6.3petagramsof carbon per growing season over 2001-2010, with evergreen broadleaf forests contributing 51.7% of the total reduction. JRC.H.7-Climate Risk Management

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    Other literature type . Article . 2014
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    Environmental Research Letters
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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      Other literature type . Article . 2014
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      Environmental Research Letters
      Article . 2014
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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    Authors: Ouellette, Daniel; Desrosiers, Gaston; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Franck; +3 Authors

    International audience; Temperature-induced variations in bioturbation could affect sediment mixing processes in the marine benthic environment. In this study, sediment reworking by Neanthes virens (Sars), a widely distributed polychaete in muddy sand communities of northern temperate latitudes, was studied under different temperature conditions representing winter (1°C), spring and fall (6°C), summer(13°C), and tide pool (18°C) temperatures in the lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. Sediment reworking was quantified using inert fluorescent particles (luminophores) deposited at the sediment surface. Based on the 1-D luminophore distributions obtained after 5 and 30 d, the use of the specific 'gallery-biodiffusor' model allowed us to quantify both biodiffusion (Db) and biotransport (Vb) due to the organisms. Our results showed temperature effects on sediment transport. The lowest biotransport and biodiffusion coefficients were measured at 1 and 6°C and did not change with time. The highest biodiffusion occurred at 13°C for both sampling periods. At 18°C, biodiffusion was intermediate while biotransport was maximal. Differences between the 13°C biodiffusive transport and the other temperatures increased with time. Low transport values at 1 and 6°C suggest that a quiescent stage exists for this species at these temperatures, with sediment mixing occurring mostly during burrow construction. On the other hand, sediment mixing resulted from both the burrow construction and maintenance phases at higher temperatures (13 and 18°C).

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    Authors: Biruk A. Feyissa; Muhammad Arshad; Margaret Y. Gruber; Susanne E. Kohalmi; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundDevelopingMedicago sativaL. (alfalfa) cultivars tolerant to drought is critical for the crop’s sustainable production. miR156 regulates various plant biological functions by silencing SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors.ResultsTo understand the mechanism of miR156-modulated drought stress tolerance in alfalfa we used genotypes with altered expression levels of miR156, miR156-regulatedSPL13, andDIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE(DFR) regulatingWD40–1. Previously we reported the involvement of miR156 in drought tolerance, but the mechanism and downstream genes involved in this process were not fully studied. Here we illustrate the interplay between miR156/SPL13 and WD40–1/DFR to regulate drought stress by coordinating gene expression with metabolite and physiological strategies. Low to moderate levels of miR156 overexpression suppressedSPL13and increasedWD40–1to fine-tuneDFRexpression for enhanced anthocyanin biosynthesis. This, in combination with other accumulated stress mitigating metabolites and physiological responses, improved drought tolerance. We also demonstrated that SPL13 binds in vivo to theDFRpromoter to regulate its expression.ConclusionsTaken together, our results reveal that moderate relative miR156 transcript levels are sufficient to enhance drought resilience in alfalfa by silencingSPL13and increasingWD40–1expression, whereas higher miR156 overexpression results in drought susceptibility.

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